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Published Quarterly, Entered as second class mail matter at the 

Yearly Subscription, ?5.00. Boston Post Office, June 12, 1888. 



Advisory Editor : Mr. ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, of Baltimore. 

Managing Editor: Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., of Princeton College. 

Literary Editor: Prof. J. H.WRIGHT, of Harvard University. 

Editorial Contributors: Prof. ALFRED EMERSON, of Cornell Univer- 
sity; Prof. HAROLD N. FOWLER, of Phillips Academy, Exeter; 
Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, of Princeton College; Prof. A. C. MER- 
RIAM, of Columbia College ; Dr. CHARLES WALDSTEIN, of Cambridge 
University, England; Mr. JUSTIN WINSOR, of Harvard University. 
The following writers have contributed or promised contributions : 







Miss I. F. HAPGOOD, Mrs. Z. NUTTALL, Dr. J. R. WHEELER, etc. 


M. E. BABELON, Conservateur, Cabinet des Medailles, National Library, Paris. 

Dr. A. A. CARUANA, Librarian and Director of Education, Malta. 

L'Abbe" L. DUCHESNE, Professor of Christian Archaeology, Catholic Institute, Paris. 

M. EMILE DUVAL, Director of the Muse"e Fol, Geneva. 

Dr. A. FURTWANGLER, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Berlin. 

Mr. ERNEST A. GARDNER, Director of the British School of Archaeology, Athens. 


Prof. W. HELBIG, former Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute, Rome. 

Dr. G. HIRSCHFELD, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Koenigsberg. 

Dr. F.-X. KRAUS, Professor at the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau. 

Comm. RODOLFO LANCIANI, Director of excavations and antiquities, Rome. 

Dr. ALBERT L. LONG, of Robert College, Constantinople. 

Comte de MARSY, Director of the Soc. Franc, d' Arche'ologie, Bulletin Monumental, etc. 

Prof. ORAZIO MARUCCHI, member of Comm. Archaeol. Commission of Rome, etc. 

Prof. G. MASPERO, former Director of Antiq., Egypt ; Prof, at College de France, Paris. 

M. JOACHIM MENANT, of Rouen, France. 

Prof. ADOLPH MICHAELIS, of the University of Strassburg. 

M. EMILE MOLINIER, attache' au Muse"e du Louvre, Paris. 


M. EUGENE MUNTZ, Librarian and Conservator of the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, Paris. 

A. S. MURRAY, Keeper of Greek and Roman antiquities, British Museum. 

Mr. W. M. RAMSAY, Professor in the University of Aberdeen. 

Dr. FRANZ v. REBER, Professor in the University and Polytechnic of Munich, etc. 

M. SALOMON REINACH, attach^ au Muse"e National de St. Germain. 

Comm. Gio. BATT. DE Rossi, Director of the Vatican and Lateran Museums, Rome. 

Dr. TH. SCHREIBER, Prof, of Archaeol. in the Univ., and Director of Museum, Leipzig. 

Mr. ROBERT SEWELL, Madras Civil Service, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S. 

Comm. ENRICO STEVENSON, member of the Comm. Archseol. Commission of Rome, etc. 

M. F. TRAWINSKI, sous-chef a la Direction des Beaux-Arts, Paris. 

Dr. PAUL WOLTERS, Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute at Athens. 

Hon. JOHN WORTHINGTON, U. S. Consul at Malta. 

The Director and Members of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 


Nos. x-2. JANUARY JUNE. 




(plate in), by ALLAN MARQUAND, 19 


AT ROME (plates iv-vi), . . . by PADRE GERMANO, 25 


ODERISI (plates vn-ix ; figure 1), by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 38 





Letters on Gothic Architecture, by CHARLES H. MOORE and 



xi ; figures 2-5). 




























figure 6), ... By HENRY S. WASHINGTON, 390 







NOTES FROM SYRIA (figure 8), . . By DANIEL Z. NOORIAN, 444 




(plate xxvi), By 8. Y. STEVENSON, 449 







Letter on the Babylonian Expedition, ... by JOHN P. PETERS, 472 





The Mantineian Reliefs, .... by CHARLES WALDSTEIN, 1 
Discoveries at Plataia in 1890 : 
Fragment of the Edict of Diocletian, . . by THEODOR MOMMSEN, 54 

Votive Inscription, by RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, 406 

Discoveries at Plataia in 1891 : 

A Temple of Archaic Plan, . .by HENRY 8. WASHINGTON, 390 

Discoveries at Eretria in 1891 : 

Introductory Note, by CHARLES WALDSTEIN, 233 

i. Historical Sketch of Eretria, . . by RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, 236 

ii. Inscriptions Nos. I-XXXHI, . . by RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, 246 

in. Excavations in the Theatre, ... by ANDREW FOSSUM, 253 

iv. Stage-building of the Theatre, . . by ANDREW FOSSUM, 257 

v. Orchestra and Cavea of the Theatre, by CARLETON L. BROWNSON, 266 

vi. Topographical Study of Eretria, . . by JOHN PICKARD, 371 

Discoveries at Sikyon in 1891 : 

Supplementary Excavations at the Theatre, by MORTIMER L. EARLE, 281 


Algeria, 105, 308, 489 Annam, 120 Arabia, 121, 503 Armenia, 496 
Asia Minor, 131, 309, 504 Assyria, 500 Austria-Hungary, 328 Baby- 
lonia, 122, 497 Belgium, 197 China, 494 Denmark, 330 Egypt, 81, 
476 France, 176, 558 Germany, 326, 560 Great Britain, 333 Greece, 
133, 316, 514 Hindustan, 106, 491 Italy, 146, 168, 318, 534, 552 
Java, 308 Krete, 132, 317, 530 Kyklades, 530 Kypros, 313 Morocco, 
105, 490 Palestine, 126, 503 Persia, 121, 496 Phoenicia, 308, 503 
Russia, 332 Sardinia, 173, 555 Siberia, 495 Sicily, 174, 556 Southern 
Africa, 491 Spain, 175 Spanish America, 341 Sporades, 530 Switzer- 
land, 326, 559 Syria, 125, 501 Tunisia, 102, 305, 490 Turkestan, 496 
Turkey, 330. 

BROWNSON (Carleton L.). Orchestra and Cavea of the Theatre at Eretria, 266 
EARLE (Mortimer L.). Supplementary Excavations at the Theatre of Sikyon 

in 1891, 281 

FOSSUM (Andrew). Excavations in the Theatre of Eretria, .... 253 

Stage-building of the Theatre of Eretria, 257 

FOWLER (Harold N.). Summaries of Periodicals, 

211, *213, 219, 342, 346, 363, 567, 569 

FROTHINGHAM (Arthur L., Jr.). Introduction of Gothic Architecture into 
Italy by the French Cisfercian Monks. 

in. Chiaravalle di Castagnola, 283 

IV. Monastery of Arbona, 432 



Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. 
in. Two Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo by Vassallectus and Petrus 

Oderisi, . 38 

Letter on C. H. MOORE'S Gothic Architecture, 202 

Note on Cistercian Gothic Architecture in Italy. A Question of Literary 

Priority, 447 

Reviews and Notices of Books : 

The Historical, Geography of Asia Minor, by W. M. RAMSAY, . . 65 
L'Architettura in Italia, by RAFPAELLE CATTANEO, . . . 466 

L'Art Gothigue, by Louis GONZE, 470 

Archaeological News, 81, 305, 476 

Summaries of Periodicals, 576 

GERMANO (Padre, di S. Stanislao, Passionista). The House of the Martyrs 

John and Paul, recently discovered on the Coelian Hill at Rome (11), 25 
MARQTJAND (Allan). A Phoenician Bowl in the Metropolitan Museum, New 

York, 19 

Andrea della Robbia's Assumption of the Virgin in the Metropolitan 

Museum, . 422 

Reviews and Notices of Books : 

Etudes sur les premieres periodes de la Ceramique grecque, by P. MILLIET, 67 
The Engraved Gems of Class-leal Times, by J. H. MIDDLE-TON, . . 73 
Der Gemiithsausdruck des Antinous, by F. LABAN, .... 74 
Fuhrer durch die offentiichen Sammlungen klassischer Allerthumer in Rom, 

by W. HELBIG, 296 

Summaries of Periodicals, 207,229,571 

MERRIAM (A. C.). Review of Recueil des Inscriptions juridiques grecques, by 


MOMMSEN (Theodor). The Fragment of the Edict of Diocletian found at 

Plataia in 1890, . 54 

MOORE (Charles H.). Letter on Gothic Architecture, 198 

MUELLER (Walter C.). The Berlin Tablet No. 1813, 445 

NOORIAN (Daniel Z.). Notes from Syria, 444 

PETERS (John P.). Letter on the Babylonian Expedition^ .... 472 

PICK ARD (John). Topographical Study of Eretria, 371 


Archaeology, 65, 289, 454 

Oriental Archaeology, . .65, 289, 455 

Classical Archaeology, 67, 292, 456 

Christian Archaeology, 75, 303, 466 

Renaissance, 80, 304 

RICHARDSON (Rufus B.). Historical Sketch of Eretria, . . . .236 

Inscriptions discovered at Eretria, 246 

Votive Inscription discovered at Plataia in 1890, 406 

STEVENSON (S. Y. ) . Two Egyptian Monuments from the site of Herakleopolis, 449 

Bulletin de correspondence hellenique, . 207 

'EQ-nufpls apxaLO\oyiK-f) t 211, 342 

Jahrbuch d. k. archdologischen Institute, 213, 346, 567 



Journal of Hellenic Studies, 351 

Mittheilungen d. k. arch. Institute. Athen. Abth., . . . 219, 363, 569 

Revue archeologique, 229, 571 

Revue des etudes grecques, 365 

Revue d'assyriologie et d'archeologie orientale, . . . . . . 576 

TARBELL (F. B.). A Mensa Ponderaria from Assos, 440 

WALDSTEIN (Charles). The Mantineian Reliefs, 1 

Introductory Note to Excavations by the American School at Eretria, 233, 371 
WASHINGTON (Henry S.). A Temple of archaic plan discovered at Plataia 

in 1891, .390 

WRIGHT (J. H.). Eeview of The Inscriptions of Cos, by W. E. PATON and 

E. L. HICKS, 460 

Summaries of Periodicals, 351, 365 


I. Base with Reliefs by Praxiteles, from Mantineia, 

ii. Athenian Sepulchral Reliefs, 

in. Phoenician Bowl in the Metropolitan Museum, . 
iv-vi. Ancient Wall-paintings in the house of the Martyrs John and 

Paul on the Coelian Hill, Rome, 

vii. Tomb of Pope Hadrian V, by Vassallectus, . 

Viii. Episcopal Throne by Vassallectus, 

ix. Tomb of Pope Clement IV, by Petrus Oderisi, . 
x. Fragment of Edict of Diocletian from Plataia, . 
xi. Plan of Theatre at Eretria excavated by the American School in 


xn. Cistercian Monastic Church at Castagnola, Italy. No. 1, Ex- 
terior; No. 2, Interior, 

xiii. Cistercian Monastic Church at Castagnola, Italy. No. 1, Bay ; 

No. 2, Section; No. 3, Ground-plan, .... 
xiv. Eretria. View of Acropolis from the Theatre, 
xv. Eretria. Wall on west summit of Acropolis, 
xvi. Eretria. Tower on southwest slope of Acropolis, 
xvn. Eretria. Great Tower on north side of Acropolis, 
xvni. Eretria. Upper Gate-tower on northeast side of Acropolis, 

xix. Map of Eretria, 

xx. Plataia. Plan of Archaic Temple (the Heraion) discovered 

in 1891, 

xxi. Plataia. Views of Excavation by the American School at the 


xxn. Assumption of the Virgin by Andrea della Robbia, in the 

Metropolitan Museum, New York, .... 
xxin. Terracottas of Andrea della Robbia used in reconstructing 

Metropolitan Altar-piece, .... 
xxiv. Cistercian Monastic Church of Arbona. Interior, 
xxv. Cistercian Monastic Church of Arbona. Exterior. Ground 

plan. Section, 

xxvi. Statue of Rameses the Great, from Herakleopolis, in the museum 
of the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, 


nd- I 















1. Aedicula by Vassallectus, 43 

2. Ionic Cornice found at Eretria, 256 

3. Anthemion found at Eretria, 256 

4. Section of Vaulted Passage in Stage-building of Theatre at Eretria, . 261 

5. Drain in Theatre at Eretria, 266 

6. Section of Archaic Temple (the Heraion) discovered at Plataia, . . 397 

7. Mensa Ponderaria from Assos, now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 443 

8. Hittite Basrelief of an Eagle, found near Aleppo, Turkey, . . . 444 





Vol. VII. MARCH-JUNE, 1891. Nos. 1-2. 




In the year 1887, M. G. Fougeres of the French School at Athens, 
while digging at Mantineia, came upon three slabs of marble basreliefs. 
These M. Fougeres published in a very interesting article in the organ 
of the French school, 1 in which he endeavored to identify these slabs 
with the reliefs decorating the base of the statues of Leto, Apollo and 
Artemis in their temple at Mantineia as described by Pausanias (vin. 
9), thereby greatly enhancing the undoubted value of his important dis- 
covery. Since then Professor Overbeck, 2 supported by several other 
authorities, has denied M. Fougeres' identification. It is the object 
of this paper to adduce further reasons for the ascription of these re- 
mains to the reliefs mentioned by Pausanias, and it is hoped that the 
identification may become conclusive. 

The three slabs were found among the ruins of a Byzantine church 
at Mantineia in which they served as pavement, the face bearing the 

*The substance of this paper was read at the opening meeting of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens, Jan. 17, 1890. 

1 Bull, de corr. hellen., xn, 1888, pp. 105 seq., pis. i, n, in. His view is shared by 
KAVAISSON, Compte-rendu de I'acad. des inscript., etc., 1888, p. 83 ; LOSCHCKE, Jahrbuch 
d. Instil., 1888, p. 192 ; FURTW ANGLER, Philolog. Wochenschrift, 1888, p. 1482. 

8 Bericht. d. Konigl. Sachs. Gesell. d. Wissensch., 1888, pp. 284 seq. ; Or. Kunstmytholo- 
gie, in, pp. 454, 457, where also a full list of other representations of Apollo and Mar- 
syas is given. 



reliefs fortunately having been turned downward. They are of white 
marble, according to M. Fougeres possibly from Doliana near Tegea, 
and are now deposited in the National Museum at Athens where they 
have been put together carefully under the direction of M. Kabbadias. 
The plates illustrating M. Fougeres' article are from photographs from 
the originals taken in the museum ; but, owing perhaps to insufficient 
light, and to spots and corrosions which disfigure the marble and inter- 
fere more or less with the lines and modelling, they are not as good as 
they might be. In such cases casts which give all the lines and do 
not reproduce the accidental staining of the marble may supplement 
the accurate appreciation of works of antiquity. The authorities of 
the museum generously made a set of casts which they presented to the 
American School to illustrate the present paper when read at one of 
our meetings. 

The three slabs are practically of the same dimensions : slab I is 
1.35 m. wide by 0.96 m. in height, while slabs II and III are 1.36 m. 
wide by 0.96 m. and 0.98 m. in height. 

The first slab bears three figures of which the first is seated : a dig- 
nified male figure with long curls dressed in the long-sleeved talaric 
chiton, and himation, and holding a large lyre resting upon his knee. 
There can be no doubt that this figure represents Apollo. At the 
other end of this slab is a nude bearded older man playing the double 
pipes, in an attitude half-retreating, half-advancing, which from the 
well-known type of the Myronian Marsyas will at once be identified 
as Marsyas. Between these two figures stands a bearded younger man 
with a head-dress something like a combination of a veil and a Phry- 
gian cap, wearing a chiton with sleeves, anaxyrides, and shoes. He 
holds in his right hand a knife. From this foreign costume, as well as 
from the type and evident function of the figure, no archaeologist can fail 
to see in him the Scythian slave charged with the execution of Marsyas. 
The scene suggested by this slab is beyond doubt the first stage in the 
story of the flaying of Marsyas. It is equally evident that the six 
female figures holding musical instruments, rolls, and papyri represent 
six of the nine Muses, and it appears evident that one slab is missing 
which must have contained the other three Muses. Now, in the pas- 
sage cited above, Pausanias, in describing Mantineia which he enters 
by the southeast gate, mentions first a double temple of which one half 
was dedicated to Asklepios ; and he continues : To Be erepov A^roO? 
[epov KOL rwv TraiScw. UpagiTeXr)? Se ra dyd\/jiara elpyda-aro 


/jLTa^A\KafjLev7)V varepov ryevea. TOVTCOV Treiroi^^va earlv eVt 
TW ftdOpq) Movcra teal Mapo-ua? av\wv. We thus learn that Praxi- 
teles made the three statues of the second half of the temple, namely, 
Leto with her two children Apollo and Artemis, and that on the base 
of these statues was portrayed a story of Marsyas and the Muses. 

Literally, Pausanias speaks only of " a Muse and Marsyas playing 
on the pipes ; " and M. Fougeres solves the difficulty in interpret- 
ing this passage, which even before his discovery had been felt, by 
amending it and substituting the plural MoOcrat for Movo-a. Many 
years ago, De "VVitte 3 suggested that the one Muse who could accompany 
Marsyas would be Euterpe, who presides over flute-playing but there 
is no archaeological or literary instance of the conjunction of these two 
figures known to me, and, as we shall see, this very slab disproves it. 
It appears possible that Pausanias, who never was a careful and accu- 
rate observer of the monuments which he describes loosely, mistook 
the seated Apollo for a female figure, a Muse, and rapidly noted what 
he hastily saw, characterizing the whole scene by two figures which 
he could identify. And this possibility was increased to my mind 
when I heard that, at the first glance, the discoverers themselves were 
misled in the same way. Still, perhaps M. Fougeres 7 emendation is 
the better suggestion, as it includes the figures of all the other slabs, 
and as the omission of the letter t at the end of a word is easily made 
by any scribe. 

With this definite passage of Pausanias to go upon, it seemed to 
me strange that there could be much hesitation in identifying the slabs 
found at Mantineia with the reliefs decorating the base of the Praxi- 
telean statues; I was therefore astonished to find that most of the 
leading archaeologists here at Athens agreed with Professor Overbeck ; 
for, even before I had read M. Fougdres' article and was aware of the 
provenience of the slabs, I had pointed out these works as important 
specimens of fourth-century relief work of Praxitelean character. 

M. Fougeres, rightly assuming that there must have been one more 
slab bearing three Muses, restores the base of the statues by placing 
one slab upon each of the four sides of the pedestal, and this restora- 
tion has been in the minds of archaeologists as the only possible one, 
ever since the publication of these works. Starting from this con- 
ception of their distribution, Professor Overbeck and those who agree 

3 Elite Ceramogr., n, pi. 70, p. 213, Note 3. 


with him direct their strongest criticism against the identification on 
this ground. But, besides this, he and they also maintain that the 
reliefs themselves, in the posing of the figures and their relation to 
one another, and in the modelling of every one, as well as in the gen- 
eral character and artistic feeling of the grouping and of the separate 
figures, are either Roman or late -Hellenistic in style. Now Professor 
Overbeck, though he holds that M. Fougeres has put it beyond all 
doubt that the three slabs belong together, and is right in maintain- 
ing that they were not part of a continuous frieze, denies that they 
could have been arranged on the four sides of the bathron, inasmuch 
as this base would have been decidedly too small for the three statues 
which stood upon it. Though it might be urged, even against this, 
that we do not know how large the pieces on either side were, into 
which each one of these slabs may have been set, just as a picture hangs 
with space about it upon our walls, still it would be hard to conceive 
of this base as a whole, if so decorated, and supporting the three large 
temple-statues. Yet, if we can, as I propose, show that all the four 
slabs formed a continuous composition and decorated only the front of 
the base, all the weighty arguments of Professor Overbeck and his sup- 
porters against the attribution of the reliefs, so far as these arguments 
depend upon the arrangement formerly proposed, fall to the ground. 
Now, I will say at once, though it hardly needs much argument, that 
the reliefs are more likely to have decorated a bathron than anything 
else. As, from the nature of the subject represented, the whole com- 
position consisted of but four slabs, they are not likely to have formed 
part of an extended architectural decoration, such as a continuous frieze 
or single metopes. Nor are they likely, for the same reason, to have 
formed part of a balustrade or screen ; nor could they have been fixed 
upon a sarcophagus. Four slabs of this dimension, evidently belong- 
ing together, are structurally most likely to have decorated the large 
base of some sculptural monument, 

The first mistake in judging these works appears to have been made 
in that an analogy for the base of the three statues by Praxiteles was. 
unconsciously found in the numerous existing open-air bathra dis- 
covered at Olympia, Epidauros, and other places. But these inter- 
esting bases of statues are chiefly those of athletic and votive figures, 
and are therefore much smaller in dimensions. They can in no way 
give us an adequate notion of the size, form, and decoration of the 
bases belonging to great temple-statues and groups of statues. 


Now, as regards the bases of great temple-statues, so far as ancient 
literary records are concerned, the two about which most was written 
in antiquity are those of the Olympian Zeus and the Athena Parthenos 
by Pheidias. As regards the base of the statue of the Olympian Zeus, 
we learn from Pausanias ( v. 11. 8) that it was decorated in relief, that 
the scene represented the b'lih of Aphrodite in the presence of all the 
chief divinities, the action bounded on one side by Helios, rising with 
his steeds, and, on the other, by Selene descending to the realms of 
night. The base of the Athena Parthenos was similarly decorated 
with scenes portraying the birth of Pandora. Fortunately for us, the 
so-called Lenormant statuette in the British Museum, giving a free 
copy of the Athena Parthenos, has on the base an imperfect rendering 
of this scene ; but, imperfect as it may be, it shows that the decoration 
in relief occupied only the front of the base, and did not extend round 
the four sides. This, moreover, we should naturally have surmised 
before, inasmuch as it could not have been intended that the visitors 
should walk round the back of such sacred statues, generally placed 
toward the west end of the cella, without sufficient space left free at 
the back for proper appreciation of a relief on the base. 

Among extant bases, I would specially draw attention to one deco- 
rated with reliefs representing pyrrhic dancers, 4 now in the Acropolis 
Museum at Athens, to which my attention was drawn by Mr. Loring 
of King's College, Cambridge, and the British School at Athens. I 
shall have occasion to recur to these reliefs for further comparison 
with the works under discussion. For the present, I merely wish to 
point out that, though this base belonged to what must have been a 
much smaller group of figures than ours, as the figures in the relief, 
cut into the solid stone of the base, are less than half the size of our 
Muses, it is still instructive as showing sculptured decoration similarly 
disposed only on the front side. 

The most important light, however, upon the disposition of these 
slabs and the base which they ornamented, is thrown by the important 
discovery at Lykosoura in the autumn of 1889 of the temple-statues 
of Damophon of Messene by Messrs. Kabbadias and Leonardos. The 
temple and the statues there found are beyond a doubt those described 
by Pausanias (vui. 38). The date of these works cannot be far re- 

4 BEULE, L'Acropole d'Athdnes, n, pis. in and iv ; KHANGABE, Antiq. hellen., pi. 
xxi ; vide, also, MICHAELIS in Ehein. Mus., xvn. 217, and Mittheil. d. deutsch. Arch. 
Instit. Athen, I, 295. The inscription is published CIA, n. No. 1286. 


moved from that of Praxiteles. Now, there were four statues on this 
base, while there were three on that of Mantineia. By computation, 
the width of the Lykosoura base would be about eight metres, and on 
this ratio, a base for only three statues would be about six metres wide. 
Four slabs of the dimension of our Mantineian reliefs would measure 
about 5| metres. Hence, so far as actual measurements would go, 
four such slabs would suffice, when placed continuously side by side, 
to decorate the front of the base of a group of temple-statues such as 
the Leto, Apollo and Artemis at Mantineia in all likelihood formed. 
Accordingly the arguments of Professor Overbeck, so far as the ordi- 
nary dimensions and decoration of such bases are concerned, fall to the 
ground, and leave unshaken the probability of such an arrangement 
of the reliefs from Mantineia. 

A careful consideration of the composition of these reliefs, neces- 
sarily leads us to the same conclusion. There can hardly be a doubt, 
first, that there was one more slab sculptured with three Muses, and, 
second, that the slab with Apollo must have occupied a central posi- 
tion. The presence of six Muses necessarily leads us to the conclusion 
that at the time when these reliefs were made the Muses as accompany- 
ing Apollo had been already fixed -at the number of nine. I must, 
however, leave this point for discussion hereafter. Assuming, then, 
that there were four slabs in all, and that the slab with Apollo occu- 
pied the central place, the next questions are whether of the two extant 
slabs with Muses the one containing the seated Muse is to be placed to 
right or left of the Apollo slab, and whether the remaining slab is to 
be placed at the extreme left or right. Mr. H. D. Hale, while a student 
at the American School at Athens, made the restorations 5 of the 
group and the base reproduced on Plate I. Apart from all other con- 
siderations of composition which have led me to place the slabs as 
they are here given, i. e., the seated Muse immediately beside Apollo 
and the remaining slab to the left hand of this, there is one, appar- 
ently minute, but very interesting fact which finally confirmed me 
in this arrangement. Of the Muses there are four heads compara- 
tively well preserved. Among these that of the seated Muse and the 
one immediately beside her are in full-face, while the two others are 
turned in different directions. The head of the Muse with the pipes 

5 1 need hardly say that the statues are imaginary. The Apollo would probably not 
have been represented without any drapery. But I think Mr. Hale has been suc- 
cessful in giving a certain fourth-century character to his composition. 


is turned to our right in three-quarter view, that of the central figure 
in the other slab to our left. Now, there is a marked difference in 
the workmanship of these two heads ; the inner side of the face of 
the Muse with the pipes is carefully finished, while the inner side 
of the other head is comparatively unfinished, and the contrast is 
here the greater as the outer side of this head is beautifully worked. 
It is evident, from this fact, that the inner side of the face of the Muse 
with the pipes was designed to be prominently visible to the spectator 
looking at the group of three statues on the base ; while the inner side 
of the other head was not meant to be carefully examined. Placing 
the slabs as they are here given, and imagining the spectator to stand 
opposite the centre of the base, the Muse with the pipes presents her- 
self in three-quarter view, the inner side of the face becoming well 
visible, while the central Muse of the other slab exhibits her head in 
profile, the profile being exquisitely finished, while the unfinished inner 
side of the face does not show. Further, the Muse with the papyrus 
is the only one who has a larger bare space at her back, which gives a 
proper finish to the composition. I therefore place this slab at the left 
end. Then follows the other extant slab with Muses, then the slab with 
Apollo and Marsyas, and on this side the composition was brought to 
a conclusion by another slab with three standing Muses similar in com- 
position to the slab at the other end. In Mr. Hale's drawing (PL. I, 
jig. 2) the end slab has been repeated on the other side to give some idea 
of the ensemble of the composition. 

This I postulate is the composition decorating the front of the base 
of the three statues ; and with this postulate we will proceed to con- 
sider the main features of the composition, first, from the point of 
view of the subject represented, and, second, from the constructive or 
tectonic side. 

The first task an ancient sculptor at work upon a group consisting 
of several figures had to deal with, was the proper arrangement of 
the figures with regard to their relative importance to the scene de- 
picted, and this arrangement must then be modified by the construc- 
tive destination of such grouping. It is unnecessary to say that the 
most important figure or figures must occupy the middle. Moreover, 
when there were separate slabs, it was desirable, as far as possible, 
to place the central group on one slab. This is done in the present 
case by placing Apollo, Marsyas and the Scythian on one slab. If 
there had been five slabs in our composition, the arrangement would 


have been a comparatively easy task ; for thus this slab would have 
been placed in the middle with two slabs on either side. But then it 
would have been desirable to place Apollo in the centre of this slab, 
perhaps with the Scythian on one side and Marsyas on the other. 
But the difficulty is still further increased by the actual number of 
figures represented in the whole of this composition. When there is 
an uneven number of figures, due prominence can easily be given to 
one figure, by placing it in the middle with an equal number of figures 
on either side. This is done, for instance, in both the pediments of 
the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. But when there is an even number 
of figures, it is not possible, from the considerations of symmetrical 
composition, to give prominence of place to one figure. In the wes- 
tern pediment of the Parthenon, the centre was equally occupied by two 
figures of equal importance in the scene enacted ; moreover the sacred 
olive-tree really occupies the centre of the pediment with Athena and 
Poseidon in diverging lines on either side. I have several times 
hitherto pointed out how the careful study of extant ancient com- 
positions forces us to conclude that the ancients studied most minutely 
such questions of grouping, and I would refer the reader to what I 
have written on the arrangement of the central figures of the Par- 
thenon Frieze, 6 where I have endeavorecj to show that the introduc- 
tion of the central incident was due, in a great degree, to the desire of 
giving proper prominence to three figures, viz., Zeus, Hera and Athena. 
Brunn, Flasch, and Treu, also, have pointed with emphasis to the 
careful consideration of symmetrical balance in such compositions. 
Having an even number of figures, namely, twelve, our artist could 
not place Apollo in the centre. The physical centre in our composi- 
tion therefore lies between Apollo and the seated Muse. The artist 
has furthermore emphasized this as the centre by placing two seated 
figures on either side of the central point. This corresponded proba- 
bly also to the general arrangement of the statues on the base, in which 
Leto was probably seated in the middle, while Apollo and Artemis 
were standing on either side. The discovery at Lykosoura has shown 
us that the two central figures (Demeter and Despoina) were seated, 
while Anytos and Artemis were standing on either side. The points 
immediately on either side of the centre would thus be occupied by 
two seated figures. But, no doubt, the danger would arise that Apollo 

6 Essays on the Art of Pheidias, pp. 244-253. 


and the seated Muse would be made equally prominent. Yet there is 
one striking point of difference in the compositions where this arrange- 
ment obtains. If it had been the intention of the artist to give similar 
importance to both of the two seated figures grouped on either side of 
the centre, he would have placed them either face to face or back to 
back. In the frieze of the Parthenon, Zens heads the one side of the 
Assembly of Gods, turned from the centre, and Athena the other, fac- 
ing in the opposite direction, an arrangement, too, which is highly 
conducive to symmetry. In our case, however, the seated Muse is not 
turned toward the other Muses as if she were heading that side of the 
composition ; but is turned toward Apollo, and, by this attitude, throws 
the symmetry somewhat out, leaving the preponderance of interest and 
line toward the other side where what there is of drama is enacted. 
This is the only element of asymmetry in what is otherwise composed 
in almost extreme severity of balance. To realize how far this balance 
goes, I merely point to the fact that, while we have two seated figures 
in the centre, each with a stringed instrument, we have beside these 
respectively the only two figures that are approximately in full face. 
The lines of the arms of these two figures are what might be called 
rhythmically symmetrical : the arms of the Muse and of the Scy- 
thian that are toward the centre are both extended downward in a 
flattish curve, diverging from the centre; the arms away from the 
centre are drawn upward in a sharp curve toward the centre. The 
figures outside of these again, Marsyas and the slim Muse at the end of 
the slab, both have pipes which they hold toward the centre. I will 
not confuse the reader by pointing out further the system of balance 
and symmetry in the grouping of every single slab. I am most con- 
cerned with the demonstration of the continuity and completeness of 
this grouping, consisting of four slabs placed side by side. 

The figure at the extreme left end, then, being turned squarely 
toward the centre, shows the general direction of line, and the seated 
Muse nearest the centre, being turned toward Apollo, again draws the 
eye away from the physical centre toward the adjoining slab, where 
Apollo and Marsyas form the chief group. Thus, in the difficult 
task of filling one slab with three figures enacting the scene, and of 
placing six Muses on the one side of Apollo and only three Muses on 
the other side of Marsyas, while yet maintaining a symmetrical ar- 
rangement with regard to the centre on the base, the artist has suc- 
ceeded well in conciliating the opposed conditions of his problem. 


It is most interesting to note, furthermore, how the sculptor has used 
the constructive suggestions of his work of decoration to emphasize 
the importance of the chief figure and scene. In the case of pedi- 
mental groups, and even of a continuous architectural frieze, greater 
importance can be given to a figure or to a group of figures by varying 
the outlines of the whole composition, so that the more important fig- 
ures are taller or stand higher, and there is thus a natural climax of 
line corresponding to the rise in interest. This pyramidal form is the 
ordinary canon for composition. But such a rise of line on the pedes- 
tal of a statue or group, where the chief structural aim is that of sta- 
bility for the figures which it holds, would be painfully unconstructive. 
It would suggest in line not 'only that the central statue was unstable, 
but that the statues on either side would be in danger of falling off. 
Our artist has thus adopted another device. He has felt that impor- 
tance is given by variation of line ; but, instead of making the lines 
rise as they approach the centre of importance, he has produced an 
abrupt depression of line in the centre which, in an equally effective 
manner, attracts the eye to the most important figure in the whole 
relief, though that figure does not occupy the actual centre. Five of 
the Muses on the left stand erect with the line of their heads hori- 
zontal, and then there is a sudden fall of line as we near the centre 
in the seated Muse, which becomes still more marked when we reach 
Apollo, who with his large lyre immediately attracts the eye, and, by 
his attitude, directs us toward Marsyas. Marsyas again, by his strik- 
ing action, fixes our attention and holds it ; for he is the only figure 
who, in bold contrast to the repose of all the others, is in violent action. 
While his action thus readily attracts the eye to that side of the centre, 
the general treatment of outline-composition in the reliefs as a whole 
properly draws our eye to Apollo. If, as I have done, we place the three 
slabs together with the arrangement proposed, and a drawing of equal 
dimensions containing three figures, similar in attitude and grouping 
to those of the left end, is placed on the extreme right, and if then we 
stand at some distance from the relief in the actual central line between 
the two seated figures, there will, first, be no sense of want of sym- 
metry in the composition as a whole ; secondly, our eye will be at once 
attracted to Apollo as the most important figure, and from him it will 
naturally pass on to Marsyas. 

Thus the composition in itself confirms the view, suggested to us by 
the evidence of similar known monuments, that these three slabs, with 


another that is missing, formed part of a continuous scene which would 
properly decorate the base of a group of statues, and that the base of 
the Mantineian statues was, according to all the evidence we have of 
dimensions, such as would require a frieze of the size of the one con- 
sisting of four such slabs. 

If now we consider the date of these reliefs as it is manifested in 
the treatment of the subject and in the style of the work, I can see 
hardly any ground for assigning it to the late Hellenistic or the 
Roman period. 

To begin with the moulding which finishes off the relief on the top : 
it is of so simple a character that I should defy an archaeologist to 
adduce reliefs of the later periods that manifest a treatment so simple. 
But in these matters I would not trust my own judgment, and I am 
happy to adduce the opinion of Mr. Schultz of the British School at 
Athens, who has made a careful study of Greek mouldings, and ac- 
cording to whom this moulding points to the fourth, and would not 
be out of place even in the fifth, century B. c. 

As regards the composition again, it appears to me that there 
is a simplicity bordering almost on severity in the arrangement 
of the figures side by side, an absence of that restless fulness of line 
approaching redundancy which characterizes the relief-work of the 
Hellenistic and of the Roman periods. It is true that there are occa- 
sional instances of Hellenistic sarcophagi ornamented by single figures 
placed withou; any connection with one another round the four sides, 
as one I have recently seen which Hamdy Bey discovered at Sidon ; 
but these are so exceptional that they seem to me derivatives from 
such Hellenic works as that we are discussing. Moreover, such Hel- 
lenistic reliefs generally manifest some intrusion of an architectural 
nature in the relief itself, and the single figures are usually separated 
from one another by pillars or suggestions of niches. But, generally, 
where such reliefs of the later periods are not already full of lines in 
the violent action of the figures, trees or shrubs or other objects of 
landscape are introduced. For the arrangement as a whole I find 
the closest analogy in the relief of the pyrrhic dancers referred to 
above, which, as has already been stated, is a work of the fourth 
century B. c. It may moreover be observed that this fourth-century 
relief, which has a similarly simple moulding, has its figures sub- 
divided into groups of three and four with intervening spaces, though 
there is no natural subdivision owing to a union of separate slabs. 


If, furthermore, we take the general treatment of the subject repre- 
sented, I should say that it is directly opposed to Hellenistic or Roman 
treatment. The flaying of Marsyas is a very favorite subject in these 
periods, and is commonly represented with dramatic vividness in the 
moment immediately preceding the barbarous punishment inflicted by 
Apollo upon his presumptuous rival. 7 Marsyas is suspended by the 
arms, and the barbarous Scythian, of whom the famous Aretino in 
Florence is the type, is in the act of whetting his knife to inflict the 
punishment. The attendant figures, moreover, all display some in- 
tense interest in the action. In our representation, on the other hand, 
extreme moderation is used even at the cost of a dramatic rendering 
of the story. The only figure shown in action is Marsyas himself, and 
for him the fourth century had a prototype which belonged to the 
archaic period, more than a century earlier than the age of Praxiteles, 
namely, the Marsyas of Myron. Everywhere, in the types of the 
figures as well as in their general arrangement and attitudes, the idea 
of beauty, one might almost say comeliness, seems to have been pre- 
dominant, and to have prevailed over the desire of rendering the dra- 
matic side of the story. 

The Muses moreover in their conception are, as far as we know, 
of the character which would best correspond to their representation 
in the fourth century. 8 

As is the case with all the Greek mythological types, those of the 
Muses were not at once fixed in the form in which we know them ; 
nor were they ever rigidly stereotyped in the conception of one period. 

At first, in the earliest times, both in literature and in art, the 
personalities of the Muses were not distinct and they do not differ 
essentially from Nymphs, Horai, Charites, etc. Nor, in traditions 
differing from that of the Hesiodic poems, was their number fixed to 
that of nine. There is evidence that the number of three was the 
more common number even down to the middle of the fifth century B. C. 
Nor were the names attributed to them, under which we know them, 

''Vide two sarcophagi published by TRENDELENBURG, Annali deli'Inst., 1871, tav. 
d?Agg. D from Villa Pacca, Eome ; the other from the Villa Medici, Annali, tav. 
tfAgg. E; also one published by WIESELER (who mentions others in footnote, p. 122), 
Annali, 1861, a sarcophagus in cathedral of Palermo. See, also, the complete list of 
representations of the Musikalischer Wettstreit des Marsyas in OVERBECK, Griechische 
Kunstmythologie, Leipzig, 1889, in, pp. 420-82. 

8 Mr. OSCAR BIE has summarized what is known concerning the treatment of Muses 
in ancient art: Die Musen in der Antiken Kunst, Berlin, 1887. 


definitely assigned to each till a comparatively late time. Even 
down to the Alexandrine period, there appears to have existed con- 
siderable fluctuation in the form and attribution of such names, as well 
as in the assignment to the different Muses of their provinces, func- 
tions, and attributes. 

At first the Muses are merely the musical companions of the gods 
who rejoice their hearts with song (Iliad, i. 603), and afterward the fol- 
lowers of Apollo, when, in the transformation of the personality of this 
deity at Delphi, the sterner python-slayer becomes the gentler leader of 
song and music. Song, music and the dance are their chief pursuits. 

With Aristotle the subdivision and classification of the arts and 
sciences are first developed, and are fixed and thoroughly differentiated 
by his followers at Alexandria, until the departments become stereo- 
typed. Corresponding to this process, the Muses become classified and 
every one of them is, as far as possible, made the personified mythical 
type for some branch of art or learning. This of course leads to 
the multiplication and specification of attributes. In the fourth cen- 
tury B. c. this development has not yet taken place. We find only 
the musical instruments, attitudes of dancing, the papyrus or scroll, 
and the diptych corresponding to a book. The mask for the comic 
muse, and the globe for Urania have not yet been introduced. The 
latter attribute is distinctly late. 

The earliest extant work of artTep resenting the Muses is the so-called 
Fran9ois vase 9 by Klitias. This vase is certainly as early as the sixth 
century B. c. and is thoroughly archaic in character. The Muses here 
accompany the gods in the procession in celebration of the marriage of 
Peleus and Thetis. They are nine in number, are led by Kalliope 
and have the well-known 10 names given in the Theogony of Hesiod. 
But in later vases the numbers vary in fact we hardly ever find nine 
Muses. Four and six seem to be the predominant numbers. Dr. Bie 
thinks that these vases tend to show that in the periods which they 
mark the Muses were still fluctuating in number. 

9 Arch. Zeit,, 1873, p. 24 seq. 

10 Tain-' dpa Movirai &ei8oi> 'O\v/j.Tria Sco/xar 1 e^owTa*, 

eWe'a Ovyarepes /*eyd\ov Ai&s fKyfyavlai, 

KAeia) T' Evrfp-rrr] re, dd\id re MeA.7ro,ueV77 re, 

Teptytxdpri T' 'Eparu re, Ho\vju.Vid T' Ovpav'mj re, 

KaAAjJir?/ 0' $i Se Trpcx^epecTTaTTj f(Trlv airourecav. 

rj yap /cat ftaffi\fv(riv a,u' alSoioKTiv oTrrjSe'i (Theogonia, 75 seq.). 


If, furthermore, we take the general treatment of the subject repre- 
sented, I should say that it is directly opposed to Hellenistic or Roman 
treatment. The flaying of Marsyas is a very favorite subject in these 
periods, and is commonly represented with dramatic vividness in the 
moment immediately preceding the barbarous punishment inflicted by 
Apollo upon his presumptuous rival. 7 Marsyas is suspended by the 
arms, and the barbarous Scythian, of whom the famous Aretino in 
Florence is the type, is in the act of whetting his knife to inflict the 
punishment. The attendant figures, moreover, all display some in- 
tense interest in the action. In our representation, on the other hand, 
extreme moderation is used even at the cost of a dramatic rendering 
of the story. The only figure shown in action is Marsyas himself, and 
for him the fourth century had a prototype which belonged to the 
archaic period, more than a century earlier than the age of Praxiteles, 
namely, the Marsyas of Myron. Everywhere, in the types of the 
figures as well as in their general arrangement and attitudes, the idea 
of beauty, one might almost say comeliness, seems to have been pre- 
dominant, and to have prevailed over the desire of rendering the dra- 
matic side of the story. 

The Muses moreover in their conception are, as far as we know, 
of the character which would best correspond to their representation 
in the fourth century. 8 

As is the case with all the Greek mythological types, those of the 
Muses were not at once fixed in the form in which we know them ; 
nor were they ever rigidly stereotyped in the conception of one period. 

At first, in the earliest times, both in literature and in art, the 
personalities of the Muses were not distinct and they do not differ 
essentially from Nymphs, Horai, Charites, etc. Nor, in traditions 
differing from that of the Hesiodic poems, was their number fixed to 
that of nine. There is evidence that the number of three was the 
more common number even down to the middle of the fifth century B. c. 
Nor were the names attributed to them, under which we know them, 

''Vide two sarcophagi published by TREXDELENBTJRG, Annali deWInst., 1871, tav. 
d'Agg. D from Villa Pacca, Rome ; the other from the Villa Medici, Annali, tav. 
d'Agg. E; also one published by WIESELER (who mentions others in footnote, p. 122), 
Annali, 1861, a sarcophagus in cathedral of Palermo. See, also, the complete list of 
representations of the Musikalischer Wettstreit des Marsyas in OVERBECK, Griechische 
Kunstmythohgie, Leipzig, 1889, in, pp. 420-82. 

8 Mr. OSCAR BIE has summarized what is known concerning the treatment of Muses 
in ancient art: Die Musen in der Antiken Kunst, Berlin, 1887. 


definitely assigned to each till a comparatively late time. Even 
down to the Alexandrine period, there appears to have existed con- 
siderable fluctuation in the form and attribution of such names, as well 
as in the assignment to the different Muses of their provinces, func- 
tions, and attributes. 

At first the Muses are merely the musical companions of the gods 
who rejoice their hearts with song (Iliad, I. 603), and afterward the fol- 
lowers of Apollo, when, in the transformation of the personality of this 
deity at Delphi, the sterner python-slayer becomes the gentler leader of 
song and music. Song, music and the dance are their chief pursuits. 

With Aristotle the subdivision and classification of the arts and 
sciences are first developed, and are fixed and thoroughly differentiated 
by his followers at Alexandria, until the departments become stereo- 
typed. Corresponding to this process, the Muses become classified and 
every one of them is, as far as possible, made the personified mythical 
type for some branch of art or learning. This of course leads to 
the multiplication and specification of attributes. In the fourth cen- 
tury B. c. this development has not yet taken place. We find only 
the musical instruments, attitudes of dancing, the papyrus or scroll, 
and the diptych corresponding to a book. The mask for the comic 
muse, and the globe for Urania have not yet been introduced. The 
latter attribute is distinctly late. 

The earliest extant work of artTep resenting the Muses is the so-called 
Fraii9ois vase 9 by Klitias. This vase is certainly as early as the sixth 
century B. c. and is thoroughly archaic in character. The Muses here 
accompany the gods in the procession in celebration of the marriage of 
Peleus and Thetis. They are nine in number, are led by Kalliope 
and have the well-known 10 names given in the Theogony of Hesiod. 
But in later vases the numbers vary in fact we hardly ever find nine 
Muses. Four and six seem to be the predominant numbers. Dr. Bie 
thinks that these vases tend to show that in the periods which they 
mark the Muses were still fluctuating in number. 

9 Arch. Zeit., 1873, p. 24 seq. 

10 TaCr 1 ttpa Mowrcu &eiSov 'OA.v/x7ria Sai^ar' e^oi/crat, 

eWea Ovyarepes /u.fyd\ov Albs exyeyavlai, 

KAetaj T' EvrepTTij Tf, Qd\tid re M.eXiro/j.evr) re, 

Tep^ix'V 7 ? T> 'EpaTco re, Tlo\v/j.vid T' Ovpavit] re, 

KaAAioTTTj 0' $ 8e Trpo<pepf<rrdrTj ecrrlv airaveuv. 

rj yap Kal $a.<n\v<nv a,a' alSoioKTiv OTTT/Se? (Theogonia, 75 seq.). 


As I have on several previous occasions maintained, the purely 
decorative and tectonic considerations of vase-compositions were para- 
mount to the vase-painter and influenced and modified even his treat- 
ment of mythological scenes and types ; we may therefore go wrong 
if we attach too much importance to representations on vases for the 
detailed interpretation of mythical scenes. So in the case of the Muses, 
the number of figures introduced by the vase-painter was entirely de- 
termined by the number of figures his composition demanded. Among 
the vases I would single out for comparison several red-figured ones n 
which correspond in spirit to the Mantineian reliefs and are themselves 
not later than the fourth century B. c. Among these, moreover, none 
of the later attributes, such as the mask or the globe, occur. They 
have the different forms of lyre, barbiton, syrinx, etc., flutes, and scroll. 
More florid ones of a later period have more figures and fuller lines. 12 

The earliest historical artistic representations mentioned in ancient 
authors are the chest of Kypselos, 13 and the altar of Hyakinthos at 
Amyklai. 14 The sculptors who made statues of Muses in the begin- 
ning of the fifth century 15 were Ageladas, Kanachos and Aristokles. 
These Muses had the lyre, barbiton and syrinx, the %eXu?, and flutes. 
A Muse of Lesbothemis 16 has the sambyke (a stringed instrument, pro- 
bably the same as the trigonon). Toward the middle of the fifth cen- 
tury we hear of the famous group of Apollo with Leto and Artemis and 
the Muses 17 decorating the eastern pediment of the Temple of Apollo at 
Delphi. This was by Praxias, the pupil of Kalamis. Dr. Bie thinks 
that there were probably only three Muses in this pediment. I see no 
reason for believing this ; on the contrary, from the nature of such pedi- 
mental compositions it appears more likely that there were nine. 

It is however quite certain that the group of Muses in the Heli- 
konian sanctuary of the Muses, by Kephisodotos 18 the elder, the father 

11 Among these a very fine Volcentian kalpis with Apollo and seven Muses, GER- 
HARD, Trinkschalen und Gefc'tsse, n. 17. It was bought from the collection of Lucien 
Bonaparte in 1841, and is now at Berlin. Plate 18 gives a krater (so-called oxy- 
baphon) now at Berlin with Apollo, Terpsichore and Kleio. A fine vase with Muses 
and a poet (Mousaios) is published in WELCKER, Alte Denkmaler, in. pi. 31. This vase, 
also from Vulci, is now in London. A fine one with Marsyas, a Panathenaic amphora, 
is published in LENORMANT and DE WITTE, Elite Ceramogr., n. pi. 75 ; another, n. 79. 

12 Elite Ceramogr., n. pis. 70-73. Quite a florid one in Naples, vide Arch. Zeit., 1869, 
taf. 17. 

13 PAUS., v. 18. 4. 14 PATJS., in. 19. 5. 
^Anthol. Or., u. 15. 35 ; OVERBECK, Schriftquellen, No. 395. 
"ATHEN., iv. 182; OVERBECK, S. Q., 2083. 

17 PATTSANIAS, x. 19. 4 ; OVERBECK, 8. Q., 857. 


of Praxiteles, consisted of nine figures, and from this time on, though 
single Muses were frequently represented in statues, the number of 
nine must certainly have been fixed as the recognized number of 
their full chorus. It is likely, too, that many of the later Roman 
statues are reproductions of the types established by Kephisodotos and 
his colleagues. In the case of Praxiteles, we have instances of the 
manner in which father and son worked on the same traditions, the 
Hermes with the infant Dionysos being the continuation of a type of 
figures introduced by Kephisodotos. It thus appears highly probable 
that the Mantineian relief reproduces in a modified form the Muses of 
Helikon. And this becomes the more likely, when we remember that 
these Muses on the relief have struck archaeologists as being reproduc- 
tions of single statues. 

I will not touch here upon the Muses of Ambrakia which Dr. Bie 19 
has treated with great thoroughness. Of extant reliefs I would point 
to the circular base of a statue from Halikarnassos published by Dr. 
Trendelenburg. 20 This relief is supposed to be of the third century B. c. 
and at latest of the Hellenistic, not of the Roman, period. In this there 
is as yet no distinction between the tragic and the comic Muse, the 
globe does not occur, and the style is not of the late redundant form. 
But from the introduction of the trees and the general character of 
composition and execution of single figures, the work is certainly con- 
siderably later than is our Mantineian relief. 

A much later work, manifesting fully the treatment as influenced 
by Alexandrine learning and art, is the tabula Archelai, 21 the apotheosis 
of Homer by Archelaos of Priene which is fixed by the palaeographic 
character of the inscription as of the first century B. c. Here we have 
all the names and all the late attributes. This representation differs 
in character from the Mantineian reliefs almost as much as do the 
Roman sarcophagi referred to above. 

Now, the fact that we have two standing Muses without attributes 
in the centre of each of the two Muse-slabs makes it almost necessary 
that the non-extant slab should have had a similar figure in the centre. 
The globe and mask could not have been massed into this one slab. 
A possible restoration suggests itself with one erect figure in the centre, 

18 PAUSAN., ix. 30. 1 ; OVERBECK, S. Q., 878. Three were the work of Kephisodotos, 
three were by Strongylion, three by Olympiosthenes. 

19 Die Musen, pp. 24 seq. 20 Winckelmann-Programm, Berlin, 1876. 

21 OVERBECK, Kunstarch. For/., p. 214 ; KORTEGARN, De tabula Archelai., Bonn, 1862. 


at the extreme right end a Muse holding something like the diptychon, 
and at the other end a Muse with a musical instrument. 

At all events, from the mythological treatment of the Muses on 
the Mantineian relief, when viewed in the series of such repre- 
sentations, it appears conclusive, that, as regards the rendering of 
these types, they cannot be later than the fourth century and are 
probably of the immediate period of Praxiteles. Finally, to con- 
sider the single figures : that of Apollo, seated in dignified repose, 
would not only point to the fourth century but might even go 
back to a prototype of the fifth. It is probable that the artist 
exercised some restraint in this figure, which partook of a religious 
character. The relation of the Marsyas to the Myronian statue has 
already been pointed out. Moreover other instances of the adaptation 
of Myronian types in Praxitelean art have been dwelt on by Kekule. 22 
As regards the Scythian, I have already maintained that in the treat- 
ment of this figure there is nothing pointing to the later periods. On 
the contrary we should contrast him with the Aretino, which typifies 
the treatment of a barbarian in what is probably Pergamene art. If 
Overbeck sees something uncommon and late in his headdress and 
general drapery, I would ask for instances of the treatment of such 
figures in the fourth century and earlier periods. The examples present 
to my mind are those of the Archer, probably Paris, in the eastern 
pediment of the Temple of Athena at Aigina, a work of the early fifth 
century B. c., in which this foreign warrior wears the Phrygian cap, 
and has the close-fitting sleeves and trousers ; second, as far as we 
can make them out, the foreign warriors on the frieze of the Temple 
of Nike Apteros ; third, some of the Amazons of the frieze of the 
Mausoleum of Halikarnassos, and for the lower part of the body the 
colossal horseman from Halikarnassos. If this headdress is com- 
monly worn in later times by Paris, Amazons, Artemis, Adonis and 
Attis, it means that these later representations have been taken from 
such earlier types as the Scythian here represented. The same applies 
still more to the figures of Muses. If the seated Muse reminds us of 
some of the most graceful Tanagrean terracottas, it shows us whence 
the makers of these terracottas got their prototypes ; for we have never 
assumed that the works of these minor artists were always original 
inspirations. Vague general analogies in the wearing of the drapery 
may also be found between some of these Muses and Roman draped 

2 * Der Kopfdes Praxitelischen Hermes, 1881. 



female figures. But as I have had occasion to set forth once before, 23 
the general arrangement of the drapery of some of these statues of the 
Roman period was borrowed from earlier prototypes, especially of the 
fourth century B. c. And if we can point out analogies in the treat- 
ment of drapery and in attitudes between the Mantineian Muses and 
figures that are undoubtedly of the fourth century, we must, taking into 
account the sober and distinctly Hellenic technic of the relief- work of 
these slabs, assign them also to the fourth century B. c. I have little 
doubt in my mind, that the fact of these Muses, having superficial 
likeness in the arrangement of drapery to some works of the Hellen- 
istic period existing in the Italian museums, has been the efficient cause 
which has led some archaeologists to assign them to the later date. Now 
I merely ask the student to compare these Muses as regards the arrange- 
ment of drapery : first, with the colossal figure of Mausolos and of Arte- 
misia from Halikarnassos, 24 undoubtedly made about the year 350 B. c. 
These statues appear to be the prototypes to many draped figures of 
the Hellenistic period. Secondly, I would compare them with the 
draped female figure on the drum of the column from the Temple of 
Artemis at Ephesos, 25 also a work of about the same period in the 
fourth century. I would further adduce the statue of the Lateran 
Sophokles, 26 probably going back to the same time. Then let us com- 
pare the drapery of the second and third Muses to our left with the 
drapery of the standing female figure on a beautiful large sepulchral 
slab in the National Museum at Athens, here published for the first 
time, and without doubt a work of the fourth century (PL. 11, fig. 1). 
It will be noticed how in the arrangement of himation and chiton, how 
in the folding and even in such details as the cross-band of folds about 
the waist, and the small knot or end of drapery pulled under the end 
of this cross-band, the arrangement is essentially the same. Another 
fourth-century sepulchral relief in the same museum hitherto unpub- 
lished (PL. u, fig. 2) bears the closest analogy, in the treatment of the 
figure and of the drapery, to the slim Muse with the pipes. Finally if 
we compare this figure of the third Muse with the two central female 
figures on the base of the pyrrhic dancers previously referred to, we 
not only must be struck with the close analogy, but we should cer- 
tainly be led to the opinion that these two female figures are in the 

83 Journal of Hellenic Studies, vii (1886), p. 247. 
24 Mrs. MITCHELL, p. 470, etc. Monumenti, v. 18. 

25 KAYET, Monuments Antiques, u. pi. 50. 26 Monumenti dell'Inst., iv. 27. 



treatment of the drapery and the heads slightly later modifications of 
the types as shown in the two Muses to which they bear analogy. But 
by the inscription on this base the work has been assigned to the 
second half of the fourth century B. c. It is thus beyond a doubt 
that the Muses, as here rendered, have their closest analogies in works 
of the age of Praxiteles, and if we add to this the general feeling in 
the attitude, with slight inclination of the head, of the Muse with the 
pipes, and consider the sentiment of all these figures, we cannot but 
appreciate that they are in all their characteristics expressive of Praxi- 
telean art. By this we do not mean that these sculptures are neces- 
sarily by the hand of Praxiteles, but that they contain features which 
point to his influence as it has been manifested to us in the works we 
now assign to him. 

To sum up : At Mantineia reliefs are found representing Muses 
grouped with Apollo and Marsyas with the pipes. These reliefs are 
better suited to decorate the front of the base of a large group of statues 
than to any other function we can think of. From what we know of 
the bases of such temple-statues the dimensions of four such slabs would 
just correspond in extent to appropriate ornament of such character. 
The technical and artistic treatment of the relief, the conception of the 
subject, the grouping of the figures, and the style and feeling of every 
single figure, correspond most with the art of the period of Praxiteles. 
We now read in Pausanias that the base of the temple-statues of Leto, 
Artemis and Apollo was ornamented with a representation of Marsyas 
with the pipes and a Muse. The conclusion seems evident. Is it pro- 
bable that at Mantineia there existed another relief, not an architec- 
tural frieze, nor a balustrade, representing the same subject as that 
described by Pausanias, made without any relation to the same scene 
as represented by the great artist in the same place ? It might be urged 
that the present reliefs are a later copy of the earlier sculptures that 
had been injured or destroyed. Well ! a bad Roman copy it certainly 
is not, and we can see no reason for thus shirking the responsibility of 
assigning to Praxitelean art a work which we have the good fortune 
to possess. Such shirking reminds one of the pleasantry made by a 
maintainer of the personality of Homer : that the Homeric poems 
were not written by Homer but by another man of the same name. 


American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 

January, 1890. 



Of the celebrated treasures from Kourion, discovered by General 
L. P. di Cesnola, a silver patera with a most elaborate design has 
remained unpublished. It measures six inches in diameter across 
the top and an inch and a half in depth, and is so fractured, bent 
and corroded that the design can be made out with great difficulty. 
Wishing to feel sure whether the material were silver throughout or 
merely silver-lined I took the bowl to the chemical laboratory, where 
my friend Dr. McCay examined it and discovered that the entire bowl 
had been transmuted into chloride of silver. This I am told might 
have been caused by the action of the soil in the damp vault, in which 
it had been buried for so many centuries. 1 Having secured the ser- 
vices of a skilful draughtsman, and being present myself to supervise 
his work, I endeavored to obtain a reproduction of the patera, but 
without satisfactory result. The present drawing was secured in the 
following manner. 

I first cleaned the bowl as carefully as possible and brought out the 
design by the use of white lead ; then traced it in separate segments 
with an etching needle on a sheet of gelatine, and afterwards put these 
segments together. This method has the disadvantage of enlarging 
the outer zones, without proportionally enlarging the design. But 
though the figures are placed slightly too far apart, they are other- 
wise more accurate reproductions of the original than is likely to be 
obtained by free-hand drawing. 

The design consists of a central medallion, around which are four 
concentric figured zones. The central medallion, as is frequently the 
case with Cypriote paterae, is occupied not with geometric but with 
figured decoration. Here we recognize the goddess Isis suckling 
Horns in the midst of lotus flowers. The composition is well known 
in Egyptian design and is here borrowed with slight changes in cos- 

1 CESNOLA, Cyprus, ch. xi. 



tume, which give evidence of Assyrian influence. The lotus flowers 
forming almost a circle are drawn in essentially similar style to those 
upon Theban monuments, 2 but we may observe that the closed lotus 
buds between the open flowers have disappeared. This composition 
was well fitted for the central decoration of Phoenician bowls. It is 
found in modified form in green glazed terracotta bowls from near 
Idalion 3 and in a silver bowl from Caere. 4 As it filled nearly the en- 
tire space of the medallion, the exergue is here very small. There 
is no room for a separate composition as in the famous Palestrina 
patera, nor is the space left vacant as in the Louvre patera from Ida- 
lion, 5 but is filled by a single line of reversed lotus flowers. It is 
interesting to find this composition upon a bowl from Palestrina, and 
to note that this is only one of a number of correspondences in de- 
sign between the Palestrina and Cypriote paterae. 6 

The first or smallest zone joins the central medallion so closely as 
to appear to be included within it. But if we examine the design 
carefully we find it separated from the central composition by a 
double-banked lotus border of the same kind as that which separates 
it from the zone above. The nearest analogue we can find to this 
form of lotus border is that which encloses the outermost zone upon 
the silver patera from Amathous, 7 where, if we may trust the draw- 
ing, it appears inverted and has lost almost every trace of its origin. 
Even upon this patera from Kourion it seems to have been traced 
with a careless hand. But its method of construction is interesting. 
It consists of a series of crossed lines, the upward angles of which are 
filled in with radiating lines surmounted by a crown of dots. It is not 
difficult to restore the design. 

The subject within this zone is of a pastoral character. Here is a 
keeper with his horses : some are walking, others grazing ; in one 
case a colt seems to startle its mother, in another the mother horse 

2 WILKINSON, Anc. Egyptians, n, figs. 361, 365, 366. 

8 CESNOLA, Cyprus, p. 102. 

4 PERROT and CHIPIEZ, Hist, de I' Art, in, fig. 553 from GRIFFI, Cere anlica, pis. 


5 Mus. Nap., in, pi. xi ; PERROT and CHIPIEZ, in, fig. 546. 

6 Mon. ined., x, pi. 32. 7 CESNOLA, Cyprus, pi. xix. 


turns fondly around to its suckling colt. No portion of this subject 
is wholly new to us. Horses marching and horses grazing, even the 
cow turning to fondle its sucking calf are familiar subjects, 8 but here 
they are fused into one picture, in harmony with the central theme. 
In the medallion it is a goddess who nourishes her son ; in this pic- 
ture the animal world is brought into sympathetic relation. The 
figured representation is also arranged with reference to the central 
medallion, and is broken into two segments. On one side are found 
the groups of horses and colts, on the other, horses in single file. The 
significance of this zone may be that the individual whom we call the 
hero of the patera was well known as the owner of many horses. The 
second zone is not so easily recovered. Here is represented a series 
of men reclining on couches, a seated woman, two attendants and a 
contest of a man with a lion. What the significance of this zone may 
be is equally puzzling. Is the seated woman, who holds a large object 
(pomegranate ?) in her hand, a goddess ? This seems hardly probable, 
since she occupies such an unimportant position in the picture. Nor 
are the men to be interpreted as gods, since this is not the Phoenician 
method of representing divinities. This is not therefore a Phoenician 
lectisternium in honor of the gods, but a funeral banquet in honor of a 
departed friend. The figure reclining with raised knee is similar in 
subject to the figures upon Etruscan funerary urns and upon rock-cut 
tombs at Myra 9 in Lykia. The group described as a man fighting a 
lion is not perfectly clear in outline and if accepted as such seems to 
admit a disturbing element to the otherwise peaceful theme. There 
seems however to be little doubt that the group has been correctly de- 
scribed, for we find it frequently upon Phoenician gems 10 and sometimes 
the man has the same uplifted knee. 11 Nor was it to the Asiatic mind 
out of harmony with funerary associations, for we find it carved upon 
a Xanthian tomb. 12 Possibly the artist, by this reference to Isdubar 
overcoming the lion, intended to symbolize the courage of the deceased 
or his escape from great danger. From a decorative point of view we 
may observe that the zone is not divided into two contrasting segments, 

8 CESNOLA, Cyprus, p. 329 and on a scarab, ibid., pi. xxvi ; cf. SCHLIEMANN, My- 
kenai, fig. 175. 
9 TEXiER,^ls. Min., m, pis. 224, 225, 230. 

10 CESNOLA, Cyprus, pi. xxxiv, 3, xxxvi, 3. 

11 MENANT, La Glyptique Orienlale, figs. 265, 266. 

12 PERROT and CHIPIEZ, v, fig. 278. 


but appears as a continuous frieze or perhaps as roughly divided 
into three segments, without reference to the division of the zone 
below it. 

The design on the third zone is still more injured, but it seems to 
represent worship and sacrifices. In the position of honor is a man 
upon a couch. Behind him are two attendants with bowls. Approach- 
ing him are three similar figures and a fourth with a stag(?) over his 
shoulder. The lotus plants suggest a ceremonial in honor of the dead, 
which here consisted of offerings of wine and animal sacrifice. To the 
right there seems to be a man seated (?), then a man holding a bowl or 
patera. Before him are two lotus plants, which are not substitutes for 
the Tree of Life, 13 but hold a subordinate position in the composition and 
are as in the preceding composition mere determinatives of funerary 
significance. The object of adoration is almost wholly obliterated. 
It was perhaps a seated figure, behind whom a worshipper appears in 
abject adoration. The next composition seems to consist of a reclin- 
ing and a seated man facing each other before an altar. Then follow 
two worshippers, one in front and one behind, both adoring a seated 
figure. The next group is a longer one. We see here a woman seated 
before an altar. Behind her are two men ; one bears an animal, the 
other holds a staff; in front are two men in adoration. Beyond them 
are a man dragging a refractory donkey and a man carrying a goat. If 
we interpret the seated figure in the preceding zone as a woman and 
not a goddess, the same reasons compel us to see in this individual no 
more important personage than the wife of the man who enjoys the 
position of honor. Adoration will be paid her and sacrifices offered 
in her behalf, even her useful donkey will be compelled to follow her : 
is not this the significance the artist intended to portray ? 

As we have interpreted this zone, no geometrical symmetry is ob- 
served in balancing the successive compositions. The two scenes in 
which the hero and his wife are concerned occupy more than half the 
zone. The remainder consists of three minor compositions, which 
merely echoed the same thought, or honor other members of the hero's 
family. The upper limit of this zone is an ornamental band, which 
presents the appearance of a series of quatrefoils. It was hastily 
engraved, the adjoining horizontal petals frequently, but not always, 
being united. 

13 Cf. Phoenician ivories in LAJARD, Monuments of Nineveh, 1st series, pi. 88. 


The fourth or outermost zone represents the hero and his wife upon 
a couch on wheels starting forth from the town ; in front of them is an 
ordinary chariot, and leading the procession a mounted horseman. The 
object of the excursion is apparently to reach a sacred grove outside the 
city. Here the hero and his wife pay homage to the gods. The re- 
mainder of the zone represents the return of the same party, headed 
by musicians. The town is represented by three towers with interven- 
ing walls. As on the Amathous patera 14 the heads above the wall 
indicate the population behind them. The character of the country 
drive is indicated by the tree outside the town. The couch upon wheels 
is a form of vehicle of unusual occurrence. 15 It is much longer and 
quite different in form from the ordinary war-chariot. It would seem 
to have been used in the present instance as a carriage of a woman of 
rank, but on an Etruscan vase from Orvieto 16 a man is transported upon 
a similar vehicle on the long journey to the lower regions. The grove 
here indicated was perhaps that of Apollo, 17 who had several seats of 
worship in the neighborhood of Kourion. The trees composing the 
grove seem to be the date palm, which was elsewhere associated with 
the worship of Apollo, and as its name (froivit; implies was especially 
valued in Phoenician settlements. 18 The mode of representing the tree 
is essentially Egyptian. 19 Within the grove, the hero's wife appears 
seated before an altar, while he is standing. The religious exercise 
performed, the hero and his wife return to the town. They are met 
and accompanied in their return by a band of musicians. The central 
figure carries the lyre, and we may presume from analogous represen- 
tations on the archaic paterae from Idalion 20 and Kourion 21 that the 
man in front carried a double flute and the man behind a tambourine. 

Our general interpretation of this patera implies that it is a pious 
offering for the soul of a departed one and for his family. The design 
should be read in the light of Egyptian figured design and inscriptions. 
As the inscription upon the libation vase of Osor-ur, 22 so our central 
medallion would address the deceased, " The Resident of the West hath 
established thy person among the sages of the divine lower region ; he 

14 CESNOLA, Cyprus, pi. xix. 15 Ibid., p. 247. 

16 Mon. ined., xi, pis. 4, 5. 17 See ENGEL, Kypros, n, p. 668. 

18 See HEHN, Kulturpflanzen und Hamihiere, pp. 216-228. 

19 Cf. WILKINSON, Ancient Egyptians, I, fig. 151. 

20 CESNOLA, Cyprus, p. 77. 

21 A. J. A., iv, pi. vn. 22 Records of the Past, vol. xn, p. 79. 


giveth stability to thy body among those who repose and causeth thy 
soul not to distance itself from thee. Isis, divine mother, off'ereth thee 
her breast, and thoti hast by her the abundance of life." The suc- 
cessive zones of ornament may be considered, according to Egyptian 
formulas, as prayers that the departed may receive all manner of good 
things. As upon the stele of Iritisen 23 we read an inscribed prayer to 
Osiris that he may give a " funereal meal of bread and liquor, thousands 
of loaves, liquors, oxen, geese, all good and pure things, to the pious 
Iritisen and to his pious wife Hapu, who loves him," so here we read 
similar prayers for the hero and his wife. And upon the final zone 
we seem to read praises of the piety of the hero similar to the inscrip- 
tion of Iritisen, " I know the mystery of the divine Word, the ordi- 
nances of the religious feasts, every rite of which they are fraught, I 
never strayed from them." 

Princeton University. 

23 Records of the Past, vol. x, p. 3. 



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-* -^^ 'is.l-^ 

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With the exception of the tablinum, which from its position and 
shape can easily be recognized in any Roman house, it is somewhat 
difficult to ascertain the use of the various chambers that have been 
excavated. In general, three groups have been distinguished : the 
family apartments, the chambers or sleeping-rooms of the servants, and 
the cells for domestic purposes. These three classes are easily to be 
recognized in this house, but it would not be possible, without indulg- 
ing in useless conjectures, to attempt a detailed specification in each one. 
To the first class belong the eight large rooms behind the peristyle ; to 
the second, several rooms on the lower floor near the atria and many of 
those on the two stories above. 

The luxurious life of the great families in Rome required nothing 
less than an army of slaves. The interni who worked within the house, 
and the externi who worked without ; the ordinarii who exercised the 
office of superintendence, and the vulgares whose offices were the most 
menial, 1 such as the ostiarius, 2 the cubicularius, 3 the structor* the lectica- 
rius, 5 the focariusf the pincerna, 7 the promusf and a hundred others. 9 
All these were lodged within the palace. The wealthy learned, from 
Christian charity, to moderate the abuses of the system : still, they re- 
tained a large body of slaves. This fact alone can explain the size of 
the apartments for the domestics placed on all three of the stories in 
the house of the Coelian. Such are, on the lower story, sundry cham- 
bers near the atrium and the crypts, several of which I have explored 

* Continued from Vol. VI, page 285. 

1 ULPIANTJS, Digest. XLVII. 10, 15 r ; ibid., 14, 4, 5. 

2 PETRONIUS, Satir., 29. 3 CICERO, Verr. ir., 3, 4. 

4 PETRONIUS, op. cit., 35. 5 CICERO, Epist.fam., iv. 12. 

6 ULPIANUS, op. cit., iv. 9, 1. 7 AscoNius, In Verr. n., 1, 26. 

8 PLAUTUS, Pseud., n., 2, 14 (608). 9 COLUMELLA, i. 9. 3 ; u. 13. 17. 



but not cleared. Their height, as in general that of all the cells on 
the east side, being much less than elsewhere, the floor above them 
was not entirely destroyed when the basilica was erected. Over a space 
corresponding to one quarter of the area of the basilica toward the 
porch, a suite of chambers of various forms and sizes remain on this 
floor ; but all are rude and plain, so that I have not been tempted to 
clear them. If I am not mistaken, this was the main portion of the 
apartment of the slaves, which, Cicero informs us (Phil, n., 27), con- 
sisted of many small cells placed in a row and called more properly 

, Nothing can be said of the stories that rose above the parte nobile or 
Aristocratic section of the lower story, as they have been completely 
destroyed with the sole exception of the fa9ade including the windows. 

I shall pass to a description of the crypts and cells already mentioned, 
such as formed an important part of the Roman houses. The crypts 
were long and narrow galleries on the lower floor, closed on both sides 
and built either on the edge of a garden or along the wings of a portico 
or around any other part of the building. They served for pleasant 
strolls and meetings under cover in the warm hours of the day, 10 or for 
the storing of grains, fruits, and other articles that needed protection 
from atmospheric changes. 11 When these galleries are annexed to an 
atrium or peristyle, they are termed cryptoportieus : such a one is placed 
in our house on the side of the inner court that is in front of the tablinum 
and its neighboring rooms. For us, this is the most venerated part of 
the building, because here the two saintly owners were killed for the 
faith and buried by the soldiers of Terentianus. The half of its length 
which has been hitherto explored measures ten metres ; and its width is 
about one metre and a half, at least from the tablinum onward, where 
the main staircase of the house is placed. The floor of this crypt, which 
is paved with polygons of lava, is on a somewhat lower level, as already 
noted. Its rude vault is a tunnel-vault modified by some lunettes. It 
is divided into two compartments through the construction of the 
staircase within it. At right angles to this runs a second crypt of equal 
width and at least nine metres long : both are without windows and 
were lighted by some doors which opened, apparently, upon the court. 

10 MURATORI, InscripL, p. 481 ; KEINESIUS, Syntagm. InscripL, n. 28 ; SPARTIANUS, 
Hadr. 10. 

II VITRUVIUS, vi. 5. 2 ; VARRO, De re Rust., i. 57. 


Through other passages, access was had to various contiguous cells 
whose use should be here explained. 

The cetta of a Roman house, speaking generally, is a storeroom for 
oil, wine, and such things : hence the epithets olearia, vinaria, etc. 12 
These liquids were kept in vases usually of earthenware (dolia, am- 
phorae, seriae), which were placed in rows against the walls or stuck 
in a bed of sand. 13 As such a method of keeping wine required a 
great amount of room and consequently many cettae, in the house of 
SS. John and Paul an entire wing on the ground-floor to the east 
is occupied by these cellars. They are at present reached from the 
point where the two described above meet, and they extend on every 
side in a network of small unadorned chambers communicating by 
vaulted passages of varying forms and sizes. None of them are paved, 
the floor being covered with a layer of sand, doliis defossis. In one of 
them is a square well with its parapet, orputeal, nearly as high as the 
vault, with the usual holes in the inner walls for the purpose of de- 
scending to draw water. It became necessary to raise the parapet to 
this height by means of an additional section, at the time that the 
level of the floor was raised by the bed of sand in order to turn it 
into a cellar. The vault of this room is quite black with smoke. The 
hearth orfoeus (Cic., DeSen., 16) was here found, in pieces, under the 
rubbish, and it still contained the charcoal reduced to powder. On 
one of the walls is a pipe for hot water ; that is, a large terracotta 
pipe placed within a rectangular shaft left in the wall, the pipe reap- 
pearing in the upper story on the opposite side of the wall. A similar 
conduit was found in the thickness of the vault of the neighboring cel- 
lar, but it had been deemed necessary to close it for reasons of solidity. 
A third conduit exists in the following chamber. High on the wall, 
opposite the door of the first of these chambers, is a small stone reser- 
voir encased in the wall, from which it is separated by plates of lead 
to keep the dampness from the walls. This basin has a mouth for 
discharging the water. Here and on the floor above may have been 
the torcularium u for pressing the grapes, unless it be preferable to re- 
gard this whole region as serving in the beginning for bathing purposes, 
before it was turned into cellars. This cannot be determined until all 

12 VAKRO,Z>ere.Rus<.,i.lO,13; i.ll,12; COLUMELLA, xii. 18, 3, 4; i,6,9; CICERO, 
De Senect., 16. 

13 PLINITJS, Hist. Nat., xiv. 27 ; COLUMELLA, xn. 18. 5. 

14 COLUMELLA, xn. 18. 3 ; VITRUVIUS, vi. 6. 3. 


the surrounding chambers are cleared on both stories. In a fourth 
room, the entire space between the two walls is occupied by another 
reservoir, made of bricks and cement, which rises thirty centimetres 
above the floor level and is coated, on the inside, with a good plaster- 
ing of ground potsherds. In this room I have stuck in the sand-bed 
some of the many amphorae found in the whole row of cellars in order 
to give an example of the arrangement of a Roman wine-cellar. In 
1789, there was found under the walls of Rome one of these wine- 
cellars divided into three compartments whose plan and description 
are given in Rich's Dictionary (art. cella). In many ways, this cellar 
on the Coelian resembles it, as it does those that are being excavated 
at Pompeii. At the entrance to the same chamber was found a 
dolium walled with mortar into an angle of the wall, but with its upper 
part broken off. These few words are all that can be said, as the exca- 
vation of this part is hardly begun. 

In the same zone of cellars, toward the inner court, there opens a 
passage 90 cent, wide and about two metres long which leads, by a 
staircase that is not yet cleared, to a lower story. This is composed 
of a long series of very small chambers, some of which extend under 
the floor of the peristyle. Taken in relation to the interior of the 
house, they are subterranean, but they are not so where they are con- 
nected with the exterior, on the opposite .side, where the hill falls off 
very rapidly toward the street. Only two or three have been cleared 
near the graves in the new chapel of S. Paolo della Croce, which were, 
indeed, rooms on the same story. The first is a sort of narrow vesti- 
bule, with a tunnel-vault, whence some light was introduced, through 
two windows, into a spacious square hall with a hemicycle in the end 
wall. Its vault is a vela: that of the hemicycle is a semi-dome. In 
the opposite wall is a large arched opening similar to that of the 
apse, which communicates by means of a long narrow passage with 
the neighboring rooms, whose number I have not yet been able to 

Here was the balineum of the house, as that part of the large Roman 
house was termed which served for baths. 15 Such private bathing estab- 
lishments could be indulged in only by the wealthiest families. They 
had the same general divisions and arrangements as the public baths : 
the apodyterium, for undressing and dressing ; the frigidarium or bap- 
tisterium, for cold baths ; the calidarium, for hot baths ; the tepidarium, 

13 VARRO, Ling, lat., ix. 68. 


for resting in a moderate temperature after the bath ; the hypocausis 
or subterranean furnace, from which pipes of metal or terracotta car- 
ried the hot water through the establishment. At the end of this room 
was a semicircular alcove named laconicum, which contained a reservoir 
for the warm bath called alveus or an isolated basin, solium or labrum 
for sprinkling. 

The thermal hall had the pavement commonly called suspensura, 16 
so named because it is raised from the ground on parallel rows of piers, 
two feet high, made of square bricks cemented with clay mixed with 
chopped hair. On these piers there rested terracotta slabs covered 
with a layer of astraco, above which were slabs of white marble deco- 
rated with mosaic. The empty space below formed the hypocausis or 
fornax, the furnace already mentioned. 

Such is the arrangement in the rooms of our Coelian house. The 
hemicycle of the laconicum is opened in the left-hand wall, and is of 
the same size as the alveus or bathing-tub it contains, which is in the 
form of a segment of a circle with a uniform depth of seventy centi- 
metres. On one side was a small marble projection or gradus which 
served as a seat. On the right wall there is the mouth of a terracotta 
circular pipe with a diameter of fifteen centimetres. A parapet rising 
one metre from the pavement hides the bathing-place, leaving only a 
narrow passage descending to it. This parape' is called by Vitruvius 
the pluteus. The interior of both alveus and la:onicum was lined with 
marble slabs, as can be seen from the impressions on the mortar. 

Only a part of the raised pavement of the thermal hall has been 
preserved, and this is covered with very fine white and black mosaic. 
In the destroyed section some of the supporting piers remain : they are 
sixty centimeters high ; the slabs they support are five cent, thick ; the 
astraco on top of them, in which the mosaic is set, twenty cent, thick. 
The interior of the hypocausis is entirely covered with slabs of terra- 
cotta, still black with smoke. I have not been able to find the prae- 
furnium or mouth of the furnace whence the. flames passed to pervade 
the sub-pavement already mentioned. The heated air passed through 
a terracotta pipe twenty cent, in diameter, still black with smoke : traces 
of it remain in one of the four corners of the hall by the wall. The 
pipes that carried the hot air about the hall to raise its temperature 
have been so displaced that their arrangement is uncertain. All of 
the many found here were of the usual rectangular form and thirty-six 

16 VITRUVIUS, v. 10 ; PALLADIO, i. 40. 


centimetres long. The labrum, opposite the laconicum, is a heavy cir- 
cular terracotta basin over a metre in diameter. 

The walls, vaults, and arches of all the above rooms and of those 
near them, which I explored but did not clear, are covered with good 
stucco partly fallen. No traces of paintings are visible upon any of 
them. The simplicity of these bathing-apartments, so different from 
the luxuriousness of many others, may be owing to the fact that the 
owners were Christians. Their present obscurity, however, is caused 
by the construction of the basilica whose wall cut of all communication 
with the exterior. Besides, there are remains of other baths of greater 
importance. At a short distance from those just described and on the 
same floor, at the point where fifty years ago the new sacristy of the 
basilica was built, a large thermal hall was discovered but covered in 
again. From contemporary descriptions, this would seem to have 
resembled in form and structure the finest Pompeian hypocausta. Its 
raised pavements was covered, not with mosaic but with thin slabs of 
white marble, while the hypocausis beneath had a mosaic floor. There 
were marble incrustations and other rich decorations upon the walls 
of the main hall : these were admired at the time of the discovery though 
injured by the water that stood over the great part of the surface. 
Other neighboring halls decorated with mosaics and paintings were 
hardly seen, and they suffered the same fate, being first injured and 
then buried. I cannot determine whether this more splendid balineum 
was built when the simpler one was abandoned, or whether the two 
were contemporary. On the plan it has been possible to note only the 
first, as the second could not be examined or measured. 

Another distinct part of the Roman house was often the oecus, a 
hall or a court closed and usually entirely covered by a roof or ceil- 
ing, which served as a place of recreation, for receptions, and for 
banquets. Its size, form, and situation distinguish it readily from 
all other parts of the house. Such a hall seems to have existed in 
this house, at least up to the fourth century. It is a spacious hall at 
present outside the perimeter of the basilica, though a part of it is 
underneath its apse. It is ten metres wide and of a length equal to 
the side of the house on the Clivus Seauri at the peristyle. Its 
construction is of a different period from that of the neighboring 
rooms. It appears to me to be much earlier, to judge by the quality 
of the cortina of inner walls, which is of excellent reticulated work. 
Next to it the later chambers were added, an interval of about a 


centimetre being left between the walls. At no point did I find any 
indications of vaults, which would certainly have been visible as the 
wall still rises about six metres from the pavement. Hence it is to 
be inferred that the covering was either a gable-roof or a ceiling with 
a loggia above it : this is made probable by the traces, at that point, 
of remains of windows opening on to the street, though the part of 
the old wall that faced this street is now in great part destroyed. 
Here was probably one of those terraces called solaria, a fine exam- 
ple of which was found in a house at Herculaneum. The oeeus must 
have been entered on the side of the peristyle as there is no door lead- 
ing into the apartments. The many fragments of marble slabs, bases 
of columns, carvings, and basreliefs, painted stuccoes which I found 
here prove the original splendor of this hall. It could have been 
more completely reconstructed had not the constructions of the basilica 
extended into it. That this ceased to be the oecus of the house in about 
the fourth century is shown by three transversal walls then constructed, 
of which only that portion remains which is within the perimeter of the 
basilica. Their construction in tufa with occasional courses of brick, 
and their discord with the plan of the building, show them to be the 
work of a late period. 


All the walls and vaults of the appartmento nobile, the rooms, pas- 
sageways, and the wings of the atrium were covered with paintings. 
Like the walls, these paintings are of various dates, some belonging to 
the third or even second century, while others date from the fourth, or 
from both periods through restorations. Eleven only of the rooms 
hitherto discovered have preserved to a greater or lesser degree their 
stucco and paintings. The earliest and artistically the most important 
are those in a room placed under the high altar of the basilica. The 
lower part of its four walls was covered, up to a height of two metres, 
with slabs of white marble, traces of which still remain. The entire 
surface above this is decorated with encaustic paintings of great rich- 
ness and beauty. On a white background and standing on a green- 
sward are life-size genii, placed at regular intervals in front view 
(PLS. IV VI). They are not entirely nude, as was the custom in 
pagan Roman art, though they might be so considered from a casual 
glance; but. they wear a close-fitting seamless garment which would 
be invisible were not its edges apparent at the neck, the wrists, and 


the feet. The arms are gracefully extended and bent as if in rhythmic 
dance, and with both hands they hold up the chlamys juvenilis that 
hangs quite open behind them from shoulder to knee. Behind these 
figures is a rich wreath of many-colored flowers, forming a festoon be- 
tween each figure, and extending around the entire room after the 
fashion of the so-called epKapira. There are ten genii, four on each 
of the side-walls and two beside the door leading into the adjoining 
room : the two that were opposite them on the other wall are now 
hidden behind the main wall *>f the basilica which here interposes. 
At the feet of the genii, among trees and flowering plants, are various 
kinds of large birds of brilliant hues peacocks, ducks, ostriches 
while others are flying through the air. Such representations of 
genii of both sexes with flowers and birds are frequent in Roman paint- 
ings, but I am not aware of any like this, in which the figures are 
life-size and form the entire decoration of the walls. The vault of 
this room is painted in similar style. A dark band, ten centimetres 
wide, separates its decoration from that of the walls. The scene is the 
gathering of the grapes by small genii holding baskets in their hands 
or under their arms and running from vine to vine gathering the grapes 
with a charming vivacity of motion and of pose, while birds flit among 
the dense foliage. A similar scene is painted in a well-known ceiling 
of the catacomb of Domitilla, dating from about the same time and 
differing only in greater accuracy of design and better preservation. 
For, in this vault of the Coelian house, the artist has aimed more at 
general effect than at delicacy of details, and the entire upper part of 
the subject has perished through the falling of the plaster from the 
ruined vault ; but from the remaining fragments it is evident that the 
scene was there continued in the same manner as in the catacomb of 
Domitilla. I have termed the figures genii to distinguish these tutelary 
angels of men from those that guarded the female sex, called junones : 
but they may be more reasonably considered as erotes. Their presence 
in a Christian house is easily explained. They are more than a century 
earlier than the Christian owners, who, when they came into possession, 
saw no reason to efface them. Comm. De Rossi has called renewed 
attention, in connection with this special instance, to the fact that, up to 
the time of Constantine, the Christian artists, brought up in the classic 
school, preserved, quite frankly, its entire system of decoration, varying 
it to suit their taste. Whatever original position such figures as these 
may have held in classic mythology, their religious significance had 


been quite lost in their decorative use. Tertullian himself, notwith- 
standing his Montanistic severity, distinguished between the images pro- 
hibited by the Mosaic law, idolatriae causa, and those to which either 
idolatriae titulum non pertinebat or else were simplex ornamentum. 17 
This is confirmed in the recently discovered Arabic version of the 
Apostolic Constitutions published under the name of Hippolytus. In 
Canon xi reference is made to Christian architects, sculptors, and painters 
of secular works. Excommunication is launched against all who execute 
idolatrous figures, while they are allowed to exercise their art in mat- 
ters that pertain to common life : si quis artifex eiusmodi rem (idolum 
vel aliquam figuram idolatricam) confecerit, exceptis Us rebus, quae ad 
usum hominum pertinent, excommunicetur donee poenitentiam agat. ls In 
what precise manner this distinction was understood and carried out, 
during the third and fourth centuries, is shown by the Acts of the 88. 
Quattro Coronati, a document whose importance is recognized by the 
best critics. 19 These four artists, who were secretly Christians, executed 
at gentile request some conchas sigillis ornatas with images of Victory 
and of Cupid and even with a simulacrum solis cum quadriga. But, 
on being requested to execute an Asclepius, they obstinately refused 
Asclepii simulacrum nonfecerunt and this refusal was the cause of their 
death. 20 In a similar way can we explain the many mythological scenes 
that are seen at every step in the Christian catacombs, and at first excite 
astonishment. 21 Just as these four Christian sculptors were willing to 
carve Victories and Cupids on fountains, and as so many other Christ- 
ians could without scruple have in their houses, for purely decorative 
purposes, objects decorated with pagan figures, so also could the saints 
John and Paul find no objection to the erotes decorating one of the 
rooms of their paternal home. 

Adjoining the room just described are two others to which belongs 
the second of the six doors on the Clivus Scauri, ascending the hill. 
Their paintings are in a different style. In the first, the stucco on 
the walls had fallen at an early period and was replaced at the time 

17 TERTULLIANUS, Advers. Mar don., u. 22 ; DE Eossi, Roma sott., n, 351. 

18 HAMBERG, Canones S. Hippolyti arabici, p. 69; DE Rossi, op. cit., in, 538. 

19 WATTENBACH, Unlersuchungen zur Rom. Kaisergeschichte, in, 324; DE Rossi, Bullet- 
lino, 1879, pp. 45-79. 

Mittheil. der central. Comm., Wien, 1872, p. XLVIII; DE Rossi, loc. cit. 

n - E. Q. VISCONTI, Opere Varie, i, 216 ; GARRUCCI, Vetri, tav. xxxv. 1, 8. ed. 2 ; DE 
Rossi, op. cit., Bullettino, loc. cit. ; RICHEMONT DBS BASSAYES, Nouvelles etudes sur les 
Catacombes romaines, Paris, 1870, p. 446. 



of the saintly owners by another of inferior quality, which remained 
nnpainted. The ancient painting of the vault was still intact at the 
time of the ruin of the house : but it now remains only in one corner 
of the room. The decoration consists of panels of imitation yellow 
marble encircled with red bands : the same design recurs at the end 
in the semicircular space formed by the vault; so that it would appear 
as if the entire room were decorated in this manner. A brick bench, 
raised against one of the walls before they were covered with the new 
stucco, has been the means of preserving a part of the ancient decora- 
tion, which is here of imitation red marble. The bench may have 
served as a lectulus or a reading and writing bench. It was destroyed 
by the workmen before I could save it. The room which follows, on 
the same axis, has a painted decoration which is still preserved on three 
sides. Its paintings belong to two periods, the third and the fourth 
centuries. The former occupy the upper part along a width of one 
metre and a half, the latter are below them. It would be more exact 
to say that these lower paintings are a restoration, as they are super- 
posed over earlier ones that have not been effaced but only covered 
up with tempera colors. This may have been done with a purpose 
and not because the earlier fresco was injured, for that part of it which 
still remains is in good condition. In the judgment of Comm. De 
Rossi, it is probable that the reason for hiding them was that the 
scenes represented were too free or too pagan. That these scenes 
contained figures is made evident by the part of them which was not 
covered : besides, in certain lights, it is possible to obtain glimpses 
here and there of images which the second coat of coloring did not 
wholly hide. Of these frescoes, the frieze that encircled the room 
under the vault still exists in part, as well as part of the decoration 
of the lunette, which contains panels in white with red and black 
bands and frame, and, in the centre, a bunch of flowers and some 
figures which faded away during the excavation as the stucco beneath 
had been strongly affected by nitre. Where the frieze is untouched, 
it consists of large volutes and acanthus leaves, and in the parts re- 
stored in the fourth century are fishes and birds in the midst of a 
commonplace wreath of leaves. In the latter design the different 
style and coloring and the excessive rudeness, and the presence of 
fresco-work underneath are sufficient to prove that this is the work 
of a later hand. This is still more evident in the lower part of the 
decoration, two metres in height, which consists of the fa9ade of a 


building to which are adapted, with bad taste, certain geometric 
figures surrounded by many-colored bands or by imitation yellow 
marble. The backgrounds are either of pale white, or of red, which 
is the prevailing color in the entire decoration. The wretched tech- 
nique of all these colors of the second coat is such that from day to 
day they are becoming ruined. When discovered they were fresh and 
clear, but after the earth which protected them had been removed the 
salt nitrates began to alter them to such a degree that but little is 
now visible. 

Far more important are the paintings of the tablinum, which, in a 
Roman house, always received the richest decoration. Of all the 
rooms thus far discovered in this house it is the only one that pre- 
serves its frescoes on all four walls and on the vault, and, what is 
still better, preserves them in good condition. This is owing partly 
to the excellence of the materials, partly to the careful execution in 
fresco without any use of wax. Below are some architectural fayades, 
as in the preceding room, which being far inferior may have been copied 
from these in the tablinum. For here the lines are more regular, the 
drawing more accurate, the colors red, yellow, green and violet are 
in better taste and arrangement. The imaginary building is crowned 
by small gables placed within a band which imitates the opus isodo- 
mum, made of cubes of yellow marble with red veinings. Above this 
band, which encircles the entire room, is a frieze of such richness, 
beauty, and grace as to place it on an equality with the best Pom- 
peian decoration. It is made of the Corinthian acanthus, which 
starting from a heavily tufted plant placed in the centre, spreads 
luxuriantly in full volutes on either side until it reaches the next 
wall, upon which a corresponding decoration has been carried out. 
Its dark green color stands out strongly on a white ground which 
contrasts well with the yellow of the lower band and the red of the 
cornice. Above the frieze is another continuous line of decoration 
underneath the tunnel-vault. Its execution is so good and full of 
life that, were it not in fresco and on the same stucco, we should be 
tempted to believe it earlier by a century than the rest. At all events, 
it is by another hand than that which decorated the walls ; by the hand 
of an artist accustomed to design figures, not an artisan confined to 
tracing outlines and coloring grounds. It is all the more unfortunate 
that here, as in the three preceding rooms, the upper part of the vault 
is destroyed, so that of this fine painting only the lower edges remain 


to a height of about a metre and a half. The design is a broad ellipse 
with a white ground edged by six concentric bands red, yellow, green, 
and blue. Similar but narrower bands radiating from the centre to 
the circumference divide this field into eight triangular compartments, 
which give to the entire composition the aspect of a wheel. These com- 
partments are filled with figures of Christian art of rare interest, which 
will be described in the next chapter. The space that remains between 
the edge of the ellipse and the frieze on the walls is also subdivided by 
similar bands into compartments which contain not figures but rich 
foliage on a white ground, except that at the four corners there are 
scenic masks similar to those so often found in ancient and even 
early-Christian decoration. In a lunette of the vault are hippocamps 
hanging like lamps from a chain. This fabulous animal, half-fish, 
half-horse, destined to draw the car of Neptune and the Tritons, is a 
frequent decorative motive, sometimes in the Catacombs. 

Next to the tablinum is, on one side, the cryptoporticus of the atrium, 
and, on the other, a small chamber or rather passage that leads to the 
secondary vestibule of the house along the side of the Cllvus Scauri. 
Both have good paintings. Those of the passageway reproduce mar- 
bles of pale yellow with red veinings divided into regular compart- 
ments by red bands which imitate the outlines of squared building 
blocks. The adjoining passage, which leads into the other row of 
rooms is painted in the same manner. The vault, which in these 
narrow passageways is much higher than elsewhere has been almost 
entirely destroyed. Only a strip about one metre high remains con- 
taining small figures of animals or of winged genii orjunones bearing 
wreaths of flowers. The wing of the atrium or peristyle, in so far as 
it has been uncovered, along a length of several metres has two dif- 
ferent styles of decoration. On the right of the main door of the 
tablinum where the staircase is which leads to the floor above, is 
painted a viridarium enclosed by a cane railing over which there 
climb plants with leaves and flowers. The workmanship is some- 
what rude and the tempera colors have become so pale that the design 
is hardly perceptible. The border (zoccolo), on the contrary, which 
rises a metre from the line of steps, is frescoed in red, and is of fine 
stucco that shines like marble. The paintings on the right of the door 
consist of the usual geometric patterns on backgrounds of varied colors, 
framed with good taste. They rise to a height of four metres, and 
their colors are applied in encaustic over others of an earlier date that 


were in fresco, in the same way as was done in another room, men- 
tioned above. In scraping these more recent colors, was discovered 
an unusual subject, which will be described in the next chapter. 

The three rooms that were formed within the oeeus of the house 
were also painted, but the work undertaken at this point in the fifth 
century in order to construct the apse of the basilica led to their de- 
struction. Some wide strips remain at two points. In the middle 
room are some large frames of good style in which red predominates : 
above are traces of compositions with figurines in the centre and noth- 
ing more. In the next room, which is not yet accessible, are the usual 
imitation marbles divided into rectangles by red lines to imitate squared 
building-blocks. The execution is far superior to that of all the other 
rooms in which a similar style of decoration was used. I have already 
mentioned still another large room, which in the course of time came 
to be used as a wine-vault. Its tunnel vault is entirely painted, but 
the colors are so faded and ruined that it is only by moistening them 
that a faint idea of their design can be ascertained. Delicate and 
brilliantly colored lines divided the vault into compartments of various 
sizes and shapes upon whose white background were painted decora- 
tions and flowers. 

Another small room in the vestibule that opens on the Clivus 
Scauri was transformed in the Middle Ages into an oratory and 
adorned with paintings which will be described later. On this occa- 
sion, all the old painted stucco of the walls was not destroyed, but 
was left under the new coat wherever it did not interfere with the 
restoration. In the little that remains there appears the same bril- 
liant red used on the border of the staircase, just described : the cryp- 
toporticus, also, has a similar border surrounding it at quite a distance 
from the ground. 


Convent of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. 
July, 1890. 





The tombs of the Popes that remain from the Middle Ages in fair 
preservation are few. Two such monuments, not hitherto carefully 
described or illustrated, exist in the church of San Francesco at Vi- 
terbo : l they are the tombs of Hadrian V and Clement IV, the former 
intact, the latter partly ruined ; both dating from the xm century. 


At the time of my first visit to Viterbo, in June 1887, the monu- 
ment of Hadrian V had been undergoing a considerable repair under 
the supervision of Professor Giuseppe Rossi. The church in which 
it stands was originally called Santf Angelo in Castello and was con- 
secrated in 1160 by Alexander III. It was given in 1237 to the 
Minorites, who rebuilt the church, calling it San Francesco. The 
building has been almost completely restored, and only the choir and 
transept remain in the Gothic style of that period. When intact, it 
must have been a fine example of early Italian Gothic, built shortly 
after the parent church at Assisi. In the left wall of the choir is the 
tomb of Cardinal Marco da Viterbo (d. 1369), a superb piece of sculp- 
ture of the close of the xiv century. It bears the inscription : FRATER 
JVLIANVS FECIT FIERI HOC opvs. This Julianus was General of the 

* A preliminary note was published in vol. v of the JOURNAL, pp. 187-8. 

1 They have since been noticed by two writers : F. CRISTOFORI, Le tombe dei Papi 
in Viterbo e le chiese di S. Maria in Gradi di S. Francesco e di S. Lorenzo. Memorie e 
documents : Siena, 1887; and G. Eossi in a pamphlet issued in support of bis pro- 
posed restoration of the tomb of Clement IV. Neither of these writers covers the 
ground of this article. Cristofori is familiar with the documents relating to the his- 
tory of the monuments, and in this respect his work is of value, though hardly exact 
in its transcriptions. Both writers hardly appear to be acquainted with the related 
works of the Eoman school or with the artistic bearing of the tombs in connection 
with the history of Italian art. 






Franciscans and a friend and pupil of Marco. The canopy, the two 
angels holding back the curtains, the reclining figure of the cardinal, 
and the base on which it lies, belong to the xiv century : the lower 
part was added probably during the xvn century. Of two other 
monuments, one has disappeared that of Cardinal Vicedomini (d. 
1276), whose later tomb was thought to be in the same style as that 
of Pope John XXI, 2 i. e., late-Renaissance work and the other, 
that of Cardinal Landriano of Milan (d. 1445), is in a fine Gothic 
style that shows it to be earlier than the time of his death. 3 Viterbo 
originally contained the tombs of four mediaeval popes executed at the 
time of that interesting early revival in art which preceded the Renais- 
sance. These were the tombs of Alexander IV (1254-61), Clement 
IV (1265-68), Hadrian V (1276), and John XXI (1276-77): of 
these only two remain, and both of them now stand in the church of 
San Francesco. 

The mausoleum of Hadrian V is in that style of art where the 
greater part of the decoration is composed of geometric designs exe- 
cuted in small marble-mosaic cubes of various colors. This kind of 
work is mainly associated with a large group of Roman artists who 
practised it invariably during a period of nearly two centuries, from 
the middle of the xn to the middle of the xiv century. It is termed 
" Cosmati " work, from the name of some of these artists. Hadrian's 
tomb stands, in my opinion, in the front rank of the monuments of 
this beautiful style. It was executed after 1276, when the Roman 
schools of art had reached their highest grade of excellence, but the 
name of the artist is unknown. It rises to a height of nearly 22 feet, 
in three symmetrical divisions : a solid basement ; the sarcophagus 
on which reclines the figure ; and the canopy, whose columns rest on 
the basement. Its type is an earlier one than that which became so 
popular during the last years of the century, not only with the Pisan 
school headed by Arnolfo and Giovanni but with the Roman school 
itself headed by Giovanni Cosmati. In this later type, the form of 

'PAPEBROCH (Gonatoa ad Calal. Rom. Pontif., pt. n, p. 58) as quoted by Cristofori 
(op. cil. pp. 186-7), says of the monument as it existed at the close of the xvii cen- 
tury : Idem qui monumentum Joannis XXI delineavit etfabricavit artifex, hoc verosimiliter 
saeculo, etiam hujus Vicedomini cenotaphium simili forma extruxit et literis similiter ele- 
gantiam modernam spirantibus insculpsit epitaphium, stlli etiam recentioris, ubi, etc. 

3 The tomb of Cardinal Landriano has been described by Professor OJETTI in the 
Mostra della Ciltd di Roma alia Esposizione di Torino nelf anno 1884. A water-color 
drawing of it was exhibited at Turin. 


the canopy is changed, two curtains are hung, on either side, and each 
is drawn back by an angel, disclosing the reclining figure of the de- 
ceased. Unless the priority be given to the tomb of Hecuba of Cyprus 
in San Francesco at Assisi, said to have been executed about 1240, the 
earliest example of this type seems to be the noble monument of Car- 
dinal de Braye, at Orvieto, executed by Arnolfo shortly after 1280 
and only a few years after this mausoleum of Hadrian IV, which it 
does not equal in general beauty though surpassing it in the excellence 
of its sculpture. And in this connection it may be well to call atten- 
tion to the fact that, in the decorative part of his monument, Arnolfo 
undoubtedly copied the Roman school, whose works were already 
scattered throughout the Papal States, and at Orvieto itself where he 
worked. This fact confirms the opinion that the Pisan Arnolfo is the 
same as he whose name appears, with the date 1285, on the beautiful 
tabernacle of San Paolo at Rome. 

Papebroch saw Hadrian's monument some time before it was re- 
stored in 1715, and his description is therefore of interest. He says 
(op. cit.j pt. 11, p. 58) : Marmorea tabula in qua sculptum est epitaphium, 
e sub thiara clavibusque papalibus continet insignia gentis Fliscae. Est 
autem mausolceum ei quod Clementis IV detinet corpus par, mognitudi- 
nis et altitudinis ejusdem, ubi jaeet marmoreus pontifex, cappam et plu- 
vialem indutus, cujus fibula rotundo ac radioso monili praetexta agnum 
Dei continet, in utraque vero ejusdem pluvialis ora representatur, tan-, 
quam Phrigionico opere hinc digitum intendens Joannes Baptista, cum 
his supra caput verbis } ECCE AGNVS DEI, inde Deipara Virgo cum hisce 
litteris, EN MATER. Is qui recenter mausolceum hoc repoliri fecit in 
vacante supra papalia insignia pariete, colore rubro pingi jussit titu- 
lum in cujus fundo albo, litteris nigris, hoc novi styli epitaphium legitur : 


DONATVR. epitaphium istud legitur liter is veteribus ac semilatinis tres 
lineas implentibus. 

Either Papebroch had a very singular idea of epigraphic accuracy, 
or, as is probable, the inscription which he reports, belonged to a 
restoration earlier than that of 1715, and disappeared at that date. 
Papebroch gives a very inaccurate drawing, which is reproduced by 
Cristofori, who seems to base upon it, rather than upon the monu- 
ment itself, the few remarks that he makes upon its form and details : 
such, for example, as describing the main arch as round instead of 


pointed, and speaking of four twisted colonnettes instead of two. Both 
of these errors were made in Papebroch's drawing. 

The basement consists of two parts. Next to the pavement is a 
plain and widely projecting marble plinth, 72 cent, in height, with 
double row of mouldings and restored decoration ; then the body of 
the basement, decorated with circles and other geometric patterns and 
surmounted by a cornice, with a total height of one metre. The en- 
tire basement measures 1.72 met. On its projecting angles rest two 
spiral columns, 2.68 met. high, supporting a canopy formed of a tre- 
foil pointed arch surmounted by a gable, which rises to a height of 
about 1.85 met. above the columns. The columns have foliated capi- 
tals of free Gothic style, reminding of the later work at Orvieto cathe- 
dral, and are inlaid with mosaic-work of extreme beauty and delicacy. 
Within this canopy is placed the sarcophagus, a solid rectangle sur- 
mounted by a gable roof with pentagonal edge, and surrounded by a 
projecting cornice which is supported on the front and sides by well 
detached spiral colonnettes one on either corner, and two in the centre 
of the front, which is thus divided into three compartments, in each of 
which a porphyry slab is surrounded by a decorative design in glass- 
mosaic. In all the so-called " Cosmati " mosaic- work, great taste is 
shown in the combination of forms and colors, and in this monu- 
ment a perfection is reached which I do not remember to have seen 
surpassed. 4 

On the wall of the church, within the canopy and over the figure, 
are two inscriptions : the first is the original epitaph, the second 
records a restoration in 1715. The first reads : me REQ CORP s 


will reproduce only the last lines, according to which it would appear 
that the monument had fallen to ruin at the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, and was restored at the expense of the Fieschi family of Genoa, 
to which Pope Hadrian belonged. HADRIANVS v PONT MAX j 


4 Professor Rossi, the restorer of the monument, has spent months in preparing 
some good colored plates of the monument, especially of the details of the mosaic- 
work, and the publication of his work may be expected before long. 


Curante F. Josepho Frezza de cryptis huius coenobii guardiano. 

The figure of Hadrian V does not recline at right angles with the 
sarcophagus, but on the outer side of the gable roof which forms its 
elegant summit, being, thus, far more visible to the public. It is 
considerably over life-size (1.95 met.) and is dressed in full pontifical 
robes. The head, which rests on a richly-embroidered cushion, is 
covered with the simple tiara ; the hands, covered with embroidered 
and jewelled gloves and projecting from the robe (pluvial), are crossed 
in front. The fibula that attaches the pluvial imitates a gold original 
with the agnus del enclosed in a circle and is related to an embroidered 
decoration on either side representing the Virgin and John the Bap- 
tist, with the inscriptions as given by Papebroch. The drapery of the 
embroidered pluvial is arranged in carefully studied folds. Around 
the feet rest the narrow and delicate folds of the casula. The face is 
evidently a study from nature, by an artist almost untramelled in the 
technique of expression. The eyes are closed, the expression one of 
peaceful sleep ; the face is full, the features small and regular. As a 
work of sculpture, this figure ranks high in its period. In 1276 the 
Pisan school was but beginning: true, Niceola had executed all his 
work, but Giovanni and his other followers had hardly begun their 
careers. Nor are there any earlier works of the Roman school that 
are comparable to it, the figure of Clement IV, for example, which 
now stands opposite to it, and was executed nearly a decade before, 
being immeasurably inferior. In fact, it shows a more advanced art 
than the sculptures of Roman artists executed a quarter-century later, 
such as the statues of Nicholas IV, Boniface VIII, Charles of Anjou, 
and the reclining figures by Giovanni Cosmati. The delicacy and style 
of the sculptor's chisel are shown also in the head that fills the gable 
of the tomb and which approaches the traditional type of St. Peter, in 
the charming cherub-heads in the trefoils and in the two small and 
sprightly laughing semi-busts that support the trefoils of the canopy. 

The wall-space over the statue, partly occupied by the modern in- 
scription, contained, according to Cristofori, a mosaic representing 
John the Baptist, patron of Genoa, the birthplace of the Pope. It 
seems more probable that this figure was, according to custom, placed 
by the side of the group of the Virgin and Child enthroned. 



It is not easy to define the amount of restoration. A part of the 
mosaic-work has been renewed ; this is especially the case in the large 
twisted columns. The right-hand trefoil has suffered, even in the 
head of the cherub. But the lower basement and the parts of the 
monument next to the wall have long since lost their original decora- 
tion : this is the case with the consols, engaged columns and pilasters. 
There being no record on the monument itself or in tradition as to 
the author of this important work, let us examine the various schools 
of Roman artists of this period for clues to his identity. He must have 

been one of the foremost men of 
the school : none other would have 
been selected for so important a 
work. There were at that time two 
leading families of artists whose 
works are found throughout the 
Roman province, the Cosmati and 
theVassallecti. Twootherschools, 
also, had flourished in the xn cen- 
tury, those of Ranucius and Paul- 
us, but they had by th is time disap- 
peared. Of the Cosmati, Cosm all 
was the most prominent artist at 
thistime,hisson Giovanni not tak- 
ing the lead of the school until fif- 
teen or twenty years later. But we 
do not know that Cosma II execu- 
ted any tombs, his principal work 

being the chapel of the Sancta 
FIG. 1. Aedicula by Vassallecius. T . /-, n i-m\ 

Sanctorum at- the Lateran (1277). 

Of the other family, the VASSALLECTI, the best-known of this name 
was flourishing at that time. His works have been briefly alluded to 
by Comm. G. B. de Rossi 5 and Enrico Stevenson. 6 It is to him that 1 
attribute the execution of the monument of Hadrian V, my reasons 
being two-fold circumstantial and artistic. 7 In the left-hand wall 
of the choir is set an aedicula with the inscription : s. OLEUM INFIRM- 

* Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana, 1875, p. 129, etc. 

9 Moslra delta Citta di Roma, etc., pp. 173-4; Conferenze del Cultori di Archeologia 
Cristiana, pp. 107, 123. 

7 1 mentioned my conjecture to Professor Eossi, in 1887, and believe that he has 
adopted it. 


ORUM. Two twisted colonnettes support a gable and rest on a base, 
On the lower part of the base is the artist's signature : M VASSAL- 
LECTVS<i ME FECIT (Fig. 1). I am not aware that it has ever been 
published. This aedicula is in the usual Roman style of patterns in 
mosaic. It is evident, then, that Vassal lectus worked for the church of 
San Francesco : but he could hardly have been called there for such a 
paltry piece of work, which would appear to have been merely a produc- 
tion of his workshop. We must seek some other cause for his coming 
to Viterbo and what else should that be than the tomb of Hadrian ? 
This, then, would be one of Vassallectus' two masterpieces, the other 
being the cloister of San Giovanni in Laterano at Rome. It may be 
that he signed it and that the signature has been lost in all that the 
monument underwent, including the restoration of 1715. But what 
artistic evidence can be brought to support this circumstantial conjec- 
ture ? A review of the known works by Vassallectus may accomplish 
this : the following is a list of them. 

1. c. 1220-30. Roma: Cloister of San Giovanni in Laterano. 
2. c. Ch. SS. Apostoli ; Lion of portal (?). 8 

3. c. " Bas. Santa Croce in Jerusalem me; Episco- 

pal chair (?). 9 

4. c. " Bas. San Pietro in Vaticano. 10 

5. c. Anagni : Cathedral ; Paschal candlestick. 11 

6. 1263. " Ch. Sant Andrea ; Episcopal chair. 

7. c. 1276. Viterbo: Ch. San Francesco; Aedicula for holy oil. 

Of these works Nos. 3 and 4 have entirely disappeared, leaving only 
the inscriptions; No. 2 is but a mutilated fragment; No. 7 is of little 

8 The inscription on the lion reads : Bassaletits me fecit : the lion stands in the porch. 

9 This inscription was first published in 1887 by Professor ARMELLINI on p. 206 of 
his work Le chiese di Roma dalle loro origini sino ul secolo xvi. It was recently found 
on a slab that had been used, face downward, in the pavement of the basilica when it 
was rebuilt by Benedict XIV. Armellini adds : Quella pietra spettam probabilmente 
alia Cailedra episcopate situata infondo all' abside della basilica, e vi si. legije il name del 
marmorario cosi : RasS A L L ECT V S ME FECIT. 

10 DE Eossi quotes (ButteUino, loc. cit., p. 127) the inscription given by Pietro Sabino, 
without any clue to the monument to which it belonged : OPVS MAGISTRI VASSALETI 


11 The candelabrum is supported on two sphinxes, while above the column a putto 
or boy sustains the base for the candle. The inscription reads : VASSALLETO ME 






and may be placed among the finest pieces of work produced by the 
early revival in sculpture. They were, let it be remembered, carved 
in 1263, before the pulpit at Siena had been executed, while Giovanni 
Pisano was a mere child, before any influence of Niccola could have 
been felt in the Roman province. These lions of 1263 are further 
evidence of the fact, that, when an artistic revival takes places, there 
are two elements to be reckoned with : (1) the general birth in the 
artistic consciousness, leading to independent creative efforts in vari- 
ous regions at the same time ; (2) the individual influence of a leader 
over the art of the period. Following Vasari, we have commonly 
taken into account only the second of these elements in a study of the 
revival in sculpture in the xin century. What is now needed is a 
study of the works of Southern Italy and the Roman States. The won- 
derful sculptures of Ravello and Capua, contemporary with Niccola but 
finer than most of his work, are well known but not yet accounted for. 
Other works of merit executed in these regions between 1250 and 1 325 
would almost equal in number the contemporary works in Tuscany. 
The really classic character sporadically given to many works of archi- 
tecture in this part of Italy, throughout the xin century, is a related 
movement. I shall content myself with merely indicating the possi- 
bilities of the subject. Stevenson calls attention to the fact that the 
Vassallecti studied the antique, as one of them is known to have had 
a statue of Aesculapius as a model in his workshop. The bearded 
sphinx in the Lateran cloister indicates a study also of Egyptian 
works of sculpture. The classic elements in the decoration in both 
carving and mosaic-work used by the schools of Laurentius and 
Vassallectus, and their revival of certain classic architectural fea- 
tures such as the architrave, the Ionic and Doric capitals, and the 
gable may be mentioned, by the way, in order to indicate some pecu- 
liarities of the revival of Roman art in the xin century. 

Like most of his compeers among the leading artists of this school, 
Vassallectus was architect, sculptor, and mosaicist, and in each of these 
branches appears to have surpassed his contemporaries in the Roman 
province. As we have several of his inscriptions without the works to 
which they were attached, may it not be possible to identify some re- 
maining works whose inscriptions have perished ? Such a one appears 
to me to be the ciborium of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere at Rome. Its 
similarity in general characteristics to the famous one executed for San 
Paolo by Arnolfus and Petrus, in 1280, has apparently led to its attri- 





bution to Arnolfus, who is by most thought to be the Florentine archi- 
tect. There seems to be but little evidence in favor of this supposition : 
merely a tradition that it was signed by Arnolfus. S. Cecilia is said 
to have been restored in 1283, and this is an approximate date for this 
ciborium. A comparison between the two ciboria shows that a com- 
munity of authorship is improbable. The architectural forms of that 
of S. Cecilia are more symmetric and also indicate an earlier date by 
the lowness of pointed arch and gable. Its sculptures excel those of 
the ciborium of San Paolo, and are in a style very similar to those 
of the tomb of Hadrian : the analogy is especially evident in the 
heads. I do not know of any other Roman artist than the author of 
Pope Hadrian's mausoleum who would be capable of executing the 
figures and reliefs of the ciborium of Santa Cecilia. This identifica- 
tion is the only one I would suggest. 


Opposite the monument of Hadrian V, which we have been describ- 
ing, stands the lower portion of another, similar in style, though, even 
in its present fragmentary condition, it is evident that its artist was 
inferior in merit to Vassallectus or whoever may have erected the 
tomb of Hadrian. This second monument is that of Pope Clement 
IV (1265-68), and has undergone many vicissitudes. By its side 
is the monument of Petrus de Vico. Both of these originally stood 
in Santa Maria dei Gradi. This church was a notable example of 
early-Gothic architecture, commenced in 1220 or 1221 and conse- 
crated by Pope Alexander IV in 1258. The latter date was proved 
by an inscription on the fagade, which also gave the name of the artist 
who executed the rose-window, MAGISTER BONOSEGNA. In style this 
church was similar to that of San Martino al Cimino, also founded, at 
an earlier date by Cardinal Raniero Capocci and described in another 
paper in this Journal. Cardinal Capocci gave the monastery to 
San Domenico, and it became the first home of the order in Viterbo. 
Within the church of Santa Maria, a number of monuments were 
erected shortly after the middle of the xrn century ; and among them 
were the two mentioned above, which I will proceed briefly to de- 
scribe. The following description of the tomb of the famous Vico 
family, several members of which were prefects of Rome, is taken from 
SALMINI'S Chronologia Gradensis (p. 292) as quoted by Cristofori (p. 
64) : Familia de Vico. Major pars Praefectorum Romanorum, hujus 


familiae, in hae est sepulta ecclesia, in qua, opere musivo ac deaurato, 
sepulchrum valde pulchrum et extimabile eorundem erectum cernitur. 
Inter olios Dominus Petrus De Vico, Praefectus Romanus, qui obiit 
anno MCCLXVIII, in sepuleropraefato,factum eadem idea qua dementis 
Quarti et ab eodem artifice, sed, ut notum est, a contrariis factionibus 
sacrilege, inhumane, et impie fuit devastatum et per templi pavimentum 
ejus ossa projeeta, etc. The epitaph over the tomb, which was origi- 
nally placed to the left of that of Clement IV, in the chapel of San 
Domenico, reads (CRIST., p. 71) : me NOBILIS VIRI PETRI DE 


JACENT. The wording is more modern than the monument. 

Nothing remains of the arched canopy that surmounted the tomb, 
of the mosaic or fresco within it, or of the reclining statue : only the 
basement is left. This basement confirms the opinion that the entire 
work is by the hand of the author of the tomb of Clement IV. This 
is all the more probable because Petrus de Vico died in 1268, the very 
year of the death of Clement. 

On the death of Clement IV (November -29, 1268 13 ) the cardinals 
gave directions to the papal chamberlain, the archbishop of Narbonne, 
to have a marble sarcophagus executed. This charge was accomp- 
lished by him, as is testified by a bull of Gregory X, which will soon 
be quoted. The monument was executed for the Dominican church of 
Santa Maria dei Gradi because Clement had expressed a wish to be 
buried there ; u but the canons of the cathedral of San Lorenzo were 
ambitious to possess the body with its mausoleum, and caused both 
to be transported by force to the cathedral. According to Nobili's 
chronicle, the mausoleum was then only begun. 15 The dispute be- 

13 Cristofori has collected, on p. 25 of his work, the various texts regarding the 
death of Clement IV. 

14 CRISTOFOBI, op. cit., p. 14 : Dopo solenni funerali, verso lametd, di dicembre dell' anno 
1268, venne sepolto nella chiesa di S. Maria dei Gradi in Viterbo, entro magnifico monu- 
mento marmoreo di stile ogivale, intagliato, adorno intorno di mosaici secondo lo stile bizan- 
tino. II Papa, % rappresentato dormente con I'infula episcopale in capo, le mani conserte sul 
petto, coperto del manto pontificio che scende fino ai piedi sporgenti fuori con le scarpe cru- 
cigere poggiale sopra un cuscino. Uri" iscrizione sopra il monumento ricorda che circa il 
184-0 il Sig. Conle Foy de la Tour Maubourg, Ambascialore di Francia in Roma, fece ris- 
taurare il monumento devastato, come dissi, dai repubblicani nel 1798. 

13 Die mi ejusdem mensis Novembris (Clemens IV) in morbum incidit et Vilerbii, ubi 
tune curia residebat, die xxix ejusdem mortuus est. In ecclesia Gradensi corpus suum sepe- 
liri mandavit. Die xxix ejusdem mensis Novembris coruscare cepit, indeque populi, ejus 


tween the two churches for the body of the Pope began at once and 
was long and bitter. It is to be inferred that the monument was 
finished in 1271. At that time the Cardinals Guillaume de Bray and 
Uberto di S. Eustacchio, who had been appointed to be judges in the 
dispute between the two churches, decreed that the monument should 
be returned to the Gradi church, 16 and that all work begun on it at the 
cathedral should be discontinued. But the canons of the cathedral 
refused to obey their orders, as well as those of Cardinal Annibal- 
deschi di S. Marco, appointed arbitrator, a few years after, by the new 
pope, Gregory X, who wrote four bulls regarding the matter. 

Pope Gregory in his first bull, dated from Lyons, August 12, 
1272(?), in the third year of his pontificate, thus speaks of the mau- 
soleum : tamen super eo quod praedicti Archipresbiter et capitulum 
quoddam sepulchrum marmoreum, quod Venerabilis frater noster Pe- 
trus Archiepiscopus Narbonensis, tune sedis Apostolicae Camerarius, pro 
sepeliendo eodem eorpore fabricari fecerat, contra prohibitionem ipsius 
Arcliiepiscopi ac etiam S. It. E. Cardinalium et postquam denunda- 
tionem novi operis est factam temere accipere, ac in eadem Viterbiensi 
ecclesia construere praesumpserunt nihil penitus decrevisti. This would 
seem to show that, although the mausoleum may not have been finished 
when the canons took possession of it, the artist completed his work 
while it stood in the cathedral. After much litigation, the details of 
which would be unimportant, the tomb was finally replaced in the 
Gradi church in 1276. Cristofori (p. 34) divides the history of the 
monument into four periods, which are correct with some variations 
of date : (1) 1268-70, when it lay, partly finished, in the church of 
Gradi. (2) 1270-75, when it lay in the cathedral. (3) 1276-1738, 
when the mausoleum again rested in the church of Gradi : it was 
placed ante capellam majorem in latere honorifice ut patet collocatum. 
This position, at one side of the apse, may not have been the original 

sanctitate et miraculis moti, ad ejus sacrum cadaver visendum, tangendum confluere. Unde 
presbiteri et clerus cathedralis in ecclesia sua corpus dicti sancti Pontificis contra pairum 
praedicatorum voluntatem, tumulandum curarunt. Facta autem instantia per dictos patres 
apud Reverendissimos Dominos Cardinales, ab eis ordinatum fuit ut quo inter eafabricaretur 
sepulcrum, per Dominum Archiepiscopum Narbonensem corpus in quodam loco, tanquam in 
depositum collocaretur. Presbiteri cathedralis inde eum auferentes, in eorum ecclesiam, tarn 
inchoatum marmoreum sepulcrum, quam corpus sanctissimi pontificis detulerunt, et illud pro- 
sequebantur (NoBiLi, MSS. in Chronicon Conv. Graden. ap. Papebroch. in Conatu, cited 
by CRISTOFORI, p. 27). 

16 The text is given in CRISTOFORI, op. cit., pp. 112-14. 


one : it is more natural to suppose that the monument was placed near 
the door. (4) 1738-1885. In 1571, or more probably in 1738, at 
the time of a restoration of the church, the mausoleum was trans- 
ferred to the chapel of San Domenico. 

The French Eepublican troops under General Macdonald attempted 
to demolish the tomb in 1798, and probably the canopy was then torn 
down : whether it was replaced in 1840 by Count de la Tour Man- 
bourg, when he restored the monument, I am unable to say. In May, 
1885, it was scandalously violated by the municipal authorities and 
then transferred to the church of San Francesco. The original epi- 
taph was copied by Papebroch and is well known. It is in Leonine 
verses, and consists of nineteen lines that describe the life and virtues 
of the Pope. 

We find in Papebroch ir a description of the monument, before it 
had been entirely ruined and taken to pieces, and his words are im- 
portant not only on this account but because they disclose to us the 
name of the artist of the monument, then legible in the half-defaced 
inscription : Tumulum (dementis IV) Viterbi curavi excipiendum in 
chartam oculisque per seulpturam exhibendum, pro venerandae anti- 
quitatis memoria. Est opus universum latum palmos XV, altum XXXI 
elegantibus musivis seu varii aureique colons lapillis emblematice dis- 
tinctum in cujus summitate, sub capite S. Petri, apparent sex lilia, quae 
potius Franeicae originis indicium esse crediderim, etc. . . . Ad latus 
marmoris ex caeruleo /undo sub Deiparae sculpta imagine eminentis 
epitaphium longum litterisque Gothicis, id est Theutonieis, alte incisum 
continentis* flecti saepius jam memorata Sancta (Edviges), de qua ex 
altero latere legitur litteris fere Romanis : IN HAG SACROSANCTA EC- 
CLESIA, etc. . . Sequuntur autem duo versus studiose* ut videtur erasi, 
qui proinde legi non potuerunt, sicut etiam proinde sub ipso arcu inter- 
. . . legi non potuit aliud quod sequebatur verbum, neque nota anni, 
quodfactum opus indicabatur. Similiter evanuerunt litter ae minio duc- 
tae supra tumbam, jacentes ad pedes episcopi, nisi quod initio, videantur 
adhuc legi : PETRVS GROSSVS. An earlier writer had read more than 


PETRUS ODERISI or PIETRO ODERIGI was, then, the author of the 
monument of Clement IV, between 1268 and 1271, a fact not known 
to those who have investigated the subject of these Roman artists of 

17 Op. dt., pt. 2, p. 54. 


the Middle Ages. Can he be identified as the author of any other 
works? The number of artists named Petrus, belonging to the Roman 
school, who flourished during the xni century makes the identification 
difficult. A list of them is given in this JOURNAL, vol. v, pp. 187-8 ; 
to this list should be added the Petrus of the ciborium of San Paolo, 
of 1280, and the Petrus Gusmati marmorarius de regione viae Latae 18 
of 1296. None of them, however, are known to bear the surname 
Oderisius, and it can only be conjecture to identify the artist of the 
tombs of Clement IV and of the Prefect de Vico with, for example, the 
author of the shrine of Edward the Confessor at Westminster (1269), 
or of the ciborium of San Paolo. 19 

A few words of description will suffice for the tomb of Clement IV. 
The rough drawing made by Papebroch shows it to have originally 
consisted, like Hadrian's monument, of three parts, basement, sarco- 
phagus, and canopy with trefoil pointed arch and gable. His meas- 
urements gave it a height of 31, and a width of 15, palms. It had, 
besides, two other features : (1) a supplementary sarcophagus placed 
in front of the basement, on which reclines the figure of the Pope's 
nephew, Pierre le Gros ; (2) a statue of the Virgin and Child placed 
under the canopy, above the figure of the Pope. As it at present 
stands, nothing is in place but the basement and the sarcophagus. 
Numerous fragments, however, of the canopy are scattered about in 
the storehouse, and appear to be amply sufficient to ensure an accu- 
rate restoration. Although the conception of this monument is the 
same as that of Hadrian, as whose prototype it may even be con- 
sidered, its proportions are not as perfect, nor are its decorative details 

18 Mostra delta Cittd di Roma, etc., p. 180. 

19 Another authorship has, apparently in ignorance of the lost inscription, been 
lately suggested for this tomb. Signor R. OJETTT discovered, a few years ago (Mostra 
della Cittci di Roma, etc., p. 184), parts of a monument on which is inscribed the name 
of a Roman artist sculptor and mosaicist named Pascalis, belonging to the Domini- 
can order, with the date 1286. The inscription was on the base of a sphinx which 
together with a lion supported the water basin placed at the entrance of the refectory 
of the monastery of Santa Maria de' Gradi. It reads: HOC OPVS FECIT FR PAS- 
CALIS ROM ORD PD A D MCCLXxxvi. These two animals originally formed part, 
in Sig. Ojetti's opinion, of one of the monuments in the " Cosmatesque " style which 
were originally in this church of Sta. Maria de'Gradi : and belonged either to that of 
Clement IV or to that of the Vico family. It has just been shown that Pascalis could 
not have executed these mausoleums, and the late date, 1286, confirms the idea that 
the work to which the inscription of Pascalis belongs must be some other perhaps 
the episcopal throne or a choir-screen. 


as artistic, either in sculpture or in mosaic. The sarcophagus was not 
executed for the purpose but was an ancient Roman work : the anti- 
que strigillation is still preserved in the back, which was not intended 
to be visible. This explains the irregularities of the surface. The 
measurements of the monuments are as follows : figure, 1.55 met. ; its 
sarcophagus, length, 2.12 met., width, 65 cent.; its basement, length, 
2.35 met., height, 1.22, width, 45 cent., besides 28 cent, for the corner 
piers. The sarcophagus projects at the rear far beyond the line of the 
base. In the six pointed arches that decorate the front, the colon- 
nettes have a width of 7J cent, and a height of 33 cent., and stand 29 
cent, apart. The plain strip on which they rest is 13 cent. high. The 
corner piers originally supported the front columns of a canopy simi- 
lar to that of the tomb of Hadrian, which can easily be reconstructed 
from the disjointed pieces. I have heard that this is at present being 

Clement IV was a Frenchman, and it is a current theory that the 
sculptor of his tomb was a compatriot : but this is disproved by the 
style of the work. It shows the same Roman mosaic patterns worked 
down the front and around the shoulders of the pontifical robes as are 
seen in other works of the school. The sculpture, also, is quite unlike 
French work. The figure is roughly hewn out and unfinished ; the 
folds of drapery are sharp and deep ; the head is rude, and the closed 
eyes add to the expressionless effect. It is the work of a master who 
had not yet felt the vitalizing influence of Vassallectus, though it is 
good for its time. Although the five colonnettes supporting the tre- 
foil arches are inlaid with mosaics, yet, in general, it may be said 
that this decorative means is employed with less richness than in 
Hadrian's tomb. 

The two monuments that have been here studied may be considered 
to be the most important of their class both as to age and beauty. 
They enable us to trace this type of tomb further back ; and they 
show us its most sumptuous form. The Pisan school, with Niccola 
at its head, perfected the sculptured pulpit ; the Roman school cre- 
ated at the same time that most artistic form of the mediaeval tomb, 
which united in itself all the arts and so struck the artistic fancy of 
Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo, the followers of Niccola, that they 
adopted all its features, as is shown by Arnolfo's tomb of Cardinal de 
Braye (1286) and by Giovanni's tomb of Pope Benedict XII (1311). 
It may be, however, that local taste dictated the style to the Tuscan 


artists in the case of both tombs just mentioned. Cardinal de Braye was 
one of the arbiters of the dispute about the mausoleum of Clement IV, 
and his familiarity with it and with that of Hadrian V may have led 
him to prescribe the Roman type for his monument. In any event, 
the amusing theory that the Roman artists derived from their Tuscan 
contemporaries this form of monument is utterly incorrect. In the 
Roman school itself nothing was done that could compete with these 
two monuments; those executed in Rome by Giovanni Cosmati thirty 
years later being inferior in their general style and in the quality of 
their art. 

Princeton College, 
June, 1890. 





NOTE. The inscription here published by Professor Mommsen was 
discovered at Plataia during the excavations of the American School of 
Classical Studies at Athens, in the month of March, 1890 (see this JOUR- 
NAL, vol. vi, p. 447). While the Latin Preamble found in the previous 
year and published by Messrs. Tarbell and Rolfe (JOURNAL, vol. v, pp. 
428-439), came from the site of the Byzantine Church marked I in 
Messrs. Washington and Hale's map of Plataia (vol. vi, pi. xxin), this 
Greek fragment of the Edict of Diocletian was found in Church v at a 
considerable distance to the southwest of Church i. This slab together 
with another containing an inscription with female names and dedicated 
to some goddess (Artemis or Demeter), served as covering-stones to a 
Byzantine grave immured in the west wall of the church. The hypo- 
thesis expressed by me (I. c.) that the Latin Preamble may have preceded 
the Greek text of the edict containing the prices of which this inscrip- 
tion forms a part may lack sufficient foundation. There would, if this 
were not the case, have been a Greek as well as a Latin version of the 
edict at Plataia. 


The slab of white marble, of which we offer a facsimile [PL. x] 
after the drawing of Mr. Lolling, is 1.10 m. high, where it is best pre- 
served; 3.73 broad; and between 0.09 and 0.10 in thickness, as it is 
not worked smoothly on the back. The form of the crowning orna- 
ment is shown in the plate ; the letters engraved there are of no im- 
portance, having been added afterward by some idler. The two sides 
are wrought so that other slabs could be joined to this and form with 
it a whole. The slab, in its present, state, has lost the left corner and 
the lower part, so that of the three columns it contained when com- 
plete, the first 44 lines of the first column are reduced to a few letters 



and all three are defaced at the bottom. In its present state the first 
column numbers 76 lines, mostly incomplete, the second and third 68 
lines each. As the part wanting between the second and third col- 
umns has been preserved in the other fragments of the Edict, corres- 
ponding to ch. 17, 18-50 i. e., 33 lines of my edition, the number 
of lines of the slab in its complete state must have amounted to abdut 
100. This cannot be ascertained exactly, as the division of the lines is 
not at all regular. 

For the arrangement of the Edict generally the Plataian fragment 
is very useful, though it only confirms the arrangement adopted in my 
edition conjecturally. It shows that what is there given as ch. 16, 
really preceded the following, and it allows a nearly complete restitu- 
tion of these two important chapters. 

I give the text as it has been copied, with his habitual accuracy, 
by Mr. Lolling, corrected in a few passages by the squeeze he sent 
me. I have added the variations of the other texts, so far as they 
correspond with the new one; where the defects of the Plataian 
copy are filled up by another, the supplements have been put in 
brackets []. In general the reader is referred to my recent paper on the 
Edict in Hermes (vol. xxxv, pp. 17-35), where he will find indicated 
all the fragments discovered since my edition of the Edict in the Corpus 
InsG. Lat., vol. in (1873), p. 801 seq. It is marvellous how much has 
been added to the old stock in the last few years, and it may well be 
admitted that this growth is due not so much to good fortune, as to 
the growing energy and intelligence of studious researches. 


16, 40 21 [t? x\afj,v8a MovTovvrjcTLav 6. a X] KE 

16, 41 22 [fa x\,afAv$a AaSiKTjvrjv MovTovvrjariav 6. a X] K E 
16, 42 23 [/3ap{3apt,Kapiq) 8ta %pvaov ep^a^Ofjuev^w 

24 \_v7rep ep<yov irpwrelov X] 'A 

16, 43 25 [epyov Sevrepeiov X] Y N 

16, 44 26 \_/3ap/3apc,Kapi(0 fa o\o<rr]piicov VTrep 6. a] X <J> 
16. 45 27 [epyov Sevrepeiov virep 6. a ] X Y 

16, 46 28 \_a-ij pt, /cap itt) epya^OjjbevwefaaovtyeLpLKovTpefyo^evw] X KG 
16, 48 29 \_efa o\O(rr)pLKov crKovr\droi> ] X 2 

16, 49 30 [ryepSia TpefyofjuevM VTrep el^arLov TTC^OV rwv e]fa ira- 

16, 42, 100 PLAT. 16, 47, Is 6\o<npiKbv acrri/j.oi' rp^o^fixf rj^p^ffia XK E is wanting 
in PLAT. 16, 48, X2 thus PLAT, and KARYST. XM THEB. 


31 [pa8ocrtz> TyyiiepT/crm] X I B 
16? 50 32 \_ev elfjuariois Movrovwrjcriois rj rofc] XotTTOi? 

33 \rpe^>ofjievw~\ X IB 
16, 51 34 [X . . ap . . . . ^Ofjbivq) M.ovTOwrjcrt~\a TI 6a- 

35 \\dcrcria rpefyofjuevw X.]a X M 

16, 52 36 [reivrfv r) Aa8]iKijvr}v 

37 7U. a. X A 

16, 53 38 [Seurepeta? L'Trep] Xt. a X K 

16, 54 39 rpireias uTrep] Xt. a X IE 

16, 55 40 [ ^ ? ] pyv trptoTiov X M 

16, 56 41 [et? ep<yo\v Sevreplov rpe. % K 

42 [Trepl (>ov\\~\a)V(0v 
16, 58 43 yvafai L/JTrep x\aviSo<; TWV et9 Trapd- 

44 [crraa-t]^ K.aivr)<$ X N 

16 58a 45 <TTt]^? rwv et? TrapaSocnv Kaiv. X KE 

16, 59 46 dcrrjiJiov e'f e/3ea? Tpa^VTepas X K 

16, 60 47 eVSpo/ztSo? r/Tot paicdvvis /caw. X A 

16, 61 48 SaXyLtari/cfoJ^a^opTou rpa^vrep. X N 

16, 62 49 SaX^arfc/c[o]/z-a^)op. icaiv. ire^ov tcaOa. X P 

16, 63 50 <TTpiKTO)\_p. Kaivri\<; Tref?)? Kadap. X N 

16, 64 51 SaXyLtartAcr}? /catz^. a-ff-v/r^Jpi/c. dv&. X C 

16, 65 52 <rrt%?79 K,aivr}<$ crv^njpiKOv X P06 
16, 67 53 SaXyu<aTfctfo[/Aa<opTOi/] Kaiv[o]v <rvty[ri\p. X T 

16, 68 54 SaXyLtaTt[/o)9 6\ocretp]t;. ai^S. % Y 
16, 69 55 8a\/jLaT(,tc\_ofjLa<l)6pTOV KCLIVOV] o\\_o\<reip. X X 

16, 70 56 <rrt'%?79 [/cat^^ o\ocrei]piKov X CN 

16, 71 57 aari^ov \^KCLIVOV o\O(rei]piKOv X C 

16, 72 58 ^Xa/ti;S[o9 Mour]ou^crta9 SfcTrX. /cat. X <l> 

16, 73 59 ^Xa/x[i;So9 MouJrowT/. a7rX7)9 X UN 

16, 74 60 (j)LJ3\ara)piOV M.ovrovvr). KCLLVOV X C 

16, 75 61 (f)i(3\aTO)piov AaSi/cijvov Kaiv. X E 

50 33, IB PLAT. l$* THEB. I KARYST. 16, 55 40, irpwretov ^^p. KARYST. 

56 42, A CO N GO N PLAT. 16, 61, ... atyeprou Kaivov rpaxvrepov THEB. 16, 62, ... 
leprov Kaivov Treaou Kada. THEB. 16, 64, . . . tyipiitov avSpeias Kaivris THEB. 16, 65, 
. . . piKov Kaivris THEB. 16, 66, [SeAyuaTi/cJTjs ffv\l/7)ptKOv avfi/nov KUIVTJS X P KG THEB. 
is wanting in PLAT. 16, 67, Kaivov THEB. omits. 16, 68, Kaivris added in THEB. 

KARYST. 16, 71, Kaivov KARYST r?s THEB. 16, 72, xA.aW8os Kaivris MovTovvf)o-ias 

KARYST. THEB. 16, 73, x^ a "^ s Kaiv^s M. a KARYST. THEB. 16, 74, Kaivov 
KARYST. THEB. 16, 75, Kaivov AaS. KARYST. THEB. 


16, 76 62 ^Xa/AuSo? AaSiKrjvrjs KCLIV. X C 

16, 78 63 Ruppov AaSiKyvov KCLIVOV X P06 

16, 77 64 l^Lppov Np/3itcov KCLIVOV X X 
16, 79 65 Rippov petTTTjo'LOV real TavpoyacrrpiKov X T 

16, 80 66 Tttppov NcDpi/cov Kaivov X L 

16, 81 67 vrrep TWV \oiiTwv Rtpp&v X P 

16, 82 68 Wuppwv "A(f)pwv ^ 'AxaLK&v X N 
69 irepl Ti/jir]$ TWV cnptK\_wv\ 

16, 83 70 o-tpiKOv \evKov \L. [a X MB] 
16, 84 71 Tot9 TO crtpiKov \vovcri\y ....... ] 

72 GIV fjiera T^? [rpotyfjs 6. a % 2A] 

73 Trepl 'jrop^v\_pa<i\ 

16, 85 74 nTa!;a/3[\dTTr)s \i. a X M] 
16, 86? 75 Trop^fvpa? ................ 

16, 87? 76 Trop<l>[ypas ................ 

Here are wanting about 24 lines, of which the first half 
corresponds to ch. 16, 88-100 and continues the prices of 
purple ; the latter contained the price of flax. 


1 <copyit?75 a 7U. a X AC 

2 (jkwp/^?/? Xt. a XA5 
(jxop/jLrjS 7 \L. a X CON 

4 IlaTui' OTrep /nera TTJV (frwpfjiav rtj. 

5 rpirrjv rrjv TrpoeLprjfjievTjv 

6 <^(>pjJi^ 7T/o[c6]T779 X,fc. a X YK 

7 (fxop/jLijs ft \L. a X X 
(jxopfirjS j \ it a % YN 

9 Au'ou rpa^vrepov et? %p?jcriv TWV l- 

10 SiwTiSwv re fcal <^afjLi\\_i\apLK(i3V 

11 (jicop/j,^ a \L. a X [N 

12 t/xoppw J3 \L. a X PK[6] 

13 (#>a>p/i7?97 Xt. a X OB 

14 ^rfycov aa-rjfjiwv </>ft>pyu,?79 a 

16, 76, x^a"t'8os /ccui/^s Aa8t/c7jj/^s KARYST ...... AaSt/c7?^s /califs THEB. 16, 

78 and 77 are transposed in KARYST. 16, 79, ^ ravpoy, KO.IVOV KARY&T. 16, 81, vTre/j 
toonfingr in KARYST. 16, 84, \6owrtv ^er^ KARYST. 16, 86, 0\dTn)s At. a KARYST. 

16, 87, v7roAaTT77S Ai. a KARYST. 
























w ia~T 




(frcop/jLys SevTepas 






















Tapai/c. ' AXe^avSpeiv. 





(fxapfiTiS TpiTrjs 






















Tapa-L/c. 'A\egavSpiv. 




32 ST^ 

(WV CTTpaTlCOTlKWV (f)Ct)pfJ,. a 

c Ad> 

7\ r\ T 


(fxop/jLrjs ft X 'ACN $>(0p\_fjb\'. 

79 7 



\LVOV Tpa^eo)^ 6/9 yprja-iv i 

>v i- 


[Sew r)TOi (f)ajju\(,apL/ca)v 


(jxbpfjurjs a 





(fxopWS ft 





(hoopLLTis *y 




39 AaX 

> / / 


(frwpfjirjs 7rpd)T7)s 










X M 










X f H 


Tapa-LK. ^A\,e%avpiv. 




46 AaX 

IJ,aTiK(t)v avSpicov iJToi, KO\OJ. 


47 cov 4 

xapfMrjs a 

17, 1 





X M 

17, 2 





x f e 

17, 3 





X f H 

17, 4 





x f z<t> 

17, 5 


Tap(riK. 'A\eav$pi,v. 





17, 6 
17, 7 
17, 8 
17, 9 





TapcriK. ' 


TapcriK. ' 


53 AaXyLKZTtATWZ' ^VVaiKlWV CJ)COp/JL. ft 







60 j&W 









Here must follow 17, 18-50 of my edition. 






v/ < M 

TV n 



\s f -y 
7\ i 



X '$ 












% c 



\s p 
7\ L. 









x f cl 


17, 51 1 AabLKyvcov 

17,52 2 Tapcn/c. \A\egavS. 

3 r/ A-Trep avro cpwpjjb^ 7' rfrrova 

4 etcni/ dvafto\ecov 
17, 53 5 
17, 54 6 
17, 55 7 cfrcopi^rjs 7 

8 'ATTO \Lvov rpa^aio^ et? 

17, 56 10 

17, 57 11 

17, 58 12 


17, 59 14 

17, 60 15 

17, 61 16 

r/rot cf)a/jL(,\iapL(i)v 
<fxt)p/j,ijs a 

. a 





a [X 








III, 4, EYLN GEE. Ill, 8, Tpa X aios should be rpax^us. Ill, 9, "Perhaps the 
first I of I A I COT I AGO N II, 9. 10 served not only for the second column, but also for 
the third." Lolling. 17, 61, BujSAtW GER. almost always. 














TapcriK. 'AXe| 

'av. icrr. 





CJ)0)pfJL^ ft 








r B<J> 
















f BCN 








f B 




TapcriK. 'AXe| 

'dvo icrr. 



f A<!> 


</>GO/3yU,?79 7 




4 fC\JTO f ]TQ AsGl/TQ 

,v. Icrr. 











f B 
















f A<i> 




TapcriK. 'AXe| 

: . icrr. 



f ACN 

31 f/ A7rep a.7ro cfrcopfjuys TT)? 



/jbevrjs KaraSeecrrepa elev 






cj)copfjir)s a 








<c6pyu?79 ft 








(jXtip/jLT)? 7 






aTTO \ivov rpa%eo<; els % 

[prjcrw rwv 


ISicorcbv r}roi cfra/jiiKiapi 





cf)(opjjir}<; a 


. a 






</)0)pyL6779 ft 








cfrwp/jLijs 7 






KapaKa\,\c0v cfxtipfj,?)? a 





v. icrr. 



















C B4> 








f BCN 




TapcriK. 'AXe| 

'avS. icrr. 



f AYN 


(ftcopfjurjs ft 





v. icrr. 











f B<t> 








f BCN 








f B 

17, 63, 'A4>N GEB.: error. 17, 68, AGO GEB.: error. Ill, 31, ^cfy^s] ^p. 7 
GER. 17, 75, Y N] Y GER. : ejror. 17, 78, CO/ PLAT. 17, 86, 'BY GER. : error. 





TapcriK. 'AXe^av. 






cft>pyu,??? 7 

























f B 












Tapa-iK. 'AXef . 






"A.7T6P arro (j)(0plJLr)S T% TTpOeipTJf. 



wrjs KaTaSeeorrepa elev rcapaicdX,. 




(jxt)pfArjs a 




f A 




(bcOpLLlJ^ /3 








(j)d)p/ji7]^ >y 








'ATTO \ivov rpa^eco^ et? ^prjcnv 




<hu>pLi py? a 


[dxapMs] /3 


I wish to add a few remarks on the new information derived from 
this discovery. The greater part of the Plataian text is already known 
from other sources, as will be indicated below ; still some interesting 
facts now come to light for the first time. 

Col. 1, 1-20 are almost completely lost and cannot be restored, and 
the two other copies of this part, from Karystos (C.I.L., in, p. 82 1) and 
from Megara (Dittenberger, Inscriptiones Graeeae Septentrionales n. 23, 
printed, but not published) are so very defective that they give no help. 

Col. I, 21-41, of which the Plataian copy has preserved some frag- 
ments, correspond to ch. 16, 40-56. They treat of the pay of silk- 
workers but, in their imperfect condition, offer nothing of importance. 

Col. I, 42-68, have corresponding lines in three other copies, the 
two just quoted and the Theban (C.I.L., in, p. 823) ; but especially 
the first lines (wanting in Karystos) are much better in the Plataian 
copy, and the portions hitherto wanting are now supplied, though still 
presenting many difficulties : one such occurs after the line et? epyov 
Sevrepelov rpefyo^evw X K, which is more or less preserved at Plataia, 
Megara and Thebes (the Karystian copy has a gap here). The Theban, 

17, 93, N omitted by GEE. Ill, 60, 
III, 66 with tSicorcDv GER. concludes. 

^. 7 GEB. 17, 98, 

. GEB. 


which is not at all reliable, does not even indicate it, but evidently what 
follows NHCXN belongs to 16, 58. The inscription is given thus: 



It must have been irepl &ov\\a)vc0v, though the A in the Plataian 
is quite evident, and the formation of the word also is objectionable; 
at least we should expect (f)ov\\a)viayv or (f)ov\\covifcwv. But the 
Megarian copy is evidently right, and the fuller's work corresponds 
to the argument of the chapter. That it treats especially of wool- 
articles has been stated already in my paper (Hermes, xxxv, p. 22) and 
it is not much to be wondered at that the Greek workman stumbled 
in rendering a Latin word. The number of letters wanting before 
A 00 NOON is about ten, so that eight fit in very well leaving some 
vacant space at the beginning as is usual in the prescripts. 

The following matters in 16, 5866 .of my edition are completed 
and bettered by the new copy, and deserve a special examination. 


16> 58 1 1 1 1 1 1 ?re/> %A.aviSos TUIV fls irapa- -n-fp ^Acm'Sos real vys % N 

///// v faivrjs X N Kaivris X N iSos TU/U. els irapaffracriv Kal 

16> 58a 1 1 1 1 1 T]S rav e*s TrapdSoa-iv KO.IV. X K E taSo Is irapaboaiv Kaivfjs X KE 

The first short word, which is wanting, may have been yvafai ; at 
least I cannot find a better one. The E in the second number in the 
Plataian copy is very uncertain and wanting in Lolling's transcription ; 
nevertheless, I believe a trace of it can be seen in the squeeze and the 
Theban copy has it. Whether in this the end of the first article was 
placed above the beginning by the artisan himself or by the copyist's 
blunder, is not to be made out. The sense is clear : the fuller's pay 
for the cloths prepared by him for the market (TrapdSocnv and irapd- 
(TTaa-is seem to signify the same, and render the Latin negotiatio) 
is 40 denarii for the coat, 25 for the shirt. 

16, 59 do-tfiiov e'f e'/jea? rpa^vrepa^ is filled up by the new copy : 
the Theban has only . . . rpa^urepwv X K. Probably there x\avi8os 
is to be understood, and the article to be referred to the coat of rougher 
wool, and not ornamented. 

16, 60 is also completed now. The endromis is a woolen over-coat, 
as also raxana, the latter corresponding in ch. 7, 60 to the sagum. 


16, 61 and 62. The SeX/jLaritcofjidfopTos, composed of the dalmaticaj 
a shirt without sleeves, and the ma/or, a head-tippet, has already been 
yielded by the other copies (C.I.L., in, p. 836, note). 

16, 63. The strictoria, a shirt with sleeves, recurs in the Latin text 
7, 56, 57, 58 ; 16, 24. In the first place it is rendered by the Greek 

16, 64 and 65. The substantives are supplied from the Plataian copy. 

The rest of the chapter offers no considerable variation, excepting that 
in 16, 69 the number, and in 16, 72 the word StTrX???, are now added. 

Col. I, 69-71 Trepl rei^s rwv <TipiK&v is perfectly preserved in the 
Karystian copy and does not offer any remarkable reading ; that, instead 
of \vov<rtv, we here have \vov(n[y ....... ~\a-w is perhaps only an 

error of the artisan. 

Col. I, 72-76 Trepl Tropfyvpas is very important, but better preserved 
in the Karystian copy, and part of it in that of Megara. At Plataia 
only the first lines remain. That the second and third kind of purple 
are here introduced by the word Tropfyvpas, omitted in the Karystian 
copy, may be compared with 16, 89 where Karystos reads a7r\iov \L. 
a, Megara iropfyvp ..... What is wanting of this chapter at Plataia 
and preserved in the Karystian copy, fills up, as is said, about half of 
the gap between the first column and the second ; but as the purple 
chapter is not complete in the Karystian copy some more is to 
be added. 

Col. II, 1-13 corresponds to a fragment dug up at Atalante, un- 
edited, but copied for me some years ago by Mr. Lolling and men- 
tioned in Hermes, xxxv, p. 19, n. 9. As the Atalante fragment is 
much damaged and the Plataian is in this part complete, I only mention 
the imperfection of the first, the place of which is now, for the first 
time, determined with certainty. The Plataian copy does not give the 
beginning of the linen chapter but does certainly give the second part 
of its first subdivision, since, as we have already shown, at the end of 
the first column at the utmost about ten lines remain for the linen. 
This important discovery shows that the linen tariff began with that 
of the flax, of which the prices are actually given after the weight. 
Here too as afterwards three different standards are established, the 
first probably without qualification, the second qualified as inferior to 
the first, the third as serving for home use by the women of the house- 
hold (ISiwTiSes rj (j)afju,\i,apiKai). In each of these three standards 
three degrees are mentioned, so that a pound of first-rate flax amounts 


to 1200, that of the commonest sort to 72 denarii. The place whence 
the flax comes was not taken as a basis for its value ; the places men- 
tioned in the following chapter refer, as is well known, to the weaving. 

Col. II, 14-38 is also new, the first lines recurring, as the preced- 
ing, in the Atalante fragment. This second subdivision of the linen 
ware treats of the simple shirts, arisen ao-rj^oi. It has the same three 
standards of three degrees each, as all these chapters, but the second 
class here is represented by the soldier shirts, o-r^at arpan^Ti/cat,. 

Col. II, 39-68 respond to ch. 17, 1-17 taken from the Geronthraian 
copy ; the beginning 39-47, wanting in this, is now supplied by the 
Plataian copy ; the end defective in Plataia is supplied by the Geron- 
thraian copy 17, 18-37. This passage regulates the prices of another 
sort of shirt, the dalmatica, distinguishing between woman's shirts 
which precede, and the cheaper men's shirts. It offers nothing of 
considerable interest ; the first part also, though new, could have been 
almost made out by mere analogy. Only it may be observed, that at 
the beginning the dalmatica treated here is described as acr^/xo?, as it 
should be. 

Col. Ill, 1-12 treats in the same way of the linen ava(3o\evs, the 
cloak. The beginning is missing, but as we have the whole passage 
from Geronthrai, ch. 17, 38-58, this is of no material importance. 

Col. Ill, 13-41 follows the faciale. This passage too is only a 
second copy of 17, 59-72. 

Col. Ill, 42-68 treats of the earacallus and corresponds to 17, 80- 
98. The Plataian copy has at the end a few more words than the 
Geronthrian, but they give nothing not otherwise known. 

The last part of the third column and the slab joined to it, contained 
what we read on the first column of the Elateia copy, which treats of 
the coxalia, the or aria and certain <yvvaticela, and after these, what in 
my edition is given, from another slab (of Geronthrai) as chapter 18, 
treating of the Kepako^ia-jjbia, the (TivSoves, the rv\ai, all belonging to 
linen ware. 




EDMOND POTTIER. Les Statuettes de terre cuite dans I' Antiquity par 
M. EDMOND POTTIER, attache" au Musee du Louvre. Paris, 1891. 
This is the first complete treatise on the subject of ancient terracottas, 
which have been the subject of so much discussion. It is a history of 
the coroplastic art, including its Oriental origins, the formation of archaic 
types, the development of the good Attic style into the blooming of the 
exquisite period which the author terms Tanagrean. Passing from Continen- 
tal Greece M. Pettier studies the industry in the Kyrenaica, in Crimea, in 
Asia Minor with its centres at Smyrna and Myrina, returning through 
Sicily, Italy and even Roman Gaul. While giving respectful recognition 
to his predecessors M. Pottier expresses an individual opinion on all points. 
Hence the special interest of his chapters on the manufacture and destina- 
tion of the figurines, where he expresses an eclectic opinion, to the effect that 
the worship of the gods and of the dead, the furnishing of the tombs, sac- 
rifices to the manes or simple offerings, Elysean or simple genre subjects 
all contributed a share in the development of this branch of industry whose 
products were sometimes funerary, sometimes votive, and sometimes used 
as gifts. HEUZEY, in Chron. desArts, 1891, No. 4. 

W. M. RAMSAY. The historical geography of Asia Minor. 8vo, pp. 

495. Papers of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. IV. London, 

1890; Murray. 

In May 1886 the first sketch of this book was read before the Royal 
Geographical Society. In April 1888 the MS. was completed but was 
accidentally lost ; not to be rewritten. All that could be recollected has 
been worked into Part I of this book, entitled General principles, while in 
Part II the provinces are taken up and notes on their history and antiqui- 
ties are given, especially when they have any bearing on ancient geog- 
raphy. 1 

1 Part I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES. Ch. i. Hellenism and Orientalism, n. The"Koyal 
Eoad." in. Beginning of the trade route, iv. The Eastern trade route, v. The 
Koman roads in Asia Minor, vi. The value of the Peutinger table, Ptolemy and the 
Itineraries, as geographical authorities, vii. The Byzantine roads, vm. Change 
of site. 

5 65 


This is not the work on Asia Minor which Mr. Ramsay had expected 
and perhaps still hopes to publish. Limited time and space have pre- 
vented, and have given an extremely condensed form to this book. 
The condensation has been helped by two further factors : the writer has 
of deliberate purpose omitted to read what modern writers have said 
about Asia Minor ; consequently references to them and discussions of 
their opinions, which often form large part of the bulk of such a work, 
are almost entirely absent. And, in the second place, he has abstained 
from repeating any fact well-known or which could be ascertained easily 
elsewhere, thus depriving himself of the pleasure of giving complete and 
consecutive pictures. All these reasons militate against literary form, as 
he remarks. The book is a mine for others to draw from ; it is not a re- 
sume of work hitherto done. The note struck is essentially personal from 
beginning to end. Mr. Ramsay is better qualified than any man to hold 
so independent a position, for his knowledge of ancient Asia Minor in all its 
phases history, geography and art has been gained by repeated yearly 
journeyings through the country. But perhaps the most striking part of 
his equipment is his discovery and use of new authorities especially the 
Byzantine authors, Acta Conciliorum and Acta Sanctorum and a far 
more critical use of those already known, such as the Notitiae Episcopa- 
tuum and Strabo. He casts down some of the great idols, like the Peu- 
tinger table and Ptolemy, who had been too unconditionally followed ; 
to them he prefers Strabo, Hierocles arid the Itineraries. So generally 
does he found himself upon new authorities and so radically does he differ 
from hitherto recognized standards, that as he has well said " either my 
work is a mistake or the map of a great part of Asia Minor must be revo- 
lutionized." This revolution will be complete, however, only when Mr. 
Ramsay, or some student who may follow in his footsteps, shall produce an 
opus magnum on ancient Asia Minor under all its aspects. It should not 
be imputed to him as a fault that the branches of topography and epigraphy 
have formed so large a portion of his published work to the detriment of 

Introduction. Ch. A. Cities and Bishoprics of Byzantine Asia. B. Do. of Lydia. 
C. Do. of Phrygia. D. Do. of Hellespontus. E. Koman roads in the province Asia. 
F. Cities and bishoprics of Bithynia. G. The Byzantine military road. H. Cities 
and bishoprics of Galatia Salutaris. J. Koman roads in Galatia and Northern 
Phrygia. K. Cities and bishoprics of Galatia Prima. L. Koman roads from An- 
cyra to the East. M. Roman roads in Central Cappadocia. N. Koman roads over 
Anti-Tauros. o. Cities and bishoprics of Cappadocia. P. The Ponto-Cappadocian 
frontier. Q. Lycaonia and Tyanitis. R. The passes over Taurus, s. Koman roads 
in Lycaonia and Tyanitis. T. Cilicia Tracheia or Isauria. u. Cilicia. v. Cities 
and bishoprics of Pisidia. w. Pamphylia, Caria and Lycia. Addenda, Indexes 
and tables. 


the descriptive, artistic and archaeological elements which we know from 
his " Studies on Phrygian Art " and other papers, appeal strongly to his 
sympathies. A greater development of these branches would help to 
endue with reality and life his picture of Asia Minor. And yet as he 
well remarks: "If we want to understand the ancients, and especially the 
Greeks, we must breathe the same air that they did, and saturate ourselves 
with the same scenery and the same nature that wrought upon them. For 
this end topography is a necessary, though a humble, servant. The justi- 
fication of Part II then is that if we are ever to understand the history of 
Asia Minor, we must know the places in which that history was transacted." 
No one can appreciate the force of this who has not realized from actual 
study that but an infinitesimal fraction of the sites known in the history 
of Asia Minor have been until recently identified, or even placed some- 
times within fifty or a hundred miles of their proper location. 

Mr. Ramsay has done more for the Byzantine period of the country 
than for the Roman : this was both most needed and easier, from the 
character of his sources, which were mainly ecclesiastical and relating to 
the period between Justinian and the Comneni. Among the several thou- 
sand places mentioned it is not always the larger that receive most space, 
as there is usually more obscurity surrounding a less conspicuous site that 
needs to be dispelled. 

Mr. Ramsay's book is, then, very welcome. Only a few will be able to 
criticize it in detail. It fails to satisfy us, but only in the sense that we 
wish for much more. A. L. F., JR. 


P. MILLIET. Etudes sur les premieres periodes de la Cframique grec- 
que. 8vo, pp. xvi, 169. Paris, 1891 ; Giraudon. 
These pages are by a young artist, who writes them as a thesis at the 
Ecole du Louvre. From this point of view it is a very creditable volume. 
The author has utilized with considerable discrimination the best authori- 
ties, German and English as well as French. This is a characteristic quite 
uncommon in French writers of a previous generation, and is a sign that 
French scholarship is assuming a more cosmopolitan character. The thesis, 
which he supports, is that the different technical processes employed in the 
decoration of Greek vases were not discovered simultaneously, but were 
perpetuated by long tradition. Chronologically they may be considered 
as parallel rather than as successive. Hence he takes pains to show the 
continuance of early processes in later periods. The scope of the volume 
embraces (1) primitive pottery, (2) the Corinthian style, which he desig- 
nates " quadruple polychromy " from the four colors employed, and (3) 


black-figured vases. Each of these classes are sub-classified and the hypo- 
theses concerning their origin, date, diffusion, etc. considered separately. 
The writer excels in his clear presentation of the subject and in his careful 
analysis ; he would make a good lecturer to young students, although at 
times he seems burdened by the authority of others and again over dog- 
matic himself. A. M. 

scriptions juridiques grecques, texte, tradudion, commentaire ; pre- 
mier fascicule. Paris, 1891 ; E. Leroux. 

Though the French have distinguished themselves by scholarly and 
critical treatment of large numbers of Greek inscriptions, and have dis- 
covered and published perhaps more than the Germans for the past fifteen 
years, yet they have left to the Germans the gathering of these into syste- 
matic collections to which every one must refer, and where the best critical 
text may be had. The subject of the present notice marks a departure 
from previous habits, but in a limited way only and in a limited field. The 
work is to consist of three parts, of which the first lies before us, and confines 
itself to the sphere of juridical inscriptions, and within this sphere to such 
as are most important and most instructive for the end in view. This end 
is not primarily that of the epigraphist. The epigraphist may and will 
benefit by its results; but the collection is prepared especially for the 
student of jurisprudence, who wishes to pursue his researches beyond the 
limits of Roman law in the domain of antiquity, and may otherwise be 
repelled by ignorance of Greek, or by the difficulties of the subject-matter, 
or of the dialects. The editors have rightly believed that the inscriptions 
themselves are well worthy of the attention of the jurisconsult, and that 
to be widely studied they only need to be made accessible. To attain this 
purpose they have given a carefully edited text, embodying the labors of 
previous editors and their own, and to this they have added a translation ex- 
pressed in language at once precise and juristic, and together with this a com- 
mentary upon the most important facts of the inscriptions treated. The work 
is therefore eminently practical and eminently useful, aod is to be heartily 
recommended to the student of law or of antiquities. It is not less valu- 
able to the beginner in epigraphy. It shows him how inscriptions are to 
be treated ; it elucidates dark places by a perspicuous translation ; it ex- 
plains by judicious notes, and above all it masses together under one head, 
for comparison and study, a large number of inscriptions which otherwise 
must be sought for through widely scattered publications. Some of those 
which have been selected for this fascicule are the most difficult of their 
kind, and have exercised the ingenuity of epigraphists from all direc- 


tions. We may instance the Lygdamis inscription of Halikarnassos, that 
of Ephesos relating especially to mortgages, and the Gortynian Code, which 
is deferred to a later fascicule in anticipation of the long promised edition 
of Comparetti based upon a new reading of the original by Halbherr. 

The Lygdamis inscription is placed at the forefront of the volume, and, 
as its interest is historical as well as epigraphical and legal, it may serve 
to indicate the methods of the editors. About the middle of the fifth cen- 
tury B. c. Halikarnassos was under the tyranny of Lygdamis supported by 
Persian influence, but his peace was disturbed by a party of patriots who 
were striving to liberate the city from its tyrant and join the Athenian 
confederacy. Upon the testimony of Suidas it is believed that the poet 
Panyasis and the historian Herodotos were engaged in these attempts, and 
our editors suggest that the tyrant was ultimately slain, as a late inscrip- 
tion speaks of a descendant of the " Tyrannicides " at Halikarnassos. At 
all events, during the troubles, the patriotic faction was banished, and its 
property was confiscated and either held by the state in part, or sold at a 
low sum to the friends of Lygdamis with a guarantee by the state. 

Later an accommodation was effected. The banished party was allowed 
to return, and a general agreement of amnesty was entered into, ratified 
under oath and deposited in the temple of Apollo. The editors cite as a 
parallel the situation of events in France in 1814, when the emigres were 
restored to their country. Their confiscated property which had not been 
sold was returned to them ; but in cases of sale already effected indemnity 
was granted to the original owners. At Halikarnassos no indemnity is 
mentioned ; but the returned exiles were permitted to bring suit for prop- 
erty in the hands of others, and were granted a certain preference. The 
suit must be brought within eighteen months after the passage of the law, 
and the preference consisted in permission to take their oaths that the 
estates had belonged to them. Under the common law this right of evi- 
dentiary oath belonged to the defendant ; now it was granted to the plain- 
tiff for eighteen months, but ceased at the close of that period, in order to 
confine the suits to that limit as far as possible. At its expiration, suit 
could still be brought, but the plaintiff lost his preference, and the right 
of oath returned to the defendant. In the final decision of the case the 
recollection of the Recorders (Mnemones) who had been in office was to 
be decisive. It appears that these Recorders were charged with the admin- 
istration, or at least the collection, of the proceeds of the properties under 
the sequester of the state. When this was removed, the Recorders in office 
were ordered to discontinue the transfer of these estates to their successors 
at the expiration of their term, thereby withdrawing the power of the state 
over them. There is a difficulty here which we think the editors have not 
dwelt upon sufficiently. The decree declares that the Recorders shall not 


make the transfer to the Kecorders represented by Apollonides ( 2), and 
later ( 4) that estates shall belong to those who held them under Apol- 
lonides, if they have not sold them since. It is clear that Apollonides and 
his fellow Recorders have been elected, but have not yet been inducted into 
office, while the term of eighteen months expires with their term of office. 
Two alternatives present themselves : either they are appointed for eigh- 
teen months, an unusual period, or their appointment precedes entrance 
upon office by six months, as we now know from Aristot. Resp. Ath. was 
the case for certain officers at Athens. Furthermore, the last clause of 
4 must be construed as referring to the period subsequent to the expira- 
tion of the term of eighteen months, thus following the keynote struck at 
the beginning of the paragraph. Accordingly, the discrepancy between 
2 and 4, noticed by Roberts (Introduction, p. 341), and sought to be 
avoided by Comparetti in another way, does not really exist. It may be 
proper to add that our editors assume that Lygdamis is still in possession 
of the citadel at Halikarnassos, and that his expulsion or death occurs 
at some later period. The addition made by the editors to the text by 
way of supplying lacunae is an important one at lines 7-8 where T]O 
Oe/cw'A.a> ve[w7r]ot[o is read. This had already been proposed by Th. Rei- 
nach, Revue des etudes grecques, 1888, p. 27 seq., and accepted by Meister, 
Berl Philolog. Wochenschrift, 1888, p. 1469. 

The varied contents of the remainder of the fascicule may be seen from 
the following summary : No. 2, Keos, relating to funerals ; No. 3, Gam- 
breion, on mourning; No. 4, Ephesos, on abolition of debts during the 
Mithridatic war; No. 5, likewise from Ephesos, relating to mortgages at 
the close of the war ; No. 6, Mykonos, registration of dowers ; No. 7, Tenos, 
registration of sales of real estate ; No. 8, Attika, Lemnos, Amorgos, Syros, 
Naxos ; a complete collection of mortgage inscriptions (O/MH) amounting to 
68 ; No. 9, Eretria, contract for draining a marsh ; No. 10, Knidos, judg- 
ment rendered by Knidos in favor of Kalymna. Each of these inscrip- 
tions gives occasion for a considerable treatise upon the subjects contained 
in them. Especially valuable are those on dower and mortgages. No. 9 
is of unusual interest just now when the American School is carrying 
on excavations at Eretria. The date of the inscription is attributed to 
the close of the fourth century or beginning of the third. Chairephanes, 
apparently not an Eretrian, enters into a contract with the Eretrians to 
drain a neighboring marsh called Ptechai, which rendered the district 
unwholesome then, as it is unwholesome now. The operations of Krates 
at Kopais in the time of Alexander (Strabo, ix. 2, 18) appear to have been 
its precedent, and certain similarities to the work of drainage of Kopais at 
the present time may be seen. At Eretria, as now at Kopais, open canals 
were to be constructed through the marsh and united at its lower 


extremity. Here a reservoir was to be built, not greater than two stades 
square, with a gate leading out into a subterranean conduit as at Kopais. 
By means of this gate the water in spring could be gathered and used by 
the farmers in the vicinity for irrigating their lands. The conduit was to 
be furnished with shafts for air, and for entrance to the aqueduct below. 
Here a question of text occurs. The original editor of the inscription, 
Eustratiades (Ephem. Arch., II. Series. 1869, p. 317) supplies the missing 
final letter of <t>PEATIA, as N ; the present editors as 3, referring to Poly- 
bios (x. 28, 2) , who is speaking of the distant regions of Parthia. The plural 
is right, if the hyponomos was of any considerable length. Such hyponymoi 
were habitually constructed with these shafts in Greece. The prehistoric 
tunnels from Kopais had them, as did that of Polykrates at Samos, and 
those in the vicinity of Athens, not to speak of others. We do not know 
whether this work was ever completed at Eretria or not ; but among the 
names of the citizens of the town who took the oath to the contract for 
Eretria, it is interesting to find some that occur in inscriptions discovered 
among the graves at Eretria by the American School last winter. 


EKNEST BABELON. Les Rois de Syrie, d'ArmZnie et de la Commag&ne. 

8vo, pp. ccxxn-268; 30 heliotype plates. Paris, 1890; Rollin 

and Feuardent. 

This is the second volume of the catalogue of coins of the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, and the first of its Greek coins. Vol. I was published in 1887 
by M. H. Lavoix and treated of Mohammedan coins. This volume is a 
treatise both historical and numismatic. The largest part is naturally 
given to the dynasty of the Seleukidae which played so important a role 
through the entire East and whose coins served as types to all the princes 
of Further and Central Asia Parthians, Bactrians, Indo-Parthians and 
Indo-Scythians. Apollo on the omphalos, the symbolic anchor, the Vic- 
tory, Tyche or Fortune, are types which are found as far as the centre of 
India. The volume is divided into two main sections, the Catalogue proper 
and the Introduction : the latter will create most interest, since it is addressed 
as well to the historian, the archseologist and the chronologist, as to the 
numismatist ; and the information here given is the fruit of vast and ac- 
curate research. But little will remain to be told of the Seleukidae unless 
there be new discoveries. For some time M. Babelon has been making 
himself a specialist in this field. Some of the interesting topics treated 
with especial care are : the coins of Seleukos I when only Satrap of Baby- 
lon ; the horned types ; the origin of the omphalos ; the era of the Seleu- 
kidae ; the elaborate series of Antiochos IV Epiphanes, including the 


independent series of the cities of Egypt and Asia. After Demetrios II 
Nicator, the types being usually the same, especial attention is paid to 
coining ateliers, to chronology, monograms, weight and system of coinage. 
The Kings of Armenia and Commagene occupy only a small space, but 
all possible use has been made of existing material. 

The catalogue consists of a careful description of the seventeen hun- 
dred pieces in the Cabinet de France, among which are a number of ex- 
tremely rare pieces, especially of Seleukos I, Antiochos III, Demetrios I 
and II, Tryphon, etc. Genealogical tables, two tables of monograms and 
an index complete a masterly work which greatly honors French scholar- 
ship. E. DROUIN in Rev. Arch., March- April, 1891. 

YERRALL and HARRISON. Mythology and, Monuments of Ancient 
Athens ; being a translation of a portion of the "Attica" of Pau- 
sanias by MARGARET DE G. VERRALL, with introductory essay 
and archaeological commentary by JANE E. HARRISON. 8vo. 
London, 1890; Macmillan. 

This work is not intended as a complete description of the monuments of 
ancient Athens ; these are subordinated to mythology. Miss Harrison's 
"aim has been to discuss in full detail every topographical point that could 
bear upon mythology, and for the sake of completeness, to touch, but very 
briefly, on such non-mythological monuments as were either noted by 
Pausanias or certainly existed in his day." Accordingly the book con- 
sists, first of a description of ancient Athens, based upon all available 
evidence, literary, epigraphical, and monumental; and, secondly, of 
copious mythological and mythographical discussions interwoven with 
the foregoing, besides a separate introductory essay on the Mythology of 
Athenian Local Cults. For the first part her work is mainly that of a 
compiler, besides appropriating unpublished views of Dr. Dorpfeld. As 
much of the information given had been previously inaccessible, this book 
will be indispensable to English-speaking students of Athenian antiquities. 
It is, however, incomplete, for Miss Harrison's principle in dealing with 
the monuments seems to have been to record pretty fully the most recent 
discoveries and to touch rather lightly on points adequately dealt with in 
older hand-books. While her information of this sort may be generally 
trusted, in treating of epigraphical and literary evidence Miss Harrison 
is a much less trustworthy guide, and this part of her work needs search- 
ing revision, as could easily be shown by numerous examples. In the 
field of mythology her most original contribution consists of three illus- 
trations of the theory " that in many, even the large majority of cases, 
ritual practice misunderstood explains the elaboration of myth." I regret 


to say that in the handling of this theory I find no approach to scientific 
rigour ; the results command conviction as little as the once fashionable 
vagaries of the devotees of the Dawn. The three cases elaborated are 
the myths of Erichthonios and Erigone and the story of Kephalos and 
Prokris. Miss Harrison is at her best in the interpretation and appraisal 
of works of ancient art. While her translations from the Greek are often 
incorrect, Mrs. Verrall's work on the other hand, is scholarly and skilful. 
F. B. TARBELL in the Classical Review, Nov., 1890. 

J. HENRY MIDDL.ETON. The Engraved Gems of Classical Times. 
With a Catalogue of the Gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum. Cam- 
bridge, 1891 ; University Press. 

The author of this most instructive volume very modestly says in his 
preface, " I have attempted to give a brief account of the engraved gems 
and other forms of signet which were used by the chief classical races of 
ancient times. The book is intended for the general use of students of 
archaeology, and has been written with the hope that it may in some cases 
lead the reader to a more detailed and practical study of this most fasci- 
nating subject." The book is of the nature of a treatise on ancient gems. 
It is strong in the use made of literary evidence from classical writers, in 
the analytical description of the various kinds of gems and their uses, in 
the exposition of the technique of gem engraving and in the cataloguing 
of the materials used for ancient gems. It is not so strong in the chap- 
ters which treat the subject historically. This makes us feel how desira- 
ble it is that extensive collections should be made of the impressions of gems 
from many museums, and that these should be carefully studied from the 
historical point of view, so that racial and local peculiarities might be 
brought out with greater clearness, and the successive changes in style and 
subject be more distinctly traced. But to any one who may undertake 
this work it will be a great help and stimulus to have before him a treatise 
like this by so careful a scholar and accurate observer as Prof. Middle- 
ton. For the collector and museum director also there are many valua- 
ble hints, which are helpful in distinguishing between genuinely antique 
and more modern reproductions of classical gems, as also toward the diffi- 
cult task of accurate description and classification. A. M. 

SALOMON REINACH. JBibliotheque des monuments figures Grecs et 
Remains. Vol. II. Peintures des Vases Antiques reeueillies par 
Millin et Millingen. Paris, 1890; Firmin-Didot. 
This is the second volume of M. Reinach's great corpus of ancient mon- 
uments, the first having been a rendition of Le Bas' Voyage Archeologique. 
This volume contains reproductions of the 150 plates of ancient vases pub- 


lished in Millin's two folio volumes, Peintures de Vases Antiques vulgaire- 
ment appeles Etrusques, and of the 63 plates in Millingen's Peintures 
antiques et inedties de vases Grecs. The reproductions are of good size, 
quite clear and distinct. M. Reinach writes an introduction of 142 pages 
in which he analyzes, or occasionally reproduces verbatim, the text of the 
original authors, and gives every fact of permanent value that has been 
stated by them. Not only is the owner of this volume practically as well 
off as if he had the costly original volumes, but has the following ad- 
vantages : M. Reinach often corrects inaccuracies of Millin's drawings ; 
he also discusses the interpretation of the subjects from the modern point 
of view, traces as far as possible the history of each vase, and gives a list 
of other references to and reproductions of each vase. All the new in- 
formation contained in the introduction is expressed in a direct and sim- 
ple style which adds to its usefulness. The author gives everywhere traces 
of wide reading. W. M. RAMSAY in the Classical Review, March, 1891. 

F. HAVEKFIELD. Ephemeris Epigraphica, vol. vn. Additamenta 

ad Corporis Vol. VII. 

To Mr. Haverfield has been entrusted, by the Berlin authorities, the 
task of editing the Latin inscriptions found in Britain since the issuing 
of the seventh volume of the Corpus some fifteen years ago. Such a piece 
of work was of the utmost necessity in Great Britain, whose ancient epi- 
graphic records have never been systematically and scientifically studied 
and are in a state of chaos. The present volume contains some 380 in- 
scriptions, most of them without striking interest or value : the most im- 
portant group is undoubtedly that which includes those found since 1883 
in the walls of Chester, already edited in 1888 in a most blundering man- 
ner by Mr. de Gray Birch. They are all of a good period, none proba- 
bly later than 200 A. D., and are in many cases inscribed below sepul- 
chral reliefs of considerable interest. They refer for the most part to 
soldiers of the 20th legion, and must once have stood in the legionary 
burying-place. For the manner in which Mr. Haverfield has accomplished 
his task we have nothing but praise. H. F. PELHAM, in the Classical 
Review, Feb., 1891. 

FERDINAND LABAN. Der Gemuthsausdruck des Antinous. Ein jahr- 
hundert angewandter Psychologic aufdem Gebiete der antiken Plastik. 
8vo, pp. 92. W. Spemann; Berlin, 1891. 

Ancient sculpture, although portraying a wide range of emotion and 
character, nevertheless makes considerable demand upon the spectator's 
fancy. The product of the sculptor's hand is more or less indefinite, hence 
the interpretations may differ widely. Impressed with the variations in 


the interpretation of the statues of Antinous, the author of this volume 
has gathered the judgments of some fifty writers from Winckelmann 
(1717-1768) to Dietrickson (1834-). These he has arranged chronolog- 
ically and finds that they may be divided into three general groups. 
First are the optimists, born before 1774 and expressing their judgments 
earlier than 1816. To this class belong Winckelmann, Meyer, Goethe, 
Adler, Heinse, Bromley, Levezow, Gruber, Beck. In general the judg- 
ments of these men presuppose the happiness and joy of living. Even 
the melancholy of the Antinous seems soft and sweet. Following this 
group are found two parallel but different classes of thinkers, the pessi- 
mistic-idealists and the realists. The former class consists of men like 
Schnaase, Braun, Stahr, Wieseler, Kugler and Carriere, who were born 
between the years 1798 and 1817, and expressed their judgments bet ween 
1843 and 1866. They see in the Antinous an expression of " Welt- 
schmerz," a portion of the universal sorrow in life. The realistic tendency 
is represented in the judgments of K. O. Mu'ller, Waagen, Friedlander, 
Burckhardt, Brunn, Heyse, Michaelis, Liibke and Helbig. These men 
in general are indifferent to the personal impression made by the object, 
and are interested rather in analysis, building up a general interpretation 
of an object through the consideration of details. Each of 'these groups 
of judgments evinces the changing spirit of the times. Thus from the 
wilderness of individual judgments we may secure what may be called a 
composite judgment. It may not present to our minds the sharp outline 
of the individual judgment, but it comes to us with greater authority. 
We have accustomed ourselves, by the historic method in archaeology, to 
judge of objects through a series of antecedent and subsequent forms. 
This little volume is an application of the same method to interpretation. 

A. M. 

BARBIER DE MONTAULT. Traite d' Iconogmphie Chretienne. Orne" 
de 39 planches par M. Henri Nodet, architecte. 2 vol., 8vo. VivSs ; 
Paris, 1890. 

This work is the first general treatise of any importance on the subject 
of Christian iconography from the artistic standpoint. It is not only a 
condensation of his predecessors' work but the result of personal labors of 
over thirty years. After an introduction treating of general iconographic 
symbols like the nimbus, the crown, costume, etc., the following subjects 
are studied in successive chapters: Time (zodiac, seasons, calendars, etc.}; 
Nature (sun, moon, elements, etc.) ; Man (soul, body, ages, wheel of fortune, 
death, etc.}; Virtues and Vices; Triumphs; the Sacraments ; the Sciences, 
Arts and Trades; Society (the Church, religious orders, etc.}. A second 


series of chapters treats of Angels and Devils, of God, of Christ, the Virgin, 
the Apostles, Evangelists, Saints and, finally, heresies. 

The examples selected give proof of the author's great erudition and his 
work is one that will be indispensable to the student of Christian art. 
EUG. MUNTZ, in Chron. desArts, 1891 , No. 15. Of. L. C[ROSNIER], in Rev. 

F. X. KRAUS. Die Christliche Inschriften der Rheinlande. Fol. 

Mohr; Freiburg-i. B., 1890-91. 

Prof. Kraus here publishes a complete collection of the Christian in- 
scriptions of the Khenish province anterior to the second half of the vin 
cent. They number about 300 : nearly all are funerary and two-thirds of 
them come from Treves (Germ. Trier). This latter fact is explained by 
the fact that Treves was made the residence of some of the first Christian 
emperors in order to more easily fight the barbarians. As M. Le Blant 
observes, the development of Christianity in Troves is due more to that 
cause than to evangelization, for the greater part of the inscriptions relate 
to persons of Latin race who took up residence there on account of the 
presence of the imperial court. On the contrary everywhere else Ger- 
manic names preponderate. Prof. Kraus has not confined himself to 
inscriptions but has included in his work all that constitutes the instru- 
mentum of Christian epigraphy, leading thus to the publication of a num- 
ber of monuments rings, seals, intagli, spoons, etc. It is to be regretted 
that the author has limited the size of the public that can make use of 
his book by omitting all transcription of the inscriptions and explanatory 
notes. Typographically speaking the book is a model : almost all the in- 
scriptions are given in fac-simile. E. J. ESPERANDIEU, in Rev. Art Chret., 
1891, No. 3. 

HEXRI-R,ENE D' ALLEMAGNE. Histoire du Luminaire depuis Vepoque 
Romaine jusqu'au XIX e si&de. Fol., p. VI, 702. Picard ; Paris, 

The subject of this book is novel and interesting. Lighting has held 
from the beginning in Christian worship an important place. The mate- 
rials are drawn equally from monuments, existing in churches and in 
collections, and from manuscripts and print. This sumptuous volume is 
illustrated by 500 engravings and 80 colored plates. The first chapters, 
somewhat perfunctory in character, relate to antiquity. For the early 
Christian period the author makes use of texts, most of which had already 
been collected by Cahier and Martin and by Labarte. These he does not 
in every case interpret correctly : he also shares the delusion about the 
panic of the year 1000 which has been proved of late to be imaginary. 


After this period the author enters more fully into his subject. The xi 
cent, is rather meagre, but the xn cent, is quite prolific especially along 
the Rhine. That France shared in the revival is shown by works at 
Reims (S. Remi) and Cluny. The candlesticks, sconces or lanterns, chan- 
deliers, and coronae or suspended crowns, remain usually the same in the 
xui as in the xn cent. But new forms begin to appear in the xiv cent., 
and from that time onward a greater number of specimens have been pre- 
served. The xv cent, was especially inventive ; and among other novel- 
ties are the torch chandelier and the helix chandelier. Too often the 
Renaissance was led to forget the true purpose of light-bearing objects and 
to be carried away by love of decoration. 

Throughout the book there is an abundance of material and informa- 
tion ; the illustrations are copious and there is a good index. MAURICE 
PROU, iufiev.Art Chret, 1891, No. 3. 

L. DE FARCY. La Broderie du XF Siecle jusgu'a nos jours, 

des specimens authentiques et les andens inventaires. Belhomme ; 
Angers, 1890. 

The first fasciculus of this work has appeared, consisting of 48 folio 
pages and 64 phototype plates, and forming about one half of the entire 
work. While tapestry has been carefully studied, the subject of em- 
broidery has been neglected, although this branch of the industrial art 
follows the same laws of development, has the same archaeological char- 
acteristics, the same laws of color, and illustrates similar subjects. The 
author has been known for years as a specialist in this field and treats it 
with thorough mastery. It is only recently that such a work could Jiave 
been safely attempted, for museums have been collecting embroideries to 
any extent only during some twenty years, and the inventories which the 
author uses as his second main source of information have been made 
known chiefly by modern publications. Especial attention is paid to 
technical processes, of which the author enumerates about thirty, and to 
the division also according to different kinds of design and ornamenta- 
tion. In connection with this section there is an historical sketch of the 
subject. M. de Farcy is interested in the modern revival of the art by 
the study of ancient models which such books as his encourage. JULES 
HELBIG, in Rev. Art Chret., 1891, No. 1. 

W. A. NEUMANN. Der Reliquienschatz des Hauses Braunschweig- 

Luneburg. Fol., p. 368. Holder; Wein, 1891. 

This monumental work is worthy of the magnificent collection now 
belonging to the house of Brunswick-Luneburg, which was the treasure 
of the Kings of Hanover. Dr. Neumann, to whom the task of drawing 


up the catalogue was intrusted, was well qualified to accomplish it as he 
adds to his ability as an archaeologist the acquirements of a liturgist and 
theologian. It is rather strange that in these days such a sumptuous book 
should be illustrated by superb engravings in black and white in the style 
of the xviii century, which have, it is true, the advantage of perfect ex- 
actitude as they are taken directly from photographs. These engravings 
number 325. Of the objects which they represent there are at least thirty 
of capital importance, of the highest artistic value, in the most perfect 
preservation, of unimpeachable authenticity: crosses, portable altars, 
reliquaries, bindings, liturgical objects. Above all others towers the 
famous piece signed Eilbertus Coloniensis me fecit. No. 27 is interesting 
because, though barbarous, it certainly illustrates the passage from the 
cloisonne to the champleve work. First among the rest are the two crosses 
called the Welfen Kreuz and the Velletri Kreuz, in both of which an en- 
amelled cross of very early date is enclosed in an elaborate frame of West- 
ern mediseval workmanship : the enamels have been repeatedly studied and 
cannot be securely pronounced Eastern or Western. Of nearly equal 
interest is the Stand Kreuz with its foot of three leopards. Among the 
rest there are several domical reliquaries, the silver repousse plaque of 
Demetrius and that of Duke Otho. 

The work presents the treasures of the collection in a worthy manner, 
and is a most important contribution to our knowledge of this branch of 
Christian art. F. DE MELY, in Rev. Art Chret., 1891, No. 2. 

LA COLLECTION SPITZER. Fol. Quantin ; Paris, 1890. 

This is an incomparable work from the character both of the collection 
itself and the men who have illustrated it. M. Spitzer planned, shortly 
before his death, to issue a superb catalogue in seven volumes. Of these 
two have appeared. The authorities selected to carry out the work were 
MM. Froehner, Darcel, Palustre, Eug. Miintz and Em. Molinier, all 
authorities in their specialties. The first volume includes the Antiques, 
Ivories, gold and silver work and Tapestries, illustrated with 63 folio 
plates and many insets. The antiques, consisting mainly of Greek terra- 
cottas and Etruscan bronzes, are catalogued by the careful hand of M. 
Froehner. M. Darcel had charge of the ivories. In cataloguing the 171 
numbers, he takes occasion to summarize the history of ivory carving from 
the early Middle Ages down to the xvn century, and each piece is exam- 
ined in its chronological order. The classes of objects are numerous 
coffers, croziers, horns, diptychs and book-covers, mirror-boxes, combs and 
statues of the Virgin of which there are a number of fine examples, espe- 
cially of the xiv-xvi centuries. The section of the collection whose wealth 
is incomparable is that of the works in gold and silver and enamel. For- 


table altars, paxes, chalices, reliquaries, ciboria, bible-covers, crosses, cen- 
ser?, flabella, clasps, ostensoria, statuettes these are some of the classes 
represented. The writer holds rightly to three western schools France, 
the Rhine, and Germany, but limits too much the centres of manufacture. 
He does not perhaps know sufficiently well the most stupendous collec- 
tion of enamelled works in existence that of the treasury of the Kings of 

The section on Tapestry is entrusted to M. Miintz, who excels in con- 
densation. It is a pleasure to follow him in his rapid description of the 
tapestries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance : M. Spitzer allowed 
in his collection only irreproachable specimens, twenty-three in number, 
eight of which are reproduced in chromo in a most wonderful manner. 
F. DE MELY, in Rev. Art Chret., 1890, No. 6 ; 1891, No. 1. 

JULES HELBIG. La sculpture et les arts plastiques au pays de Liege 
et sur les bords de la Meuse. Deuxieme edition. Fol. Bruges, 

This is a study of the history of sculpture in one of the most artistically 
fruitful parts of Flanders, which stood between the schools of Northern 
France and of Rhenish Germany. Not only the existing monuments, 
but manuscript sources of information, have been utilized and the work is 
that of a thorough specialist. The first chapter treats of the Carlovin- 
gian period, especially its sculptures in metal and ivory, and the second 
studies the Romanesque period from about 1000 to 1229, when art gradually 
develops out of barbarism. Chaps, in to v cover the history of sculpture 
from the xiu to the beginning of the xvi cent., the most brilliant period 
in the artistic annals of the province of Liege, and one which the writer 
makes known to us by a multitude of works, especial attention being paid 
to sepulchral monuments. In the early part of this period Hugo d'Oig- 
nies, and in the later, Hennequin or Jean de Liege, the official sculptor 
of Charles V, stand out with especial prominence. After studying the 
works of the Renaissance M. Helbig brings his study as far as the xvin 
cent. The illustrations are numerous, varied and good. EUG. MUNTZ, 
in Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 10. 

EM. MOLINIEE. Venise et ses arts decoratifs, ses musees et ses collec- 
tions. Fol. Librairie de F Art; Paris, 1889. 
This book has not only an expository but a practical and didactic ob- 
ject. M. Molinier seeks, by the reproduction of what he considers beau- 
tiful works of art, to influence the industries of the present day. The 
title of the book is rather misleading, for it is not a description of the 
monuments of Venice and their contents, but is based entirely on the 


Carrer Museum. It is divided into the following sections : bronze, pre- 
cious metals, ceramics, glass-ware, marquetry and wood sculpture, iron- 
work, tissues and manuscripts. Each chapter is in the form of a lecture, 
pleasantly told : a larger share than the average is given to ceramics, in 
which the author is an expert, and here precisely is a weak point, very 
little of genuine Venetian work being given. The illustrations are good 
and number 207. The book gives an interesting glimpse of the develop- 
ment of the smaller arts in Venice. F. DE MELY, in the Rev. Art Chret., 
1891, No. 3. 


LUCA BELTEAMI. II Codiee di Leonardo da Vinci nella biblioteca del 
principe Trivulzio in Milano. Traseritto e annotato. Fol., with 94 
plates. Dumolard; Milan, 1891. 

This manuscript is reproduced in fac-simile, with the transcription placed 
opposite, and is therefore a definitive edition of a very interesting MS. of 
Leonardo. It formerly belonged to the Arconati collection and was the 
only one not given by Arconati to the Ambrosian library : it passed into 
the collection of Prince Trivulzio. The contents interest history, linguistics, 
philosophy, architecture, chemistry, mechanics, optics and acoustics. It con- 
tains drawings of machines, grotesque heads, studies in architecture and for 
coats-of-arms : but the greater part is formed of long lists of words arranged 
in four or five columns like a skeleton dictionary of synonyms. This publi- 
cation increases the desire for the " Codiee Atlantico " promised by the 
Academy of the Lincei. EUG. MUNTZ, in Ghron. desArts, 1891, No. 12. 




ANNAM -120 

ARABIA, 121 




FRANCE, 176 




ITALY 146 

KRETE 132 







SPAIN, 175 

SYRIA 125 



ing letter has been received by the Earl of WharnclifFe, in answer to the 
memorial concerning the ancient monuments of Egypt presented by him 
to the Marquis of Salisbury : 

"Foreign Office, Dec. 25, 1890. 

" My Lord, I am directed by the Marquis of Salisbury to acknowl- 
edge the receipt of your letter of the 10th inst., and to inform you that 
the memorial enclosed therein, praying for the appointment of an official 
inspector with a view to the better preservation of the ancient monuments 
in Egypt, will be forwarded to Her Majesty's Agent and Consul-General 
at Cairo for presentation to the Egyptian Government. 

" Sir E. Baring will be instructed to state that Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment consider the question of the nationality of the official to be appointed 
to such a post to be a matter which lies wholly within the competence of 
the Egyptian Government, and that their only desire is that adequate 
steps should be taken to preserve the monuments from further destruction 
or mutilation. 

" Sir E. Baring will also explain to the Egyptian Government how the 
memorial came to be signed in two different forms. 

" P. W. CURRIE." 

We further quote the following from the telegraphic correspondent of 
The Times: 



" Cairo, Jan. 4. 

" The Egyptian Government have decided to appoint two European 
inspectors to insure the preservation of ancient monuments. The inspec- 
tion staff of the Museum is also to be considerably increased." 

" Cairo, Jan. 5. 

" The Egyptian Government has just approved the following regula- 
tions for private persons and scientific societies desiring to excavate for 
antiquities : 

" All demands are to be addressed to the Public Works Ministry, which 
can accept or reject them as it pleases. When permission to excavate is 
accorded, all unique objects found will belong, of right, to the Museum, 
disputes being settled by a commission of three persons, nominated, one 
by the excavator, one by the director of the Museum, and one by the 
Minister of Public Works. The surplus will then be handed to the ex- 
cavator on the conditions that the greater part is given to some public 
museum, and that a description of the articles found is published within 
two years. If these conditions are not accepted, the surplus will be 
equally divided between the excavator and the Government. Gold and 
silver objects in all cases are to be equally divided, on the basis of the 
intrinsic value of the articles." Academy, Jan. 10, 1891. 

for Preserving the Monuments of Ancient Egypt reports that the efforts 
of those who lately addressed Lord Salisbury in hopes of procuring a 
proper official supervision of the monuments have been successful. The 
Society now intends to promote preservation of the temples themselves, 
for which a subscription was started two years ago, and, to this end, has 
obtained leave from the Egyptian Government to put the temple at Kar- 
nak in repair. Accordingly the Society has, to begin with, offered to 
hand over 500, and makes a further special appeal to antiquaries and 
art lovers for funds to carry on this incomparably important work. 
Without aid of the kind in view a large number of the columns of the 
temple must fall, and thus irreparably injure other parts of the building. 
3,000 is required to put the remains in an efficient state of repair. Col. 
Ross, in consultation with Grant Bey, of the Public Buildings Depart- 
ment, Egypt, is to be entrusted with this duty. Athenceum, Feb. 14. 

EXCAVATION IN EGYPT. Mr. Petrie writes from Medun (Jan. 10) : "An 
important step has lately been taken in recognition of scientific work which 
will, I am sure, be gratifying to readers of the Academy. Some weeks ago 
an obstructive party in Egypt succeeded in forcing forward an entirely new 
regulation. By this the government were to take from excavators, firstly, 


all that was unique, and then half of the remainder. These terras would 
practically stop arch geological work, which always needs much unremun- 
erative expenditure ; as on such conditions a loss would only be avoided 
when roughly plundering rich cemeteries. As I was waiting to commence 
work, I at once protested ; and the subject was reconsidered. Sir Evelyn 
Baring's attention having been called to it, he made active representations 
on the subject; and, in consequence of his care and intervention, the cor- 
dial co-operation of the Anglo-Egyptian officials, and the goodwill of Kiaz 
Pasha, a reasonable arrangement has been passed by the ministry, on trial 
for two years. 

"The essential terms are that the Ministry of Public Worksjwill authorize 
suitable applications. That the Ghizeh Museum may take all objects found 
that are sanspareil in that collection ; the decision, if disputed, to be by arbi- 
tration, the Public Works turning the scale. That all the remainder be- 
longs to the finder if he will present the major part to public museums, and 
publish his results in two years ; if he will not do so, the government require 
half of the remainder. Gold and silver remain as before, half to the finder, 
by intrinsic value. 1 Thus a clear preference is given to scientific explora- 
tion on behalf of public museums. This is not a personal or a national 
gain, but a benefit to Egyptology in all countries ; and I am sure that it 
will be a satisfaction that this liberal policy should have been brought 
about by English influence and work. There has been enough of exclu- 
sive action in past time to make this public-spirited and impartial settle- 
ment a welcome change. 

" In consequence of the previously impossible terms, I am onlyjust begin- 
ning on this most interesting place. I have made a complete facsimile 
copy, full size, of the tombs, about eight hundred square feet, and colored 
copies of special signs. We learn much from these very early sculptures. 
An is not an obelisk, but an octagonal fluted column, with square tenon 
on top. Act is not a spear, but a papyrus column with bell top and a long 
tenon at the end. Hotep is a reed-mat in plain view, with a dish of offer- 
ings upon it, in elevation. Ma (sickle) always has teeth inserted, like the 
flint-saw sickles which I found. Men is the gaming-board, of 3 X 10 squares, 
in plain view ; with a row of ten pieces, alternately tall and short, in ele- 
vation on the top. Menlch is a chisel in a wooden handle. Net, supposed 
to be a bag, and to mean ' chancellor,' is an object suspended from a string 
of red and green beads. The object appears to be a green cylinder with 
gold end-caps, and if so it means 'sealbearer.' Shed is a raw-stripped 

1 1 may say that I always give my workmen the whole intrinsic value of what they 
find, as the only true way of securing it ; so that finding precious metals entails a loss 
of half the value to me, without any gain. 


skin, rolled up, fur out, with raw red flaps of the limbs and neck showing 
at the ends", and tied round ends and middle. Ur is the common wagtail. 
Many other points of great interest occur in the splendidly carved and 
painted tomb of Rahotep. But, owing to the lack of inspection in this 
country, this tomb has been left open of late years, and every face within 
reach is smashed. The pyramid of Rikka has disappeared altogether; and 
the pyramid of Medum has lost some 100,000 tons in the last half century, 
and is still the quarry of the neighborhood. Perhaps it will hardly be 
believed that the anti-English party here are determinedly opposing the 
appointment of inspectors. The monuments may go to pieces if some 
miserable political end can be gained. We may hope that, the excava- 
tion difficulty being settled, the inspection question will be likewise firmly 

" I bought in Cairo the oldest weight known, bearing the name of Khufu, 
It is marked ' ten units,' weighs 2060 grains, and so shows the Aeginetan 
standard at an earlier date than any example of the Egyptian Kat" W. 
M. FLINDERS PETRIE, in Academy, Jan. 24. 

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MONUMENTS. Mr. Wallis writes from Luxor, 
Jan. 13, 1891: "The announcement in the Academy of December 27, 
that a numerously signed memorial has been presented to Lord Salisbury, 
praying for the appointment of an official inspector of the Egyptian mon- 
uments, has given great satisfaction to those of us here who are interested 
in the subject. It cannot be too strongly impressed on archaeologists and 
lovers of art that if the monuments still remaining are to be preserved, 
the initiative must be taken by the Foreign Secretary. Whatever he 
orders will be carried out. But unless he gives precise and definite in- 
structions nothing practical will be accomplished. It might have been 
thought that the agitation of last autumn would have stirred the Cairo 
officials to action. It served no other end than to promote a certain 
amount of aimless discussion. The suggestions of members of the Antiqui- 
ties Committee like Gen. Grenfell and Col. Ross, who to a knowledge of 
the subject unite also an earnest desire to save the monuments, were invari- 
ably vetoed by the obstructive majority. If Gen. Grenfell resigns his 
membership of the committee, as he has stated he will, he would certainly 
be fully justified in doing so. 

" Sometimes, however, even on this question, the opposition finds itself 
rather sharply pulled up, as happened two or three weeks ago in the case 
of Mr. Flinders Petrie's excavations. He came out to Egypt last Novem- 
ber on the understanding that he was to work at the Pyramid of Meduii 
under the same conditions that he excavated last year at Hawara. After 
he left Cairo new rules were made by the committee, of such a nature 
that Mr. Petrie, on learning them, decided to abandon his work, and dis- 


charged his men. This was what the majority of the committee desired. 
The fact of his being an Englishman, and a very successful excavator, 
greatly esteemed at home and with a European reputation, offered a rare 
opportunity for displaying their animus. One member of the committee 
went so far as to say that ' Mr. Petrie must be made to understand that 
there is no room for him in Egypt.' Fortunately, the matter came to the 
ears of Sir Evelyn Baring, who summoned Mr. Petrie to Cairo, ordered the 
committee to abolish their late regulations, and in consultation with Mr. 
Petrie framed new ones, which will be decidedly more favorable to him 
than those under which he has hitherto conducted his operations. 

" This incident will explain to those interested in the preservation of 
ancient monuments how matters really stand here. They are sufficiently 
influential to demand of Lord Salisbury that the Egyptian temples be 
placed under efficient inspection. This can only be done by the depart- 
ment of public works. And when Sir Evelyn Baring informs Sir Colin 
Moncrieff and Col. Ross that the responsibility of preservation rests with 
them, unhampered with any conditions, we may entertain a reasonable 
hope that what yet remains of the monuments will not be lost. 

" As to their present condition, I notice a marked deterioration since 
last I visited Upper Egypt, three years ago. The natural decay has gone 
on to an alarming extent. Fine passages of sculpture, where the stone is 
saturated with nitre, can be obliterated by the pressure of the finger; and 
this might have been prevented if the stone had been properly washed 
when it was first uncovered. It is true that some tombs are shut in with 
doors; but the temples are unenclosed, and the natives have free access 
to them, which means that the decoration is at their mercy, the same as 
previously. In places where decayed stone ought to have been cut away 
and supplied with new, there is simply a plastering of Nile mud mixed 
with chopped straw. In short, the evidences of decay and wreckage in all 
directions is simply heart-breaking. 

" It cannot be otherwise under the present system. In the temperate 
climate of Western Europe it would be physically impossible for one man 
to direct a museum and overlook monuments extending over nearly a 
thousand miles. Consequently, for all purposes of practical study the. 
museum is next to valueless, and the monuments are passing away before 
our eyes. Whether the museum of Ghizeh shall fulfil the function it 
might for this generation, and whether the monuments are to be preserved 
for future generations, is in the hands of the educated public of Eng- 
land." HENRY WALLIS, in Academy, Jan. 31. 

Mr. Sayce writes from Assiout, Jan. 24, 1891 : "A somewhat slow voyage 
up the Nile in a dahabiah this winter enables me to give a fuller report 


on the progress made during the past year in the destruction of the ancient 
monuments of Egypt than is possible for those who travel by steamer. Mr. 
Wilbour's dahabiah has accompanied mine, and we have stopped at a good 
many places between Cairo and Siut. I find that the interesting tomb at 
Kom el-Ahhmar, near Minieh, the only one left out of the many described 
by Lepsius and other earlier Egyptologists, has shared the fate of the tombs 
of Beni-Hassan and El-Bersheh. Portions of the inscriptions on the walls, 
and even the ceiling, have been cut out or hacked off, and the rest of the 
tomb has been wantonly and elaborately defaced ; hours must have been 
spent in hacking the inscriptions and paintings with some metal instru- 
ment in order to render them illegible. 

" The tombs and ancient quarries towards the southern end of GebelAbu 
Feda, which, when I last visited the spot eight years ago, were only par- 
tially destroyed, have now been almost completely blasted away. The 
work of destruction is still going on merrily among the old tombs of El- 
Kharayyib. A little to the south of the latter are the cartouches of Seti 
II discovered by Miss Edwards. A year or two ago they were saved by 
Col. Ross from the quarrymen who were about to blast them away ; but 
his interference has produced but a momentary effect, as I find that con- 
siderable portions of the monument have been destroyed since I saw it 
last March. 

" One of the tombs at Telel-Amarna, and one only, has been placed under 
lock and key, now that, along with its neighbors, it has been irretrievably 
ruined. The two ' guardians ' appointed to look after the tombs live at 
Haggi Qandil, two miles off. They are natives of the place, and their 
efficiency may be judged of from the fact that pieces of inscribed stone, 
freshly cut out of the walls of the tombs, were offered to us for sale under 
their eyes. Anyone, indeed, who is practically acquainted with Upper Egypt 
well knows that the principal use of a native ' guardian ' is to draw a small 
salary from the government, supplemented by bakshish from visitors. For 
the protection of the monuments he does little, unless under the constant 
supervision of a European inspector." A. H. SAYCE, in Academy, Feb. 14. 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Miss Edwards gave at the last meet- 
ing of the Egypt Exploration Fund (Feb. 20) the following report on the 
Arch geological Survey actually in progress, conducted by Mr. Percy E. 
Newberry and Mr. George Fraser. These gentlemen had taken up their 
abode in one of the unpainted rock-cut sepulchres of Beni-Hassan, and 
were actively engaged in copying, tracing, and photographing the scenes 
and inscriptions which enriched the more famous of these historic tombs. 
They had already cleared out the accumulated rubbish of centuries, thus 
restoring the admirable proportions of these excavated chambers, and bring- 
ing to light inscriptions which had never yet been read. Mr. Fraser, having 


cleared out several of the tomb-pits, and discovered in one of them evidences 
of an original interment in the shape of a skeleton and a funerary tablet of 
the xii dynasty, was then engaged in surveying the entire terrace a task 
by no means easy, owing to the steep slope of the cliff and the difficulty of 
fixing his points. Mr. Newberry and Mr. Fraser had recently been joined 
by Mr. Blackden, an artist who was engaged in reproducing the colors of 
some of the more important subjects which had been outlined by Mr. New- 
berry on the scale of the originals.^ Academy, Feb. 28. 

from Farshoot, April 30 : " This last winter was the third season that cer- 
tain very popular blocks of wood inscribed with the cartouche of Seti I 
have been on sale in the antiquity shops of Ekhmim and Luxor. They 
all come from Abydos. They are wooden keys taken from the niches cut 
to receive them at the point in the walls of a temple where two large 
stones come together. Anyone who has ever visited the Temple of Seti I, 
at Abydos, knows that these blocks of wood are not lying round there loose. 

" The large stones are in some cases thrown off the wall, and in other 
cases the walls are quarried into, in order that these wooden blocks may 
be secured. Such is the story told me of the way in which the pieces are 
secured by a dealer, who also says that the pieces bring a good price, but 
that he is rather timid about selling them lest he get into trouble. 

" It is not long since we were given the report of how the temple at 
Abydos had been so shut in by a wall that only persons having tickets of 
admission can enter. However successful the Antiquity Administration 
may have been in closing the temple against sight-seers unprovided with 
tickets, it is evident that mutilators are still permitted to carry on their 
depredations almost, if not altogether, undisturbed." C. MURCH, in Acad- 
emy, May 16. 

THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF EGYPT. Mr. Wallis writes from Luxor, on 
Jan. 13 : "I stated that the temples were unenclosed. On my return here I 
happened to meet the modeller of the Ghizeh Museum, who asked me, with 
an air of triumph, if I had seen the temples at Abydos and was content 
with the precautions that had been taken to guard them, he himself hav- 
ing been there to direct the works. What I found was this : I had not 
long been in the temple of Seti I when at last I had a small crowd round 
me offering relics for sale. A remonstrance to the guardian resulted in 
an indiscriminate application of bastinado, and the crowd fled to the 
door, which was obligingly opened for them by another guardian. A 
similar performance was repeated several times during the course of my 
visit. It was the same at the temple of Ramses II. The fact being that 
my friend had placed doors to the temples at their entrances, but he had 
forgotten that access to them at the backs and sides was a feat that a crip- 


pie might perform with perfect ease." HENRY WALLIS, in Academy, 
March 7. 

EGYPT AND PALESTINE. Prof. Sayce writes from Luxor (Feb. 4) : "My 
voyage up the Nile this winter has, from a variety of causes, been some- 
what barren of results. At El-Hibeh, the ancient fortress of the xxi 
dynasty, a little to the north of the modern Maghagha, we found that a 
ruined temple was being excavated which had been built by Shishak, the 
conqueror of Jerusalem. The ruins lie on the south side of the mounds. 

" At Karnak Mr. Wilbour and myself went over the famous list of the 
towns of Palestine given by Thothmes III. I was particularly anxious 
to examine the third name, which follows those of Kadesh and Megiddo. 
Previous copyists had made it Kh-a-a-i, but a study of the Tel el-Amarna 
tablets had convinced me that it ought to be the city called by them Khazi. 
We gather from them that Khazi was in Northern Palestine, and the seat 
of an Egyptian governor who ranked next in importance to the governor 
of Megiddo. We found that the name given at Karnak is Kh-z-a-i, cor- 
responding exactly to the name given by the cuneiform despatches. Our 
predecessors had mistaken a very plain representation of the bird which 
denotes the letter z for the eagle (a). 

" It is curious that no one seems to have noticed that the name of Jeru- 
salem heads the list of conquered towns in Judah enumerated by Shishak 
at Karnak. It is called Rabbath, ' the capital,' just as the capital of the 
Ammonites was commonly called Rabbath by their neighbors, or as to 
this day the capital of Gozo is called Rabato, while the same name is 
often applied to the old capital of Malta. 

" Let me conclude with a suggestion for Old Testament students. We 
learn from Judg. in. 8-10, that the Israelites were oppressed for eight years 
by the king of Aram-Naharaim. The period of oppression would chrono- 
logically agree with the reign of Ramses III in Egypt ; and it was in the 
time of Ramses III that Egypt was assailed by a league, which included 
the people of Nahrina. Nahrina is the Aram-Naharaim of the Bible, and 
the attack upon Egypt would explain the presence of a king of that country 
in the South of Palestine." A. H. SAYCE, in Academy, Feb. 28. 

EGYPT, THE MINEANS AND THE HEBREWS. If Dr. Edward Glaser's sur- 
mise is well founded, an ancient contemporary monument attesting the 
presence of the Hebrews in the Delta of the Nile during the biblical 
period of their sojourn in Egypt, has at last been discovered. This emi- 
nent authority in the early history and geography, as well as inscribed 
stones, of Arabia, reports the Minean inscription, Halevy, No. 535, as 
referring to a battle between the South-Egyptian people, Madoy the 
police-guard known in the Egyptian inscriptions from the vi to the xxvi 
dynasties and the Egyptians (Misr), or rulers and inhabitants of the 


delta ; also as relating how the authors of this record, that is to say, the 
Minean governors of Tsar, A-shur, and, as Dr. Glaser believes, of "the 
Hebrews of the Canal-country," gave thanks to the Minean gods and to 
the Minean king Abijeda' Jeshi for their escape from peril during a war 
between the possessor or king of the South and the possessor of the North, 
and for their escape from the interior of Lower Egypt to the Minean town 
Karna-u, when the war broke out between Madoy and Lower Egypt. Of 
the places thus mentioned in this important text, Tsar is evidently the for- 
tress-town " Tsar-on-the-frontier," mentioned in the Tablet of Four Hun- 
dred Years, of which Prince Seti II was superintendent ; and A-shur is 
identical with the home of the Ashurim recorded in Genesis xxv. 3 "And 
the sons of Dedan were Ashurim:" also, as the Mineans escaped to Kar- 
na-u after they had lost Tsar and Ashur, the position of the Minean town 
Karna-u is indicated to be distant from the Egyptian frontier just where 
it is now recognized between Mekkah and Yemen. It is furthermore evi- 
dent, as Dr. Glaser says, that this intercourse between Egypt and Madoy 
in the Minean epoch can be assigned only to the latest period of the Hyksos- 
kings, or better still to the first years after their expulsion. Accordingly, 
the king of the South country must have been the last king in the xvn 
Egyptian dynasty, Kames?, or the first king in the xvui dynasty, Ahmes; 
and the latest king of the Hyksos was the one driven out by Ahmes, pro- 
bably Aapeh-peh or Aphophis. It follows that these Mineans were driven 
out of Egypt at the same time the Hyksos were expelled, of whom they 
certainly were allies, and possibly blood-relations. N. Y. Independent, 
May 21. 

EGYPTIAN SOCIETY. M. Golenischeff, the Russian Egyptologist, has 
acquired a papyrus which completes the text in which a list is given of 
the various grades of ancient Egyptian society, arranged in order of pre- 
cedence. The text has been translated and commented on by Brugsch 
and Maspero, and has thrown considerable light on life in ancient Egypt. 
Athenceum, May 16. 

announce that the Egyptian Government has granted Henry Brugsch 
Pasha permission to excavate in the Nile valley. From the long residence 
of the distinguished Egyptologist in the country, and from his intimate 
acquaintance with its geography in ancient times, important discoveries 
may be expected. It is probable that the Pasha will commence operations 
in the neighborhood of the first cataract. Athenceum, May 9. 

in the following words to the Acad. des Insc. on Jan. 23, the discovery by 
M. Bouriant of two monuments bearing names of the ixth or xth dynasty 
of Herakleopolis : " One is the palette of a scribe with the cartouche of 


Merikari, the prince who is named in one of the inscriptions of Siout. 
The other is a bronze vase on whose sides are cut in open work the legend 
of King Mirabri Khiti, who is placed by the fragments of the royal Canon 
of Turin in the xth dynasty. M. Bouriant believes that these objects 
are from Thebes ; but I have reason to believe that they come from tombs 
discovered at a short distance from Siout, three years ago, and which, 
from what I know of them, belong to the Herakleopolitan period. 

" The discovery of M. Bouriant is of the utmost importance. The Her- 
akleopolitan dynasties for a long time yielded up no records : the few 
monuments that belonged to them were classed in the xnrth dynasty. I 
had attributed to them the fine tombs of Siout, and the investigations of 
Mr. Griffith supported my opinion. Now, thanks to M. Bouriant, a new 
Khiti king comes to light. I attribute to him a certain number of scarabs 
with the Mirabri cartouche which have not been hitherto classified." Rev. 
Arch., 1891, No. 1, p. 116. 

THE PETRIE PAPYRI". In an interesting article in Hermathena, Professor 
Mahaffy prints the newly discovered fragments of the Antiope, and gives 
a fuller account of them than he supplied in this journal at the beginning 
of December. There seem to have been two columns in each page of the 
MS., which is supposed to have been a well-written quarto with a broad 
margin, each page containing some seventy lines. Amphion and Zethos 
appear to have enticed Lykos into the mountains by a friendly message. 
The first fragment mentions his guards and his entry into the house in 
which he was seized and bound. The next, the right-hand column on the 
same page, appears to be a rhesis refuting the claim of Antiope that her 
sons were the offspring of Zeus. The reader will remember in this con- 
nection the famous fragment quoted by Clement of Alexandria, in which 
Amphion throws doubt on his mother's assertion. The next fragment 
seems to be addressed by Zethos to his 'mother to calm her fears at the 
approach of the tyrant with the argument that if Zeus be really the 
father of her children he will aid them. We annex this passage as re- 
stored by Mr. Bury, remarking that in the fourth line the papyrus gives 
Mr. Bury defends his conjecture TTO.VT ovv by Herakleidai 793. 

yap T^uas Zeus 
TrX-qv fl /jifO' 17/x-aiv y fyOpov avSpa Turerat. 
IKTOLL Se TTO.VT ovv ets rocrovSe o-v/jL<f>opas, 
OOO-T' ovS* av K<t>vyoifJicv, d 
Alp*??? veoope? at/xa pr) Sovvai 
rots Spcoo-i S' rjfuv ets roS' ep^erai 
77 yap Oavetv Set ra>8' eV 


77x01 TpOTraia TroAejiuW o-rfjo-ai ytpL 
aXXa (TV fJLev ovrto, /J,f]Tp, e^avSoi raSe, 
/cA.v' , os TO XafJiTrpov cu0epos vateis TreXov 
ZeO, fto> TOCTOVTOV yu,^ ya/*etv /x,cv ^Seoos, 
o'TreipavTa. 8' etvai TOS TCKVOIS 
ou yap KaXov roS', dAAa 
o-oocrov Se, Trpos aypav T* cvTv^rj QtUffi 6SoV, 
OTTOS eXco/xev avSpa 
ToiovSe croi ^pr) 8o^ao*at 

The conclusion of this passage is occupied by the speech of Lykos when 
he first appears on the stage, and is introduced by a line of the chorus bid- 
ding the previous speaker be silent. 

The last leaf contains the longest fragment. It begins with the close of 
the song the chorus sang after Lykos had entered the house. From be- 
hind the scenes Lykos utters a cry for help, 

7ravTS OVK 

and the chorus breaks into an exulting chant as he is brought bound on the 
stage. An excited dialogue follows, and Lykos is about to be slain, when 
Hermes intervenes as the deus ex machind and gives orders for the build- 
ing of Thebes and the transfer of the monarchy to Amphion. The frag- 
ment closes with the reply of Lykos accepting the decision of the god. 
Athenaeum, Jan. 31. 

Professor Mahaffy writes in the Alhenceum : " Since Mr. Petrie's depar- 
ture I have received a number of fragments belonging to the same cases 
or the same necropolis as those already described, and among these, though 
classical fragments were very small and scarce, a good many dated docu- 
ments of the second and third Ptolemies came to light. These were either 
bills of labor one of them evidently from the very foundation of the Arsi- 
noite colony or brief records of lawsuits, giving the names of plaintiff and 
defendant and of the three judges who tried the case. Only one small group 
of wills these, too, of the year 10 of Ptolemy III came to light. The 
classical fragments are in course of publication in my forthcoming memoir, 
but, though interesting to the philologist, and raising many important ques- 
tions, they are not to be mentioned on a par with the Antiope. In addition 
to this mass of papyrus shreds I also received a box full of the actual cases 
of mummies, but very much lacerated and pulled in pieces. These remains 
I have been soaking in cold water till the lime or mud coating upon which 
the faces and decorations had been painted could be washed off, thus dis- 
closing the layers of papyrus which formed the main substance of the cases. 
Most of the written papers had been deliberately torn asunder by the coffin- 
makers, especially where the rounding of the limbs made large surfaces in- 


convenient, and many rags of coarse cloth were also used to bind edges. 
The tedious work of examining many scores of fragments in this way, one 
by one, is now well-nigh completed, and the result is that, in addition to a 
very few insignificant scraps of a classical character, we have a large num- 
ber of Egyptian documents, both hieratic and demotic, which must be sent 
to some specialist in that department, but which are doubtless accounts and 
receipts, as are the great proportion of the Greek documents. The task of 
deciphering cannot be carried on together with the washing and separat- 
ing ; and the ordering and analyzing of the accounts I have reserved for 
Mr. Sayce, who has already collected large materials from our studies of 
last year. But by the way I have picked out receipts, in the form quoted 
by Dr. Wessely from the Rainer papyri, viz., 6/xoA.oyto t\tw, with the name 
of the borrower and the bank agent apparently a branch agent at Croco- 
dilopolis, doing business for the great bank in Ptolemais. I have also depo- 
sitions concerning criminal cases or lawsuits among neighbors, begging peti- 
tions, fragments of other letters, and copies of orders by magistrates, one 
of them mentioning Jews and Greeks as living together in the village of 
Pseneuris (in the nome of Arsinoe), and paying the same capitation tax. 
But I have only been able to touch the skirts of the collection, and shall 
require a long time, and more help, before I can tell even approximately 
what the materials are which are growing under our hands. Meanwhile, 
my memoir on the Antiope, the Phaedo, the wills, and some of the other 
records, which are being autotyped, is going through the press, and will, 
I hope, be published by the Royal Irish Academy in a month or six weeks. 
" Quite recently Mr. Crum, of Saltcoats, who has in charge the Coptic 
papyri brought by Mr. Petrie from Hawara, sent me a few fragments of 
Greek written in uncials, and evidently of Christian origin. There were 
also some scraps in the large -official hand known as Byzantine. The 
uncial fragments were examined last week by my colleague, Mr. Bernard 
(Archbishop King's Lecturer in Divinity), who brought his theological 
learning to bear upon the very brittle and much dismembered text. He 
first determined the writing to be closely similar to, and somewhat later 
than, the well-known Codex z (palimpsest) in our library. This MS., with 
its curious A and M, has been hitherto unique in character, and its Egypt- 
ian origin only a matter of conjecture. All doubts on that point are 
now cleared away. As regards the subject-matterj^r. Bernard has actu- 
ally discovered that it comes from the very little known treatise of Cyril 
De Adoratione, so that even the shreds containing single words can now 
be placed. The papyrus is very thin, extremely brittle, and written on 
both sides. We have only small portions of about ten pages. In due 
time he will publish this interesting discovery. But even this palseograph- 
ical novelty is of little import compared to the enormous gain from the 


recovery of numerous dated writings of the third century B. c. We have 
now materials for a great new chapter, and that the first, in any future 
history of Greek writing. We have discovered how (1) professional 
writers of classical works, how (2) official scribes, and how (3) private 
correspondents wrote in those remote days. These alphabets will explain 
many of the difficulties of the later cursives in the museums of Europe, 
which make Greek papyri so obscure and intricate a study. 

" I may add that, in Prof. Wilcken's just-published Tafeln, No. vi gives 
an unpublished fragment of a gospel with similar A and M." Athenceum, 
April 25. 

THE CITY OF PUDHU-YAVAN. Professor KEALL writes from Vienna, May 
16 : " In the Academy of April 11, Mr. Sayce gives a translation of the 
most important passages in the cuneiform inscription relating to the in- 
vasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar in the thirty-seventh year of his 
reign. After the defeat of the army of Amasu, we read of ' the soldiers 
of the city of Pudhu-Yavan ... a distant district which is within the 
sea.' Mr. Sayce rightly compares this Pudhu with the Biblical Phut, 
which is mentioned by the Prophets together with Lud among the mer- 
cenary troops of Pharaoh. Two Egyptian identifications have been pro- 
posed for the Biblical Phut. The one compares Phut with the Egyptian 
Punt (P-wunt), a country upon the African coast of the Bed Sea, pro- 
bably the tract from Suakin to Massawah (see my Studienfur Geschichte 
Aegyptens) ; the other looks for Phut in Libya, agreeing with the old 
Biblical commentators. The second hypothesis alone is admissible. It 
is clear, then, that the Pudhu -Ya vans are Libyan-Greeks ; and conse- 
quently that the Greek town of Kyrene has the best claim to be the town 
in question. We learn from the classics the important relations of Amasis 
to the town of Kyrene, and also that the favorite consort of Amasis was 
a woman of Kyrene." Academy, May 23. 

been known that the Pharaoh of the Exodus, Menephtah, had a prime 
minister, who was the Fan-bearer to the king, chief herald to his majesty, 
priest of the order Ab, and who had been Beloved of Rameses Mer- Amen 
or Rameses II, father of Menephtah ; he bore the honorary appellation 
of Mer-an, and the Egyptian name of Rameses-em-per-Ra, but his real 
Ethnic name was Ben-Ma-tsuna, and the land of his nativity was Tsar- 
Ba-sana he was, therefore, a Syrian in Egypt, perchance an apostate 
Hebrew. Hitherto this modification of the biblical Bashan has not been 
met with elsewhere in ancient records; but now it turns up most unex- 
pectedly in one of the Tel el-Amarna tablets. The Rev. H. G. Tomkins 
had already extended the Egyptian conquests to the country on the east 
of the Lake Gennesaret and the River Jordan, only to be supported by 


Letter No. 132 of the Tel el-Araarna series, which was written by " Ar- 
tama-Samas, the governor of Tsiri-Basani," that is to say, the plateau of 
Bashan, of the Biblical land of Bashan. As the era of Amenophis IV, or 
Khu-enaten, the king of Egypt, to whom this letter was addressed, fell 
between one and two hundred years before Rameses II, Menephtah, and 
Ben-Ma-tsuna, the presence of the latter in Egypt may have been remotely 
due to the Egyptian conquest of or dominion over his native land. N. Y. 
Independent, April 9. 

working for the last month at Abu Simbel. An inscribed tablet, of which 
there appears to be no previous record, and two broken statues have been 
found on the west side of the Great Temple. The vast accumulation of 
sand at Abu Simbel renders the work of excavation one of unusual diffi- 
culty, as well as of promise. Academy, Jan. 31. 

AHNAS = HERAKLEOUPOLIS. At the recent annual General Meeting 
of the Egypt Exploration Fund Miss Amelia B. Edwards reported progress 
in carrying out the intention of the society to explore the site of Ahnas, the 
Biblical Hanes (Isaiah xxx, 4). Early in January of this year, M. Na- 
ville joined Count d'Hulst on the ground to be explored and began oper- 
ations. At first they attacked the outlying necropolis, and pursued their 
excavations during three weeks, but with no very encouraging results : 
they opened more than a hundred tomb-pits, but all had been plundered 
in ancient times and had been again used for interments in Roman times. 
Supposing the investigators to proceed as they had planned, they must 
now be trenching the area of the great temple of the place. Another great 
temple like that of Bubastis is not to be hoped for, but valuable historical 
discoveries may be confidently awaited ; for Ahnas el-Medineh (the Her- 
akleoupolis of the Greeks) represents the capital of that period in Egyp- 
tian history covered by the vin, ix, x dynasties of the Ancient Empire, 
at present almost a blank in our knowledge of Egypt. N. Y. Independent, 
April 9. 

The Athenceum of May 30 reports that the chief discovery, at the time 
when Count d'Hulst closed the excavations, was the entrance to a temple 
built or repaired by Ramses II. The remains of the columns belonging 
to the temple show that it must have been of great size, and as the banner- 
name of Usertasen has been found on the spot, it would appear that it 
occupied the site of an older building. 

BENI-H ASSAM. Now that the tombs of Telel-Amarna and Beni-Hassan 
have been almost hopelessly ruined they have been provided with locked 
gates. The money for the purpose has been provided out of the proceeds 
of the tax which has been levied upon tourists during the last three years 
for the preservation of the monuments of Upper Egypt. The perpetra- 


tors of the mutilation of the tombs last winter still remain unpunished. 
Athenceum, Jan. 17. 

The three members of the Archseological Survey of Egypt who have 
been working this winter for the Egypt Exploration Fund in the tombs 
of Beni-Hassan will remain there until the end of May. The cleansing 
of the walls of the tombs has revealed some most interesting scenes and 
hieratic inscriptions which throw light on the manners of Egypt before 
the age of the Hyksos. Athenceum, May 16. 

GEBELEIN. M. Grebaut has procured a Greek papyrus from Gebe- 
lein, south of Luxor, which seems to show that a Persian garrison exis- 
ted there up to the time of the Greek conquest of Egypt. Athenceum, 
May 30. 

writes from Medum, March 31 : " My work is now ended, as the question 
for which I came is solved : Medum is proved to belong to Snefru, and 
here, therefore, is the oldest dated pyramid. Moreover, there remains 
here in perfect condition the only pyramid temple ever yet found entire, 
the oldest dated building in the world. 

" As the position of the temple was quite unknown, and its existence 
only a speculation, I had to work blindly through forty to sixty feet depth 
of rubbish, piled up around the pyramid during ages of quarrying in its 
mass. The result justifies the attempt; for though the temple discovered 
is absolutely plain and uninscribed, yet during the xn and xvm dynas- 
ties visitors came here to the festivals of Snefru, and recorded their visits 
to his temple and pyramid in pious graffiti on the walls. That he was the 
genius of the place is also shown by a base of a statuette dedicated to the 
gods of a town, Tat-snefru, by a woman named Snefru-khati. 

" The temple is joined to the east face of the pyramid. The front is 
about thirty feet wide and nine high, with a door in the south end of the 
face. A passage parallel to the front, and twenty feet long, leads to the 
chamber, which is twenty by seven feet. A wide doorway leads from this 
into the open-air court built against the pyramid face. The altar of offer- 
ings, quite plain, stands in the middle of the court, and an obelisk on 
either side of it. These obelisks are over thirteen feet high, with rounded 
tops and uninscribed. Of course I have had to re-bury temple and tombs 
completely in order to preserve them, in the total absence of all inspec- 
tion or conservation officially. On clearing the interior of the pyramid, 
which was open from the north, I found in the rubbish the fragments of a 
wooden sarcophagus ; so the chamber already known was doubtless the 
sepulchre anciently plundered. 

" The construction of the pyramid has also been examined. It plainly 
consists of a small stone mastaba, heightened and built around repeatedly 


until there were seven steps of construction. Over all these a continuous 
slope of casing was added, so that it appeared with one long face from 
the top to the ground. This bears out what I had suggested years ago, 
that the mastaba repeatedly added to originated the pyramid form. 

" The tombs here prove to have been elaborately plundered in early 
times, when their plans and arrangements were well known to some per- 
sons. Forced holes leading straight to the chambers have been made, and 
nothing portable is left for the present age. Many tombs which contained 
only bodies have not been disturbed ; and from these I have collected 
over a dozen complete skeletons for study, which will give a starting-point 
at the earliest historical reign for comparing the types of Egyptians of 
later ages. A very important matter is the mode of burial. Hitherto 
we have always found Egyptians buried full length ; but most of these 
earlier bodies are crouched, many with the knees up to the chin. And I 
am told that many crouched bodies in large earthen jars were found lately 
at Gizeh, but were all destroyed. These bodies are always on the left side, 
with the face east, head north. This proves that a special idea was con- 
nected with such burials. But no funereal vessels or head-rests are found 
with these interments ; only around the body are sometimes a few scraps 
of charcoal, as if it had been surrounded by live coals at the time of 
burial. At the same period full-length burial was practised, accompanied 
by funereal vessels of diorite and alabaster and head-rests. This distinc- 
tion seems to be connected with the two races the aborigines and the con- 
querors, who were not yet fused together. 

" A good deal of the pottery of the iv dynasty has also been found. It 
differs from that of all later periods, and completes our historic knowledge 
of the pottery of Egypt. 

" The mode of laying out buildings has been found. A mastaba with 
sloping sides had to be founded on uneven ground. A wall, L-shape, was 
built outside of each corner. Levels on that were drawn a cubic apart ; 
red vertical lines on these walls defined the width of the building at the 
ground-level, and black lines drawn sloping down outwards from the red 
at ground-level defined the planes of the faces. From this perfect geomet- 
rical arrangement it was easy to start the work, no matter how uneven the 

" Besides this exploration, a survey of the place in general, and espe- 
cially of the exact dimensions of the pyramid, is now done. The first 
result of this is of great value on the geometric theory. The pyramid of 
Khufu, as we all know, is so proportioned that the ratio of height to cir- 
cuit is that of a radius to its circle ; and moreover the ratio of 7 to 22 is 
embodied by the dimensions of height and base being 7 and 11 times 40 
cubits, which strongly shows that 7 to 22 was the recognized ratio. Here 


in the pyramid of Snefru, which preceded that of Khufu, exactly the same 
ratio of 7 to 22 is found, the angles being alike. And, moreover, the size 
is such that the height and base are 7 and 11 times 25 cubits. Therefore 
the proportion in a pyramid and the use of the approximation 7 to 22 are 
both older than the great pyramid of Gizeh ; and this example strongly 
corroborates that theory of the dimensions. 

" An illustration of official amenities may interest Englishmen who do 
not know how things go here. This year an official spy has been appointed 
to watch me, although I have worked for eight years simply on my honor, 
and have not concealed anything from the Government. And I am told 
that I shall be charged for this benevolent attention an amount which is 
larger than the whole value of the things I remove. Meanwhile, a few 
miles off, natives have long been pillaging and destroying towns and tombs 
unchecked in a scandalous manner, because the staff is insufficient to con- 
trol them ! Those who know something of the state of officialdom here 
can understand what all this means." W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, in 
Academy, April 18. 

Greece, after concluding his excavations at Medum. The hieratic graf- 
fiti he discovered there, which have been translated by Brugsch Pasha, 
definitely settle the question as to the date of the pyramid of Medum, 
and show that it was built by Snefru of the third Egyptian dynasty. 
Athenaeum, May 16. 

SEHEIL. Mr. WILBOUR, the American Egyptologist, has sent his 
brother students of Egyptian as a New Year's gift a privately printed 
copy of the inscriptions he discovered last winter in the island of Seheil 
relating to the " canalization of the First Cataract." Seheil lies to the 
north of Philse, in the middle of ,the cataract, and one of the inscriptions 
states that a canal was cat through the mainland opposite, sufficiently 
large to admit the passage of war-ships, in the time of Usertesen III of 
the xii dynasty. The canal was reopened, as we learn from the other 
inscriptions, in the reign of Thothmes III. To the copies of these inscrip- 
tions Mr. Wilbour has added the copy of a recently found stele 1 which 
gives the names of certain Egyptian officers who, according to the Tel el- 
Amarna tablets, were sent as commissioners to the subject states of Pales- 
tine towards the close of the xvm dynasty. Athenaeum, Jan. 17. 

writes from Luxor, Feb. 10, 1891 : " On February 6 a discovery was made 
in the necropolis of Thebes, second only in importance to the discovery 
of the royal mummies at Dehr-el-Bahari by M. Maspero in 1881. About 
half a mile from Dehr-el-Bahari a pit has been found containing several 
hundred magnificent mummies. These, like the royal mummies, had evi- 


dently been removed from the tombs and concealed in this receptacle, as 
a precaution, by the servants of the priests, probably at the same time 
and for the same reasons which caused the royal mummies to be placed 
in the receptacle where they were found by M. Maspero. This removal 
is believed by M. Maspero to have taken place in the reign of Aauputh, 
son of Shashang, of the xxn dynasty (circa 966 B. c.). 

" The coffins hitherto found all belong to the xxi dynasty, and are those 
of the priests of Ra-Amun and their families. The pit is about forty-five 
feet in depth, at the bottom of which are two corridors filled with coffins 
and treasures of every description. In the lower corridor which as yet 
has only been explored it is computed that there are some 200 coffins, and 
the second corridor is believed to be not less extensive. The shaft is forty- 
five feet deep, its mouth is about twelve feet in diameter, and its sides of rough 
limestone. One of M. Grebaut's native assistants, who was superintend- 
ing the work of hauling up the mummy cases, told me that he had been 
the first actually to enter the corridor where the mummies and treasures 
lie. The shaft had then been excavated only as deep as the mouth of the 
corridor ; and he crept in on his hands and knees, and stood in what he 
describes as being like a palace of enchantment. The corridor, he said, 
is some ten or twelve feet high, and 250 feet long. It runs in a northerly 
direction from the shaft towards the Theban hill. At the end there is a 
short corridor branching from it at right angles ; and at some height above 
the floor at the end is the entrance to a second very long corridor, full of 
treasures, which has been sealed up for the present by M. Grebaut. My 
informant went on to describe the wonderful sight in the corridor. Groups 
of mummies are placed at intervals in families. The number in each group 
varies from two to six or seven, father, mother, and children ; and around 
them, exquisitely arranged, are vases, models of houses, models of daha- 
biehs, cases and boxes full of ushabtis, statuettes, and every conceivable 
treasure of ancient Egypt. Without even a speck of dust upon them, 
this profusion of treasures had remained unlocked at by any eye for nearly 
3,000 years. He said that photographs had been taken of the place in its 
undisturbed state, which he declared to be that of a perfectly kept and 
well arranged museum. 

" At the present time, thirty or forty men are working all day with ropes 
and pulleys, hauling up the mummy cases ; and in four or five days every- 
thing will be cleared out and carried on board M. Grebaut's steamers and 
barges, several of which are waiting to be filled. Long processions of 
natives, staggering under their burdens and escorted by mounted and 
well armed police, are now to be seen wending their way across the desert 
from the pit's mouth to the river bank." Academy, Feb. 28. 


M. Gre*baut writes to a correspondent in England : " The excavations 
were opened on the 31st of January, east of the Temple of Queen Hatasu, 
at Dair el-Bahari. Having cleared out a pit 49 feet deep, on the south 
side at the bottom the doorway was found closed by a pile of large stones. 
A first gallery, aligning north and south, after 250 feet went down by a 
flight of steps 17 feet, and .then continued 39 feet further to two funerary 
chambers, one 16 and the other 8 feet large ; at the top of the steps the 
doorway of a second gallery, 177 feet long, was encountered. 

" All of these subterranean vaults were filled with mummies, inclosed for 
the greater part in triple mummy-cases ; there were 163 of them. Upon 
a few of the outer chests the places for the names were left uninscribed. A 
dozen of the inner cases had been gilded, but the gold is scraped off, the 
hands and the gilded masks have been carried away. The sarcophagi 
were placed in these chambers without order ; often they were piled one 
upon another. The most recent, and the most numerous as well, belong 
to the twenty-first dynasty. 

" Such facts show that we have found a place of concealment made at 
the same time and in the same circumstances as that of the royal mum- 
mies of Dair el-Bahari, the latest of which were also of the twenty-first 
dynasty. The outer gilded cases of the royal mummies also had been 
damaged by thieves in ancient times; and, in like manner, the royal 
mummies were not all of them resting in their primitive inner mummy- 
cases. At the time of a removal made in haste, when these hiding-places 
were made, the inner mummy-cases whose exterior cases had been broken 
by thieves, were placed in other outer cases taken from factory stock, and 
often time lacked or care was not exercised to write the name on the new 
outer chests, which we find upon the inner mummy-cases. The names sur- 
viving upon the exterior cases are almost all those of priests and priestesses 
of Amen. There is, however, one priest of the Queen Aah-hotep (seven- 
teenth dynasty), a priest of Set, etc. These sarcophagi generally remain 
in fine preservation ; they are very beautiful, and their decorations ex- 
tremely delicate, rich and pretty. 

" While these sarcophagi were being taken out and transported, I had 
only just time enough to make up a brief inventory, comprising merely 
the names, and taking note of the state of preservation. Still, I have 
recognized some important personages ; one of these priests was set over 
the royal treasury, another was chief of the royal auxiliary forces called 
Mashu-ash, etc. ; there is, also, a Pinotem, son of Masaharta recalling a 
Masaharta of the family of the Pinotem (twenty-first dynasty) present in 
the find of royal mummies, and rendering it probable that we have now 
his son ; and several other names resemble those of the Pinotem family, 
such as Isi-em-kheb, Honttaui, Nesi-khonsu, Ra-ma-ka, etc. 


" In addition to the sarcophagi we have collected seventy-five wooden 
statuettes, each containing a papyrus within, some of which are of large size. 
Although we cannot doubt the papyri are all copies of the Ritual, it will 
not be without interest to possess the Theban Ritual of the twentieth and 
twenty-first dynasties, well characterized and defined. I hope that among 
the papyri which the 163 mummies ought to be provided with, there will 
be some texts other than the Book of the Dead. The other antiquities 
recovered in the subterranean passages with the mummies are curious, 
but, aside from a few stelae, offer no historic interest. 

" The discovery will be important for history, however, by reason of the 
genealogies and the titles of a series of priests running through several 
centuries, even if we do not find other manuscripts upon the mummies 
than funerary books. For religious studies the mine is richer still, from 
the fact that these sarcophagi of the priests are unlike others figures 
and scenes abound upon them, which are almost always something novel. 
Doubtless we shall obtain from among them the explanation of questions 
still remaining obscure, together with much unexpected information. As 
one or two unlooked-for examples upon a sarcophagus of the twenty-first 
dynasty, the God Shu, who sustains the heavens, is represented under the 
form of the god Bes, hitherto regarded as belonging only to a late epoch. 
The Akimd mentioned in texts are believed by many to be stars ; but they 
turn out to be the quadrupeds which tow the solar bark, eight in number, 
four white and four black, each group of four being formed of two white 
and two black, and they are not jackals because those of one group have 
ears shaped like the itas-scepter. New points of this kind are so numer- 
ous that the careful investigation of these sarcophagi will certainly ren- 
der great service to the interpreters of the religious texts. 

" In April, I intend to begin opening the sarcophagi, and the study of 
the inner mummy-cases which will permit us to make out a more exact 
catalogue of the discovery, and I then expect many surprises. I have 
often observed one name upon the cover and another name upon the ex- 
terior chest ; it is probable that the interior mummy-case will give, fre- 
quently, a third name, which will be the true one. The transfer, when 
this hiding-place for mummies was formed in antiquity, was done in a 
great hurry ; little inside mummy-cases were inclosed in large outer cases, 
which belonged to other mummies, perhaps destroyed, and those who were 
engaged in the removal put to service all the chests and all the covers at 
hand. I have no hope of finding royal mummies, for I have not come 
across any indication of such ; but, at the present hour, we have no knowl- 
edge as to what we shall find in some of these sarcophagi." N. Y. Inde- 
pendent, March 26. 


The Cairo correspondent of the London Times, telegraphing on Feb. 24, 
gives the following as the latest details, according to Nature of Feb. 26 : 
" The total underground area is about 153 metres, excavated m the lime- 
stone-rock to over 65 feet below the surface. The same disorder reigned 
amongst the contents of the tombs as was found when the famous royal 
mummies were discovered nine years ago. Sarcophagi were piled upon 
sarcophagi, and alongside were boxes, baskets of flowers, statuettes, fune- 
real offerings, and boxes crammed with papyri. There is every indication 
that the place, though originally constructed as a vast tomb, was chosen 
for hurried concealment in time of tumult. Some of the exteriors of the 
mummy-cases are unusually richly decorated with religious subjects, care- 
fully depicted ; others of large size enclose mummies in a broken condition, 
and were apparently procured hastily, as the spaces for the occupants' names 
are left unwritten upon." Science, March 20. 

M. Grebaut writes to the Journal des Debats, Feb. 7 : "At Deir el- 
Bahari I had seen the sarcophagus of a queen remaining in place. I 
conducted excavations on that side as it had never been explored. At a 
depth of fifteen metres the door to the underground passages were found 
where 180 cases of mummies of priests and priestesses of Ammon had 
been heaped up, with the usual accessories; among the first things seen 
were some fifty Osirian statuettes, the first ten examined containing each 
a papyrus. Immense cases with triple coffin are very numerous. Among 
them one of a priest of Tah-Hotep. 

" Against the south side of the temple I was seeking for a table of offer- 
ings of the xi dynasty left in situ . . . and in doing so came upon the 
door of a tomb of the xi dynasty that had remained untouched. It be- 
longed to a priestress of Hathor named Ament. At the further end of 
the small sepulchral chamber was an enormous sarcophagus of calcareous 
stone without decoration or inscription containing a broken wooden case 
with engraved and painted inscriptions. Around the priestess's mummy 
are about ten pieces of stuff with manufacturer's marks, the mention of 
the year xxiv but without any royal name. There were four mirrors, 
three of silver and one enamelled. In front of the stone case was a 
wooden coffer similar to the priestess's mummy case, containing the skins 
and bones of two bulls, the remains of her trousseau and three nets for 
perfume vases." 

We read in the Chronique des Arts, 1891, No. 8 : " There were also 
found 110 cases containing statuettes and votive offerings, 77 papyri and 
a quantity of other objects." 

Jan. 8, 1891, says : " The excavation of the Theban temples is proceed- 
ing apace, and new discoveries are daily being made. The great hall of 


the Palace-Temple of Eameses III at Medinet Habu has been cleared of 
about fifteen feet of rubbish. Three days ago the staircase ascending to 
the top of the great northern pylon was discovered. The summit of this 
pylon commands a magnificent view, probably the best of the whole plain 
of Thebes the colossal statues of Amenhotep III in the foreground, the 
Kameseum in the middle distance, and, across the river, the temples of 
Luxor and Karnac. 

" Still more interesting results have been yielded by the excavation of 
the Temple of Rameses II at Luxor. Thirteen colossal granite statues 
of Rameses have now been discovered, and there must be three more be- 
neath the mosque. Built into a wall, probably of late Roman date, 
which runs across the floor of this temple, are cartouches of Khu-en-aten 
and his wife, proving that before the heretic king abandoned Thebes he 
must have erected a temple, which was destroyed by his successors. Close 
by, at a level below the floor of the temple, the workmen found, yesterday, 
an uncompleted granite statue. The greater part is only roughly chiselled 
out ; the nose is finished, but the eyes and mouth have not been commenced, 
the block of granite having split in two while under the sculptor's hands. 

" Two days ago a still more important discovery was made. On the 
western wall there is a picture, about six feet by four, of Rameses II ded- 
icating his temple to Amun-Ra. In this picture there is a capital repre- 
sentation of the completed temple as seen from outside the western pylons. 
Both the obelisks are shown, and the four great masts, with their flags 
displayed. There are now only three colossi outside the pylons ; but the 
picture of the temple shows that there must originally have been six, two 
seated, and four in a standing position. The portal between the pylons, 
of which no vestige now remains, is also shown, as well as the entrances 
to the two staircases which led to the summit of the pylons. With the 
aid of this representation there will be no difficulty in discovering the 
staircases themselves, as their position is exactly indicated. The entrance 
to the southern staircase is, however, now buried under some twenty feet 
of soil and rubbish, which will have to be removed. When this is done, 
and access is gained to the roof of the pylons, another attractive feature 
will be added to Luxor, as the view from the summit will doubtless be 
superb. I may add that, in the little granite temple, a cartouche of the 
xn dynasty has been discovered, as well as one of Thothmes III." 
Academy, Jan. 24. 


by M. de Vogue to the Acad. deslnscr. on March 13, and an article by the 
excavator in the Rev. Arch, for Jan.-Feb. 1891 (pp. 52-69) give an account 
of the latest discoveries of Punic tombs at Carthage by Father Delattre. 


M. Perrot speaks thus of a study by Father Delattre published in 1890 
which is entitled : Les tombeaux puniques de Carthage (8vo., Lyons, pp. 
124). " In it are given all the requisite details on the tombs of the Punic 
period discovered and excavated at Carthage either by Father Delattre or 
other explorers. All these discoveries complete and illuminate each other. 
Thanks to the researches of Father Delattre and to the material he has col- 
lected, the chapter which I had devoted in the Histoire de I' Art, t. in, to 
the Phoenician tomb in Africa and its contents should be to-day consider- 
ably enlarged. It also contains curious information regarding the art of 
the Carthaginian ceramist." 

The new discoveries connect immediately with those described in the 
above brochure. M. de Vogue says of the recently discovered tombs in 
this ancient necropolis of Byrsa, that they are of the same character as 
previous ones but that the objects they contain are more interesting. To- 
gether with vases, lamps, Egyptian necklaces of types already known, he 
has found jewelry in gold and silver, and, for the first time at this point, 
a written text. On the belly of a rude vase, a single formula is traced 
four times in ink, which M. de Vogue reads: "Abdbaal, deceased." The 
characters are Aramaean and similar to those on papyri and ostraca found 
in Egypt ; an interesting point which M. de Vogue expects to elucidate in 
the future. 

The discoverer, Father Delattre gives in detail the discovery of each 
tomb and its contents. Tomb I was opened July 4 by a horizontal trench 
up to the door instead of the usual well dug perpendicularly. A Byzan- 
tine and a Roman wall were passed and remains of Greek, Roman, Chris- 
tian and Arabic monuments and objects, as well as a simple Punic trench 
tomb. The door of the large tomb was of tufa, 2 met. high, and it was 
untouched. The funerary chamber had a flat ceiling and was paved with 
four large slabs closing two sarcophagi. One skeleton was lying on the 
left : two niches on either side of the end contained each two large vases, 
and another vase of whitish earthenware and pointed base lay below them. 
A circular mirror, a bronze hatchet, three amulets, a Bes and two small 
figurines, one with a dog's head and the other with a hawk's head, bits of 
cloth and wood from the coffin, were found about the body. In the niches 
were two paterae, two Punic lamps, a small hatchet, two bronze ring buck- 
les. The sarcophagi when opened contained their bodies but no object 
beside part of a bracelet. The tomb will remain open and be one of the 
principal sights of Mt. Byrsa. 

Tomb ii was discovered August 28. It consisted of two slabs covering 
a trough containing several skeletons. Here was found a vase of red 
clay with conical base with the first Punic characters met with in the necro- 
polis. Several examples of well-known forms of pottery were found, be- 


sides a fine vase decorated with a violet band between two black lines, 
which is a kind not occurring hitherto except in the necropolis by the sea. 
The contents seem to show that the tomb had been used several times at 
different periods. 

Tomb in was opened on Sept. 10, very near the preceding and was 
quite a surprise from its contents. With three skeletons and an interior 
half filled with earth were a Punic coin, and twenty terracotta tear-bot- 
tles, found here for the first time. One Punic vase shows the use of the 
turning lath a unique example in Punic ware. 

Of the greatest importance was tomb iv, opened Oct. 4. It was only a 
trench covered with slabs, but it contained a rich collection of funerary 
objects in gold, silver, bronze, glass, ivory and other materials, as follows: 
Gold : a diadem formed of a band 36 cent, long ; a pendant ending in 
the shape of a crux ansata. Silver : a ring ; a male statuette, standing 
stiffly, with left leg advanced and arms clinging to body ; a spherical 
bead ; a small pendant tablet, probably an amulet. Bronze : two disks, 
probably cymbals or castagnettes ; a circular mirror ; an arrow-head ; a 
vase handle. Ivory, shell, etc. : an ivory tablet of rectangular form whose 
surface is decorated with figures and designs that have partly disappeared, 
enough remaining to show that it was in Assyrian style ; two large pin- 
heads ; a bivalve shell of the genus Pecten, whose two valves are joined 
by a brass wire while a bronze ring is placed in the centre of the flat 
valve ; eighty-one remnants of ostrich eggs, one of which has a decora- 
tion of red lines forming squares, while others also preserve traces of their 
vermillion decoration ; one fragment also proving that the edge of the 
vases thus formed was sometimes dentelated ; two pieces of black sub- 
stance, one of hard silex, the other bituminous. Glass, etc. : a necklace 
composed, besides some beads of bronze or agate, mainly of beads of 
glass paste among which are four scarabs, several figures of Bes, six fig- 
urines of black paste, four masks, the winged figure of a man with a 
monkey's head, a cow, a uraeus, a lotus flower, two small unguent vases ; 
a mass of over four thousand beads, red, white, yellow, orange, green, 
brown and black. Ceramics : a vase of greyish earth with cover and two 
handles, containing human remains ; two vases of red ware resembling 
censers in shape ; two bottomless conical goblets of red ware which may 
have been musical instruments ; three cups, wide and low, decorated with 
black lines on a light red ground ; a small CORINTHIAN OINOCHOE, nearly 
hemispherical in shape and with broad base, short neck and small pinched- 
in mouth, and high handle. This vase has a decoration consisting of a 
band of lean animals with raised tails around its centre, while above 
and below is a linear decoration in white or dark color. Beside some more 
ordinary pottery there was an unpolished alabastrum. 


Tomb v was opened on Nov. 1 4 and was similar in shape to the preced- 
ing. It contained an entire ostrich egg, unpainted, and fragments of 
another ; three vases; aPecten shell ; a bronze hatchet ; a bronze mirror ; a 
small unguent vase of brown glass with yellow incrustation ; some odori- 
ferous gum-like incense (perhaps ladanum) ; parts of a necklace, etc. 

The sixth and last tomb was opened Nov. 16 and contained merely a 
lamp and three vases. 

CARTHAGE. ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. Father Delattre communicated 
to the Acad. des Inscr. on Jan. 2, through M. He"ron de Villefosse: (1) 
the epitaph of a soldier of the first urban cohort, a corps detached from 
the municipal guard of Rome and sent to Africa to become for the pro- 
curators a militia capable of aiding them in collecting the imperial reve- 
nues and of lending aid in guarding the imperial domains ; (2) a note 
on a pagan mosaic, decorated w : ith a central medallion which represents 
Amor and Psyche with Latin inscriptions alluding to the all-powerful- 
ness of Love; (3) a fragment of inscription giving a list of legionaries 
with the country of each one, the cities enumerated being in Lusitania 
and Italy. 


TIPASA. BASILICA OF ST. SALSA. M. 1' Abbe Duchesne communicated 
to the Acad. des Insc., on March 13, the discovery made in the basilica 
of St. Salsa at Tipasa of a number of inscriptions. In the centre of 
the building a rectangular base was found which supported the sarco- 
phagus of the saint : the sarcophagus itself was also found, broken into 
many fragments. Between the tomb and the apse was a mosaic inscrip- 
tion in the pavement composed of seven rude hexameters giving the name 
MERUIT CAELO SEMPER HABITARE BEATA. Within the masonry of the 
base was found the pagan epitaph of oneFabia Salsa who died at sixty-two 
years, doubtless of the same family. Ami. des Man. 1891, p. 109. 


RESEARCHES OF M. DE LA MARTINIERE. M. Heron de Villefosse reported 
to the Acad. des Inscriptions on Feb. 13, the results of the last archaBologi- 
cal campaign undertaken in Morocco by M. de la Martinire. 

At Lixus : a votive inscription in Phoenician letters, the first Semitic 
inscription found in this locality and giving promise of further discoveries 
of the same nature. 

At Volubilis the epigraphic harvest continued to be abundant ; thirty- 
five inedited inscriptions were found, mostly epitaphs. One is a long 
dedication of the year 158 by the members of a religious college or asso- 


ciation, the cultores domus Aug(ustae). This interesting inscription, which 
contains the name of a new governor of the province, Q. Aeronius Monia- 
nus, was discovered in the interior of a large building which was probably 
the meeting house of the association. Another text, of the time of Marcus 
Aurelius, mentions a conference held by the procurator of Tingitana with 
a chief of tribe, a princeps gentium, whose name is wanting. The tribe 
mentioned was probably that of the Baquates, one of the most important 
in the country. Among the Roman epitaphs, it is strange to find one 
which does not read, like Roman texts, from left to right, but like Phoe- 
nician texts, from right to left. .Rev. Arch., 1891, p. 236. 


SERPENT WORSHIP. At a meeting of the Asiatic Society, April 20, Sur- 
geon-Major Oldham read a paper On Serpent Worship in India. He be- 
gan with the inquiry " Who were the Nagas over whom, according to the 
Rajatarangiri, Nila reigned when Kashmir was raised above the waters?" 
In the Puranas the Nagas are generally described as supernatural beings 
or actual serpents, and are consigned to subterranean regions. But in 
earlier writings they are mentioned as a people, and as ruling in the val- 
ley of the Indus and the neighboring country, with Patala and other cities 
as their capitals. The author identifies the Nagas with the Takhas, a Raj- 
put tribe occupying the mountainous country to the eastward of Kashmir. 
These people have remained under more or less independent chiefs of their 
own race until comparatively recent times. They have escaped conversion 
to Islam, and have saved their temples and their idols from Mohammedan 
iconoclasts, and their religion from the orthodox Mahman. Here the ser- 
pent gods are still worshipped with their ancient rites not as dangerous 
reptiles nor as symbols, but as the deified rulers of a once powerful people. 
The serpent gods Sesha, Vasuki, Jahshaka, and others are represented in 
human form, but with the hoods of five, seven, or nine Nagas or cobras 
expanded over their heads, as shown in the illustrations to Fergusson's 
" Tree and Serpent Worship." Tradition asserts that these Naga chiefs 
were rulers of all the country round and of a great part of India. A 
yearly pilgrimage still takes place to a mountain lake, called the Kailas 
Kund, which is held sacred as having afforded a retreat to Vasuki when 
surprised by his enemy Garuda. The Takhas are a remnant of a power- 
ful Rajput tribe who once ruled the Indus valley and nearly the whole 
Panjab, and who sent out colonies to the coasts of India, Ceylon, and the 
Indo-Chinese peninsula and islands. The author observed that the legend 


of the churning of the ocean by the serpent Vasuki refers to the com- 
merce carried on by that chief or his people with distant lands. He then 
went on to show that the Nagas were Asuras, that the Asuras were of the 
same race as the Suras or Devas, and that, consequently, the Nagas were 
an Aryan tribe. One result which the author arrives at is that the Bud- 
dhist and Jaina religions arose among the Naga people, and that Buddha 
himself was probably of Naga race. Hence the close connection between 
the serpent and Buddhism which has given rise to so much speculation. 
Surgeon-Major Oldham sums up the results of his inquiries thus : 1. That 
the Nagas were a sun- worshipping, Sanskrit-speaking people whose totem 
was the Naga or hooded serpent. 2. That they became known as Nagas 
from the emblem of their tribe, with which, in process of time, they be- 
came confounded. 3. That they can be traced back to the earliest period 
of Indian history, and formed a portion of the great Solar race. 4. That 
they, with other divisions of this race, at first occupied the north and 
west of India, but afterwards spread towards the east and south. 5. That 
some of these tribes, and among them the Nagas, retaining their ancient 
customs, and not readily admitting the ascendency of the Brahmans, were 
stigmatized as Asuras. 6. That among a portion of the descendants of 
this people Naga-worship in its primitive form still survives, and that it 
consists in the adoration, as Devas, or demi-god, of the ancient chieftains 
of the tribe. 7. That the connection between the serpent and the Bud- 
dhist and Jaina faiths can be thus explained. 8. That in all Asiatic 
countries it was the Naga or hooded serpent 'only which was held sacred. 
Athenceum, May 2. 

The following paper from Dr. E. Hultzsch, Government Epigraphist, 
to the Chief Secretary to Government, dated Bangalore, 6th April 1891, 
No. 79, was issued on June 10th. 

I have the honor to submit my progress report for October 1890 to 
March 1891. During this period the first part of the inscriptions of the 
Tanjore Temple (South Indian Inscriptions, vol. u) has been nearly com- 
pleted. It will be ready for issue in a few weeks, and the second part 
before the next camping season. Part I contains six long inscriptions 
of the Chola king Rajaraja, who ruled from about 1004 to about 1032 
A. D., fourteen inscriptions of his son and successor, Rajendra-Chola, two 
of Kone'rinmai-kondan, and one of Tirumalaideiva, dated 1455 A. D. In 
order to expedite the correction of the proofs, the government permitted 
me to stay at head-quarters during the major part of the past cool season 
(G. O., dated 30th October 1890, No. 724, Public), and I was only away 
from the 13th November to the 24th December 1890, in order to prepare 
mechanical copies of those thirty-seven inscriptions of the great temple 


at Tanjore which, through want of time, were only copied in writing in 
1887-88. . . . The remainder of the time was employed in visiting a few 
remarkable places in the neighborhood of Tanjore. 

KARUVUR. The town of Karuvur, which is situated on the railway 
from Erode to Trichinopoly, is one of the chief finding-places of Roman 
coins. The Rev. H. Little, of the Wesleyan Mission, possesses a large 
number of specimens of two silver coins, which have all been unearthed 
at Karuvur. The two types are: No. i. Denarius of Augustus Ob- 
verse : Head of the emperor ; legend, Ccesar Augustus Dim F[ilius~\ Pater 
Patrice. Reverse : Armed figures of the two sons of Augustus ; legend, 
C[aius] L\ucius] Ccesares Augusti F\ilii\ Co\n]*\ules] Desig\_nati] Prin- 
c[ipes] Juvent[utis]. No. n. Denarius of Tiberius Obverse : Head of 
the emperor; legend, Ti[ferius] Ccesar Divi Aug[usti] F\ilius] Augustus. 
Reverse: A sitting figure ; legend, Pontif[ex] Maxim[us]. Of the second 
type several specimens turned up last year in the Bangalore Cantonment 
bazaar. . . . The fact that Roman imperial coins are found in such num- 
bers at Karuvur proves it to be an ancient centre of commerce. Accord- 
ing to the Tamil Dictionaries, Vanji, alias Karuvur, was the old capital 
of the Chera kings, and Dr. Caldwell ( Comparative Grammar, p. 96 of the 
Introduction) has satisfactorily identified it with Ptolemy's Kdpovpa (3a<ri- 
\iov KypopoOpov, " Kartira, the capital of the Che'ra king." The name 
Vanji was subsequently transferred to Tiruvanjikkulam or Kodungallur 
(Cranganore), the later capital of the Kerala Perumals (Dr. Gundert's 
Malaydlam Dictionary, s. v. Vanji). In the inscriptions of the Karuvur 
temple, the town is called Karuvur or Mudivarangu-Cholapuram. It be- 
longed to Vengala-nadu, a division of the Kongu country (No. 61). The 
old name of the temple, which is preserved in the inscriptions and in the 
Tamil Periyapurdnam, was Tiruvanilai-Mahadevar, " the lord of the sacred 
cow-stable." The modern designation Pasupatisvara is a Sanskrit render- 
ing of this Tamil name. The two earliest inscriptions of the Karuvur 
temple belong to the ninth year of the reign of the Chola king Ko-Para- 
kesarivarman, alias Raje'ndrad^va (No. 59) or Rajendra-Choladeva (No. 
65), who seems to have been the successor of his namesake, the great 
Rajndra-Choladva of the Tanjore inscriptions (see paragraph 1, above). 
Just as an inscription of his third year at Tiruvallam (No. 75 of G.O., 
dated llth March 1890, No. 189, Public), one of his fifth year at Virin- 
chipuram (South Indian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 134), and two of his ninth 
year at Mamallapuram (Carr's Seven Pagodas, pp. 142 and 144), the two 
new inscriptions record that the king defeated Ahavamalla at Koppam on 
the bank of the Peraru. This Ahavamalla is the Western Chalukya king 
Ahavamalla II or Somesvara I, who ruled from about Saka 964 to about 
990, and Koppam, the place of his defeat, has to be identified, as sug- 


gested by my assistant, with Koppa on the Tunga river in the Kadur 
district of the Maisur State. The next in chronological order is the in- 
scription No. 58, which is dated in the third year of K6-Rajakesarivarman, 
amsVira-Rajndradeva. In this inscription and in an inscription of his 
sixth year at Tiruvallam (No. 16 of G.O., dated llth March 1890, No. 
189), the king claims to have conquered Ahavamalla. The new inscrip- 
tion further reports that he defeated Vikkalan, the son of Ahavamalla, at 
Punal-Kudal-sangam (i. e., " the junction of the rivers"), and drove him 
out of Gangapadi, be*yond the Tungabhadra river, and that he killed the 
mahadandanayaka Chamundaraja. As he bore the surname Rajakesariu, 
Vira-Rajendradeva must be distinct both from the great Rajendra-Chola- 
deva and from Rajendradeva, whose surname was Paraksarin, and he was 
probably a successor of the last-mentioned king, as he continued to fight 
with Ahavamalla and was also at war with Ahavamalla's sou Vikkalan, 
who might be identified with the Western Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. 
(Saka 997 to 1048). The mahadandanayaka Chamundaraja is perhaps 
identical with the mahamandalesvara Chavundaraya, who, according to 
Mr. Fleet's Kanarese Dynasties (p. 45), was a tributary of Ahavamalla II. 
The historical portion of the inscription contains some other statements 
which may become important when this obscure period of the Choi a gene- 
alogy should be cleared up through new discoveries. The king is said to 
have conferred the title of Rajaraja on his elder brother, the title of Chola- 
Piindya and the sovereignty over the Pandya country on his son Garigai- 
konda-Chola, and the title of Sundara-Chola on Mudikonda-Chola, whose 
relation to the king is not specified. At the time of the inscription, the 
king resided at the palace of Gangaikonda-Cholapuram, now a ruined city 
in the Udaiyarpalaiyam taluk of the Trichinopoly district. The remain- 
ing Karuvur inscriptions belong to Vira-Chola (No. 62), to Vikrama- 
Choladeva (No. 63), to " the emperor of the three worlds Kulotturiga- 
Choladeva, who was pleased to take Irani (Ceylon), Madurai (Madura), 
the crowned head of the Pandya king, and Karuvur" (Nos. 60 and 61), 
and to Kone'rinmai-kondan (No. 66). The last name signifies: he who 
has assumed the title "the unequalled among kings" and occurs elsewhere 
as the surname of various Choja and Pandya kings. 

SOMUR. Near the village of Somur, seven miles east of Karuvur, there 
is a small deserted temple called Somesvara, the walls of which are covered 
with Chola inscriptions. The most ancient among them is a defaced frag- 
ment of Madirai-konda K6-Parakesarivarman (No. 68). The remaining 
inscriptions, two of which were copied (Nos. 67 and 69), belong to Rajaraja 
and Rajendra-Chola and do not add any new historical details to the Tan- 
jore inscriptions of these two kings. At the time of the inscriptions, the 
temple, which is now surrounded by fields, was situated in the hamlet of 


Tirunombalur, which formed part of the village of T^vanappalli, proba- 
bly the ancient name of Somur. About a mile from Somur, half a mile 
from the confluence of the Kavri and Amaravati rivers, and near the 
village of Achchammalpuram, there is a temple called Agastyesvara, which 
is almost entirely covered by drift sand, and which was partially exhumed 
by the villagers a few years ago. On the visible parts of the walls, only 
the beginnings of a few defaced inscriptions were found. 

IRRIGATION WORKS. On the route from Karuvur to Tanjore, I visited 
two ancient native irrigation works near Musiri and Vettuvayttalai. 
Musiri is reached from Kurittalai Railway station by crossing the broad 
but shallow bed of the Koveri in a round boat (parisal) which consists of 
bamboo wicker-work covered with hides. The same kind of boats are used 
on the Tuugabhadra near Hampe (Vijayanagara). At a short distance 
from the northern bank of the Kaveri, a bridge spans the head-sluice 
of a channel, which is now called Nattuvaykkal or Periyavaykkal. On 
one of the side walls of the sluice, close to the bridge, is an inscription 
(No. 70) of Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajarajadva, which records that 
in the fourth year of his reign, i. e., about A. D. 1219 (see South Indian 
Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 86), the head-sluice (ydyttalai) was built of stone 
at Musuri, alias Mummudi-Chola-p^ttai. The Kaveri is referred to by the 
name " the large river (p&r&ru) of Karikala-Chola. A remarkable piece 
of native engineering, which does duty to the present day, is the massive 
head-sluice of the Uyyakkondan channel, which branches off from the 
Kaveri near the Vettuvayttalai Railway station and supplies water to the 
town of Trichinopoly. One of the pillars of the sluice bears a modern 
inscription (No. 71) of Saka 1608 (A. D. 1686), which is engraved over 
an erased inscription in ancient characters. On the bridge which crosses 
the head-sluice is placed a stone, which is said to have originally formed 
part of one of the pillars of the sluice itself. This stone bears an inscrip- 
tion (No. 72) of " the emperor of the three worlds Kulotturiga-Choladeva, 
who was pleased to take Ceylon, etc.," which records a gift made in the 
twenty-eighth year of his reign and refers to the head-sluice (va[y]ttalai). 

TIRUVARUR. On a short excursion from Tanjore, I stopped one day 
at Tiruvarur. The Siva temple of Tyagarajasvamin is picturesquely sit- 
uated on the eastern bank of a large square tank which, with its fine 
ghats and the small island temple in its centre, reminds of the Teppak- 
kulam at Madura. Some defaced inscriptions of Rajaraja and Rajendra- 
Chola are found on the walls of the small shrine of Achalesvara, which may, 
therefore, be considered as one of the most ancient portions of the temple. 
The inscriptions on the prdkdra belong to the later Cholas and Pandyas. 
The most interesting of these is one of the seventh year of K6-Rajake- 
sarivarman, alias Tribhuvanachakravartin Kulotturiga-Choladeva, which 


records gifts to the images of four of the Saiva saints whose lives form 
the subject of the Tamil Periyapurdnam. These are : Aludaiya-Nambi 
(i. e., Sundaramurti), his wife Paravai-Nachchiyar, Aludaiya-Pillaiyar 
(i. e., Tirunanasambandar) and Tirunavukkarasudevar. The inscription 
ends with two Sanskrit verses (No. 73), in each of which the king is called 
Anapaya. This enables us to identify Kulotturiga with the Chola king 
Anapaya, during whose reign Sekkirar professes to have composed the 
Periyapurdnam. Another reference to the subject of the same work occurs 
in an inscription of the fifth year of K6-Parakesarivarman, alias Tribhu- 
vanachakravartin Vikrama-Cholade'va. From a written copy, which my 
assistant prepared during the few hours at our disposal, it appears that the 
inscription relates to the legend of the calf which was accidently killed by 
the son of king Manu-Chola. The same legend is located at Tiruvarur and 
told in other words in the introduction of the Periyapurdnam (pages 10 to 
12 of the Madras edition of 1888). A short Sanskrit inscription (No. 74) 
at a well called Sankhatirtha in the temple courtyard declares bathing 
in this well on the full moon of Chaitra to be the cure for all diseases. 

NEGAPATAM. Among the temples at the seaport of Negapatam, the 
only ancient one is that of Kayarohanasvamin, which is called Karonam 
both in the inscriptions which it contains and in the Periyapurdnam. The 
inscriptions belong to Rajaraja, Rajendra-Chola and other Chola kings. 
Just as the smaller of the two Leyden grants, the inscriptions mention 
Cholakulavallipattinam as another name of Nagapattinam (Negapatam). 
On the coins struck by the Dutch while they were masters of the place, 
the spelling is Nagapattanam. A solitary record of the times of the Dutch 
is a stone tablet at a small temple, which states that " this pagoda was built 
in 1777 A. D. under the auspices of the Governor Reynier van Vlissingen." 
Mr. C. E. Crighton, of Negapatam, showed me a brass drum which had 
been lately dug out and which bears a short inscription in ancient Tamil 
and Grantha characters. 

TRANQUEBAR. The only ancient Hindu building at Tranquebar, the 
former Danish settlement, is a Siva temple which is partially washed away 
by the sea. It contains an inscription (No. 75) of the Pandya king Kula- 
sekharad^va, which mentions Tranquebar by the names Sadanganpadi and 
Kulasekharanpattinam, and the temple by the name Manivannisvara. 

MAISUR. On the 7th January 1891, 1 engaged H. Krishna Sastri as 
Kanarese Assistant. He was deputed to Sravana Belgola in the Maisur 
territory from llth to 22d February in order to take mechanical copies of 
some of the most important inscriptions, transcripts of which were pub- 
lished in Mr. Rice's recent volume. At the same time copies were taken 
of an inscription at Atakur, near Maddur, which is incidentally noticed 
by Mr. Rice (Inscriptions at Sravana Belgola, p. 19 of the introduction, 


note 10, and p. 21, note 5). This inscription is dated in Saka 872 (949 
A. D.) and records that Krishnaraja, " the bee at the lotus feet," i. e., the 
son, of Amoghavarshadeva, killed the Chola king Rajaditya in a battle 
fought at Takkola. Krishnaraja is identical with the Rashtrakuta king 
Krishna IV, whose grants range between Saka 868 and 879. The large 
Leyclen grant records that the Chola king Rajaditya was killed in a battle 
with Krishnaraja, whom I had identified with Krishna IV, before the Ata- 
kur inscription became known through Mr. Rice (South Indian Inscrip- 
tions, vol. i, p. 112, note 5). Thanks to Mr. Rice's discovery, there cannot 
now be the slightest doubt as to the correctness of this identification. In 
this way the conjectural date of the accession of the Chola king Rajaraja 
(Saka 927), who, according to the Leyden grant, was the youngest grand- 
son of the youngest brother of Rajaditya, is indirectly confirmed, as 927- 
872=55 years would be a reasonable period for covering the reigns of the 
five Chola kings who ruled between Rajaditya and Rajaraja. The irregu- 
lar succession of these five kings (see the pedigree on p. 112 of South Indian 
Inscriptions, vol. i) proves that the time of their reigns was one of continual 
fights between different pretenders to the throne, none of whom appears to 
have enjoyed the sovereignty for any length of time, until matters became 
more settled at the accession of the great Rajaraja. 

About a few copper-plate inscriptions which were examined during the 
last months, I beg to subjoin the following particulars : 

No. I is an inscription on five copper-plates, for the loan of which I am 
indebted to the Superintendent, Government Central Museum, Madras. 
The character is Tamil and Grantha. Both the beginning and the end of 
the inscription are lost. The plates are strung on a ring which bears a 
well-executed seal. The chief figure on the seal is a seated tiger the 
emblem of the Cholas in front of which are two fish symbols of the 
Pandya kings. These three figures are surrounded by a bow the emblem 
of the Chera king at the bottom, a lamp on each side, and a parasol and 
two chauris at the top. Round the margin is engraved a Sanskrit sloka 
in Grantha characters, which may be translated as follows : " This is the 
matchless edict of king Parakesarivarman, which teaches justice to the 
kings of his realm." The full name of the king is found at the end of the 
first side of the first plate : K6-Para-Kesarivarnam, a^'asUttama-Choladeva. 
The legend Uttama-Cholan is engraved in Grantha characters on both faces 
of a gold coin, and the legend Uttama-Chola in Nagari characters on the 
reverse of a silver coin (Elliot's Coins of S. India, 151, 154). The edict 
was issued in the sixteenth year of his reign to confirm the contents of a 
number of stone inscriptions which referred to certain dues to be paid to 
a temple of Vishnu at Kachchippedu. 


SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS. The following review by Mr. R.Sewell 
of Dr. E. Hultzsch's first volume appears in the January number of the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society : 

The appearance of the first volume of inscriptions of Southern India, by 
the Epigraphist to the Government of Madras, has long been looked for 
with interest, for though Dr. Hultzsch is not as yet well known to the 
British public, that section of it which has given attention to Indian Arch- 
seology and History has been anxious that he should justify his position. 
We venture to think that there will be no disappointment on this score. 
That Dr. Hultzsch has not been hasty in publication is merely a proof of 
the thoroughness of his work, for his quarterly reports to the Government 
of Madras show conclusively that he has never flagged in his labors. Slowly 
and laboriously, but with extreme care, he has begun to build up the fabric 
whose construction has been entrusted to him. The history of Southern 
India can only be safely written when the most has been made of the im- 
mense mass of material available. . . . 

The net historical result of the present volume may thus be stated. It 
contains some of the earliest known inscriptions of the Pallavas from the 
Seven Pagodas and Kanchipuram. It fixes the date of a later branch of 
the Pallavab. It extends our knowledge of the dynasty of the Eastern 
Chalukyas, consolidates the already known pedigree of the first Vijayanagar 
sovereigns, and fixes with great probability the dates of several Chola kings, 
besides affording further information regarding the Udaiyars. The Pallava 
inscriptions at Mamallapuram (the Seven Pagodas) and Saluvankuppam 
are in no less than four different alphabets, extending over about six cen- 
turies, from the fifth to the eleventh century A. D. Dr. Hultzsch has been 
the first to discover that the numerous short inscriptions in very archaic 
character on one of the rathas are birudas, or titles, of the Pallava king 
Narasimha, who appears to have hewn the temple out of the rock. Inscrip- 
tions in a later character show that the Pallava king Atyantakama exca- 
vated some of the other rock-temples at the Seven Pagodas, and that 
Atiranachanda cut the Saluvankuppam Cave. No less important are the 
ancient Pallava inscriptions at Kanchipuram, said (p. 8) to have been dis- 
covered by Dr. Burgess in 1883. 1 From these we get the name of Rajasimha, 
after whom the most important of these temples was called, his son Mahendra, 
and his father Lokaditya, and it is shown by fresh evidence that the West- 

1 See, however, Mr. Sewell's paper in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 
1884 (Vol. xvi, New Series, p. 33). He had noticed them in May, 1883, and pointed 
out in that paper that the old temples on which the inscriptions appear constitute 
the only known specimens of structural temples identical in style with the rock-cut 
temples at Mamallapuram, and probably of the same date. Dr. Burgess's visit was 


era Chalukya kingVikramaditya II did actually, as was previously believed, 
enter Kanchi, and visit the temple built by Rajasimha Pallava. 

Dr. Hultzsch's synchronistic table of Chalukyas and Pallavas is most 
useful. No. 32 of the inscriptions in the volume is a curious and inter- 
esting one from an octagonal pillar at Amaravati, which was deciphered 
by Dr. Hultzsch very shortly after his arrival in India. It has to be read 
upwards from bottom to top instead of downwards, and it contains a list 
of seven Pallava kings. An inscription from Trichinopoly gives a new 
Pallava name. Dr. Hultzsch's table of the Eastern Chalukyas is fuller 
and more trustworthy than any yet published, and his discovery of the 
erroneous nature of certain preconceived theories respecting the transfer 
by intermarriage to the Chola dynasty of the territories ruled over by 
those sovereigns is of much interest and value. The inscriptions he pub- 
lishes are all on copperplates. 

From the country about Madras are published 48 Tamil and Grantha 
inscriptions, most of which are valuable for one reason or another, but, 
as before mentioned, facsimiles are greatly wanted. The Udaiyar inscrip- 
tions in the volume do not greatly assist us with regard to that, probably 
usurping, dynasty. They appear to clash with those of another branch 
of the family, for it may well be that princes of the same clan established 
independent sovereignties in the south during the disturbed period which 
marked the rise of the great kingdom of Vijayanagar. The author pub- 
lishes additional information on the later Chola dynasty, but as regards 
the Vijanagar sovereigns there is little new, though what there is is useful 
as consolidating previous theories. 

We entirely commend the plan of the work, as well as the way in which 
it has been carried out, with the single exception of the absence of fac- 

writes from Vienna (Jan. 25) : " About eight months ago I gave in the 
Academy (April 19, 1890, p. 270) an account of some of the results of 
Dr. Fiihrer's excavations made in the Kankali Tila at Mathura during the 
working season of 1889-90. This year Dr. Fiihrer has begun his opera- 
tions much earlier, and his kindness enables me to report progress already. 
He arrived at Mathura on November 15 ; and on December 27 he sent me 
impressions of nineteen new inscriptions, varying apparently from the 
year 4 of the Indo-Scythic era to the year 1080 after Vikrama, some of 
which possess even a greater interest than those found in former years. 

" The most important new document is incised on the left portion of the 
base of a large standing statue, of which the right half is still missing. 
Most of its letters are very distinct, and I read it as follows : 


"L. 1. Sam7Q[-{-~\8rva[va'] 4 di20 etasyampurvdyamKo\i ye \_Koiiiyel'] (janeVair- 
dyd sdkhdyd. 

" L. 2. ko Arya- Vridhahasti arahato TSan\_d~]i\_d~\vartasa pratimam nirvartayati. 

"L. 3. sya bhdryydye srdvikdye [Dindye] ddn[a~\m pratimd Fod[d^]e tMpe devanir- 
mite pra. 

Each line seems to be complete. It is, therefore, evident that the pieces 
wanting between 1. 1 and 1. 2, and at the beginning and the end of 1. 3, 
must have stood on the right half of the base. This side, too, must have 
had three lines ; and it is not difficult to restore some portions of them 
conjecturally, according to the analogy of other inscriptions. 
" With explanations and restorations the translation will be : 

"'In the year 78, in the fourth (month of the) rainy season, on the twentieth day 
on that (date specified as) above, the preacher Arya- Vridhahasti (Arya-Vriddhahastin) 
[the pupil o/. . . ] in the Ko/iya [Kottiya ?] Gana, in the Vairft Sakha ( Vajrd Sdkhd) 
[and in the Thdniya kula~\ orders to be made a statue of the Arhat JYandiavarta. The 
statue, the gift of the female lay-disciple Dinfi, (Dattd), the wife of . . . , has been 
set up at the VocMha (?) Stupa, built by the gods.' 

" The first point of interest which the inscription offers is the name of the 
Arhat. The Jainas know of no Tlrthamkara JVandiavarta ; but the sym- 
bol, called Nandyavarta, is the distinguishing mark of the eighteenth 
prophet, Ara. This person is undoubtedly meant ; for in the mixed dia- 
lect of these inscriptions N andidvarta may stand either for Sanskrit Nan- 
dydvarta or Ndndydvarta, and arahato N andidvartasa may be translated 
' of the Arhat, whose (mark') is the Nandyavarta.' This explanation con- 
firms the discovery, which I announced in the Vienna Oriental Journal 
(vol. iv., p. 328), that the distinguishing marks of the various Tirthakam- 
karas were perfectly settled in the first century of our era. The list of 
Tirthamkaras, worshipped in the two ancient temples under the Kankali 
Tila (ibid., p. 327), receives also a new addition. 

" Still more important is the information conveyed in 1. 3, that the statue 
was set up at, i. e., probably within, the precincts of ' a Stupa, built by 
the gods.' The sculptures, discovered at Mathura by Dr. Bhagvanlal 
Indrajl and Dr. Fiihrer, left no doubt that formerly the Jainas worshipped 
Stupas. Yet, the assertion that there was a Jaina Stupa at Mathura teaches 
us something new, and hereafter will prove very important ; for, as stated 
in my letter to the Academy of April 19, 1890, Dr. Fiihrer has found a 
Stupa in the immediate vicinity of the two temples. He declared it to be 
Buddhistic, because he discovered close to it a seal with a Buddhist inscrip- 
tion, and I accepted his conjecture. Now the point becomes doubtful. 
It can be decided only when the Stupa has been opened and its surround- 
ings have been completely explored. Even more valuable is the statement 


that the Stupa was devanirmita, ' built by the gods/ i. e., so ancient that 
at the time when the inscription was incised its origin had been forgotten. 
On the evidence of the characters the date of the inscription may be re- 
ferred with certainty to the Indo-Scythic era, and is equivalent to A. D. 
156-7. The Stupa must therefore have been built several centuries before 
the beginning of the Christian era ; for the name of its builder would 
assuredly have been known if it had been erected during the period when 
the Jainas of Mathura carefully kept record of their donations. This 
period began, as the inscriptions show, with the first century E. c., to which 
Dr. Bhagvanlal's inscription of the pious courtesan D&ndd undoubtedly 
belongs. Dr. Fiihrer's new inscription thus furnishes a strong argument 
for the assumption that one Jaina monument at Mathura is as old as the 
oldest known Buddhist Stupas. With respect to the name of the Stupa, 
which is contained in the word immediately preceding thdpe, I am not 
prepared to give any decided opinion. The first syllable is perfectly dis- 
tinct, but the lower part of the second is somewhat blurred. 

" Another of the new inscriptions, which unfortunately is not well pre- 
served, gives the names of mahardja devaputra HuJcsha. Huksha prob- 
ably stands for Huvishka or Huviksha, as an inscription of Dr. Fiihrer's 
batch of 1890 reads. It is interesting because it proves that the form 
Hushka, which occurs in the Rajatarangint, and survives in the name of 
the Kasrairian town Ushkar or Hushkapura, is genuine and ancient. 

" A third inscription is dated in the year 112, during the victorious reign 
of the supreme lord and superior king of great kings, Kumaragupta, and 
furnishes the last missing Sakha-name of the Koftiya Gawa, Vidyadhari, 
in its Sanskrit form. The date probably corresponds to A. D. 430-1, and 
falls well within the known limits of Kumaragupta's reign. It is interest- 
ing to note that even so late a document shows a few Prakrit forms, mixed 
with otherwise very good Sanskrit ; and it is significant that it is the first 
found at Mathura on which the title dehdrya occurs. The monk, at whose 
request a statue was dedicated, bore the name Datilacharya. The discov- 
ery of an inscription with a certain Gupta date will force us to exercise 
great caution with respect to dates which are not accompanied by the names 
of kings. They can be assigned to the Indo-Scythic period only if the 
characters are decidedly archaic. This circumstance makes me unwilling 
to speak with confidence regarding the age of a very interesting fragment, 
dated in the year 18, fourth month of the rainy season, tenth day, which 
records the dedication of a statue of divine Arishtfanemi, the twenty-second 
Tirthamkara. The letters look to me somewhat more modern than those 
of the inscriptions which undoubtedly belong to the Indo-Scythic period. 
The way in which the date is given, on the other hand, agrees with the 
usage of those early times. 


" Some other fragments confirm information contained in the earlier 
found inscriptions, or allow us to make small corrections in their readings. 
There are fragments of five lines of a longer metrical Prasasti, showing 
beautifully cut characters of the Gupta period ; and, finally, a small com- 
plete Prasasti in Devanagari letters, which consists of one Arya verse and 
one Anushftibh, and is dated Samvatsarai (sic) 1080, i. e., Vikramasamvat 
1080. This last discovery proves, like that of two images with the dates 
Sariivat 1036 and 1134 found in 1889, that these ancient temples were 
used by the Jainas during the greater part of the eleventh century, and 
that their destruction certainly happened in very late times. 

" When I add that Dr. Fuhrer has again found numerous and fine pieces 
of sculpture, it will not be too much to say that the results of his work 
during the season of 1890-91 are in no way inferior to those of previous 
years, and that the small sum allotted to these excavations has really been 
spent to good purpose and in the interest of Indian history." G. BUHLEE, 
in Academy, Feb. 7. 

A later letter from Dr. Bu'hler reports : " Since I wrote my letter of 
Jan. 25, Dr. Fu'hrer has sent me impressions of more than forty Jaina 
inscriptions found in the Kankall Tila during January and February 1891, 
as well as some interesting notes regarding his archaeological discoveries. 
His newest epigraphic finds possess as great a value as the previous ones. 
While the inscriptions printed in my last letter proved the existence of a 
very ancient Jaina Stupa, two among those since discovered teach us some- 
thing about the age of the Jaina temples at Mathura. 

"On a beautiful carved Torana there is a brief dedication, in characters 
which appear a little more archaic than those of Dhanabhuti's inscription 
on the gateway of the Bharhut Stupa. More archaic are (1) the letters 
da and the vowel i, which exactly resemble those of Asoka's inscriptions ; 
and (2) the position of the Anasvara, which stands, as in Asoka's edicts, 
after the syllable to which it belongs. Dhanabhuti dates his inscription 
(Indian Antiquary, vol. xin, p. 138) in the reign of the S'ungas and thus 
shows that he was their vassal. On this account he cannot be placed much 
later than the middle of the second century B. c. ; for, though the S'unga 
dynasty continued to exist much longer, its power seems to have been re- 
stricted in later times to the eastern districts north of the Ganges. Dr. 
Fuhrer's new inscription may, therefore, likewise be assigned to about 150 
B. c. It is written in an ancient Prakrit dialect. ... Its text runs as 
follows: Samanasa Mdharakhitdsa dmtevdsisa Vachhiputrasa s\f]ava~kasa 
Utaraddsak[d]sa pasado-toranam[J] ? ' An ornamental arch of the tem- 
ple (the gift) of the layman Uttaradasaka, son of the (mother) of the 
Vatsa race (and) pupil of the ascetic Magharakshita.' 


"A second inscription, incised in two lines on an oblong slab, gives us 
the name of the founder of one of the Kankali temples. It says : Bhadata- 
Jayasenasya dmtevdsiniye \ Dhdmaghoshdye ddnam pdsddo\_.'] ' A temple, 
the gift of Dharmaghosha, the female disciple of the venerable Jayasena.' 
Its characters do not differ much from those used in the earliest dated in- 
scriptions of the Indo-Scythic kings. The subscribed ya, however, has its 
ancient form, and consists of three vertical strokes. The language seems 
to be the mixed dialect, as the genitive Jayasenasya has the Sanskrit termi- 
nation, while three words show Prakritic endings. I would assign this 
document to the period immediately preceding the Indo-Scythic times, and 
assume that it was incised about the beginning of our era. 

"As two temples have been discovered under the Kankali Tila, the natural 
inference from these inscriptions would be that one of them was built before 
150 B. c., and the other considerably later. Unfortunately, another cir- 
cumstance has come to light which requires a modification of this assump- 
tion. Dr. Fuhrer has found several sculptures which have been carved out 
of more ancient ones. Thus, a pilaster bearing an inscription in characters 
of the Indo-Scythic period has been cut out of the back of an ancient naked 
Jina. Again, there is a small statue with a similar inscription cut out of 
the back of a sculptured panel, bearing on the obverse a rather archaic 
inscription. These facts prove that the Jainas of the Indo-Scythic period 
used for their sculptures materials from an older temple. Hence the dis- 
covery of the Torana, with its very archaic inscription, shows indeed that 
there was a Jaina temple in Mathura before 150 B. c., but not that one of 
the particular temples of the Kankali Tila necessarily dates from so early 
a period. 

" A third inscription makes us acquainted with a new era, and it is inter- 
esting also in other respects. It is incised on a slab, representing a lady 
attended by several maid-servants, one of whom carries a parasol. After 
an invocation of the Arhat Vardhamana, it records that an Ayavati or 
Aryavati (the word occurs twice in the text) was set up for the worship of 
the Arhats by a female lay-worshipper, of the ascetics, Amohini of the 
Kautsa race, wife of Pala, the son of Hariti, i. e., of a mother of the Harita 
race, in the year 42, or perhaps 72, of the lord (svdmisa) and great Satrap 
S'oddsa. This lord and great Satrap S'oddsa is already known from No. 1 
of Sir A. Cunningham's collection of Mathura inscriptions (Arch. Surv. 
Hep., vol. in., pi. xiii., and p. 30), where the transcript, however, misspells 
his name, and makes it Sauddsa. Sir A. Cunningham's inscription has no 
date according to years, but merely, after the name in the genitive, the 
unintelligible syllables gaja, which probably are meant for rq/e, ' during 
the reign.' On the evidence of his coins, which imitate one struck by 
Azilises, Sir A. Cunningham places S'odasa about 80-70 B. c., and con- 


jectures him to be a son of the great Satrap Rajubula. Though the precise 
date assigned to him by Sir A. Cunningham may be doubted, it is yet not 
doubtful that he ruled before the time of Kanishka. And Dr. Fiihrer's , 
inscription proves that an earlier era, preceding that of the Indo-Scythic 
kings, was in use at Mathura. With respect to the interpretation of the 
first figure of the date, I do not feel certain. The sign is the peculiar cross 
which Sir A. Cunningham everywhere reads 40. I have stated elsewhere 
the reasons why I believe that it was used also for 70. The other point of 
interest which the inscription offers is the word Ayavati or AryavaM. It 
is evidently the name of the royal lady represented in the relievo. As 
she was set up ' for the worship of the Arhats,' it follows that she must 
have played a part in the legendary history of the Jainas. A fuller explo- 
ration of the stories alluded to in the Uttaradhyayana and similar works 
will no doubt show who she was. 

" Three other inscriptions give new information regarding the subdivi- 
sions of the Jaina monks. One in archaic characters, not later than the 
Indo-Scythic period, and dated Samvat 18, mentions very distinctly the 
Vachehhaliya Kula. The Kalpasutra has two Vachchhalijja Kulas, one 
belonging to the Charana (recte Vara?ia) Gana, and the other to the 
Kocftya Gana. I infer that the Vachchhalijja Kula of the Kodiya Gana 
is meant. If that is the case, all the Kulas and S'akhas of this school, 
mentioned in the Kalpasutra, have been identified in the Mathura in- 

" Another very archaic undated inscription, which begins with an invo- 
cation of divine Usabha, i. e., the first Tirthamkara Jftshabha, names the 
Varana Gana and the Nddika (or possibly Nddika) Kula. The third 
rather modern-looking inscription ascribes to the Varana Gana an Ay- 
yabhyista Kula. 

" Dr. Fiihrer's new inscriptions furnish also further evidence regarding 
the antiquity of the worship of the twenty-four Tirthamkaras. The occur- 
rence of the name Usabha has already been noted. Two other archaic 
inscriptions speak, one of a statue of the Arhat Parsva, i. e., Parsvanatha, 
and the other of bhagavd Nemiso, i. e., the divine lord Nemi. The latter 
words are incised, according to Dr. Fiihrer's notes, on a panel bearing a 
very curious relief. The principal figure is a Buddha-like male with a 
goat's head. He is seated on a throne and surrounded by women, one 
among whom holds a child in her arms. I think there can be no doubt 
that we have here again an illustration of a Jaina legend. Among the re- 
maining very numerous sculptures without inscriptions several of which, 
according to Dr. Fu'hrer, are beautifully finished there is one which ap- 
parently possesses very considerable archaeological interest. It is a door- 


step, bearing a relief, which represents a Stupa worshipped by Centaurs and 
Harpies, or, as the Hindus would say, Kinnaras and Garudas or Supamas. 
Centaurs have been found on the Buddhist sculptures at Bharhut and at 
Gaya, while Mathura has furnished the Silenus groups and the Hercules 
strangling the Nemean lion. Dr. Fuhrer's find is a further addition to 
the monuments which prove the influence of Hellenistic art among the 
Hindus of the last centuries preceding our era. 

"In his last letter Dr. Fiihrer states that he expects to finish the exca- 
vation of the Kankali Tila in about three weeks. I have, however, not 
received any news that he has really come to an end of his labors, and I 
expect that ere long I shall be able to announce further discoveries; but, 
even at present, the results of the work of 1890-91 far surpass those of 
other years, and there is very good reason for congratulating Dr. Fu'hrer 
on the important additions to our knowledge of Indian history and art, 
which we owe to his energy and perseverance." G. BUHLER, in the Acad- 
emy, April 18. 

TANJORE. Mr. Rea reports from Tanjore on Feb. 19, to the Chief 
Secretary, Madras. 

After the Christmas holidays, the staif went into camp at Tanjore, and 
began the survey of the great temple there. This work is now almost com- 
plete, and includes other usual series of plan, sections, elevations, details 
of the architecture and ornament, and a number of photographs. The temple 
dates from the llth century and is the most ancient of the important large 
temples of Southern India. 

Dr. Thurston informs me that the Amaravati marbles, which I excavated 
some time ago, have arrived in the Museum. Arrangements should be made 
for having them placed in a suitable position. 


DISCOVERY OF THE CAPITAL OF ANNAM. M. Hamy communicated to a 
recent meeting of the Acad. des Inscriptions (Feb. 27) the result of the 
researches made by M. Dumoutier on the right bank of the Houang-Giang, 
near the frontier of the Thanh-Hoa. He found there the ruins of Hoa- 
Lu, the first capital of Annam, founded in about 970 A. D. by the king of 
the " ten thousand victories," Dinh Tien Hoaug, the conqueror of the 
Chinese. The remains of the destroyed city consist in causeways, defen- 
sive ditches, palace terraces, etc. M. Dumoutier has also identified two 
temples, consecrated to the worship of the royal families of Dinh and of 
Le, and the tomb of King Dinh, on the summit of a high calcareous cliff. 
He has found the inscription of the latter monument and a large number 
of epigraphic texts of which he is at present making translations. 



PARTHIAN CHRONOLOGY. M. Oppert communicated to the Acad. des 
Inscr. (on Feb. 13) a cuneiform text bearing the name of Gotarzes, king 
of the Parthians, with the double date of " the year 161, which is the 
year 225." Contrary to the opinion that this date was to be calculated 
according to the era of the Seleucidae, M. Oppert dates these two eras of 
the cuneiform texts at the years 117 and 181 B. c. This is confirmed by 
the text just mentioned, for the date mentioned would thus be 45 A. D., 
which is known to be the date of King Gautarzes. 


MINAEANS AND EGYPT. Dr. GLASED last discovery is a very interesting 
one, and confirms the antiquity which he assigns to certain of the inscrip- 
tions found in the South of Arabia. One of these, which was copied by 
M. Halevy, states that it was inscribed by order of two Minaean governors 
of Tsar and Ashur, and expresses the thanks of the authors to the gods 
for their rescue from the war between the kings of the North and of the 
South, as well as for their deliverance in Egypt at the time of the war 
between Egypt and Madhi. Tsar and Ashur have already been identified 
by Prof. Hommel with Tsar, the chief fortress on the Asiatic frontier of 
Egypt, and the Ashurim of Southern Palestine. Dr. Glaser at first sup- 
posed that Madhi was the Edomite tribe Mizzah ; but he now points out 
that the name must be identified with that of the Mazai of the Egyptian 
texts, who first appear in the time of the xvm dynasty as nomad hunts- 
men, and subsequently formed a corps of the Egyptian army, while in the 
kings of the North and South we must see the Hyksos prince who held 
his court at Tanis, and the native princes of the xvm dynasty who ruled 
at Thebes. The inscription, therefore, will go back to the period when 
the war broke out between Apophis and Ta'a, which eventually led to the 
expulsion of the Hyksos kings. Academy, Jan. 31. 

ANTIQUITIES FROM YEMEN. The Turkish Government has purchased a 
number of antiquities discovered in Yemen, which were owned by private 
individuals. They consist mainly of marble statues, figures of animals, 
and several stones inscribed with Aramean characters. Antiquities from 
Yemen are likely to be important, and further information concerning the 
Aramean inscriptions will be awaited with interest by scholars. N. Y. 
Independent, Feb. 12. 

MIDI AN AN ANCIENT CITY. Dr. Friedmann has just returned to Cairo 
from an expedition to Midian, where he has been surveying the country 
with a view towards settling in it some of the Jewish refugees from Kussia. 
In the neighborhood of Aynunah he has found the remains of an ancient 


city, as well as a stone on which the name of " Isis the great goddess " is 
written in hieroglyphics. He was told that many inscriptions on rocks 
exist at a little distance in the interior of the country. Athenceum, Jan. 17. 


communicated to the Acad. des Inscriptions (March 20) some new historic 
data drawn from a study of the early Chaldaean monuments found by 
M. de Sarzec at Tello, the ancient Sirpurla. Already by their aid a con- 
siderable list of the ancient kings and patesi, or priest-rulers, of this city 
had been established. Its lacunae are being filled in gradually. The 
two patesi, Our-Baon and Nam-magh-ni, predecessors of Goudea, had been 
hitherto isolated : M. de Sarzec has joined together the fragments of a 
stone cup, consecrated by a woman who calls herself both the wife of 
Nam-magh-ni and the daughter of Our-Baou. This is the first example 
of succession through women in the dynasty. Another dedication, en- 
graved on a similar cup gives a new and unclassified patesi, Our-Ningoul. 
Several texts also show that the very early sculptured monument known 
as the stele of the vultures was erected by a prince named E-anna-dou, who 
calls himself sometimes king, sometimes patesi of Sirpurla. He was son 
of A-kourgal, himself king and patesi, already known as having succeeded 
his father, Our-Niua, the earliest Asiatic ruler whose name is confirmed 
by the monuments. A stone tablet makes it possible to follow another 
branch of the patesi, the most ancient of whom En-anna-dou I (who must 
not be confounded with E-anna-dou) is called " the elder son " of King 
Our-Nina and father of the patesi En-t^-na, who is represented at Tello 
by an entire series of constructions : this " elder son," however, does not 
figure on the official lists of the sons of Our-Nina. 

From all his researches M. Heuzey concluded that the patesi do not dif- 
fer as much as was supposed from the ancient kings from whom they 
descended directly. Rev. Arch., 1891, 1, pp. 241-2. 

THE PARENTAGE OF QUEEN TEIE. Prof. Sayce writes to the Academy 
(Jan. 20) : " One of the cuneiform tablets from Tel el-Amarna, now at 
Berlin, and recently published in the Mittheilungen aus den Orientalischen 
Sammlungen (in, No. 188) seems at last to solve the problem of the 
nationality of Queen Teie, the mother of the 'Heretic King' of the 
xvin dynasty. The tablet begins as follows : ' To my son thus speaks 
the daughter of the king: To thyself, thy chariots [thy horses and thy 
people] may there be peace! May the gods of Burna-buryas go with 
thee! I go in peace.' Burna-buryas was the king of Babylonia, and it 
is difficult to account for the mention of his name except on the supposi- 


tion that he was ' the king ' whose daughter the writer was. Teie, how- 
ever, is hardly a Babylonian name; it is probable, therefore, that it was 
given to the princess on her marriage with the Egyptian monarch. That 
this was the case with Mut-m-ua, the mother of Amenophis, we now 
know from the tablets of Tel el-Amarna, which inform us that she was 
the daughter of the king of Mitanni. Why the mother of Teie should 
be called Tu'a on the famous scarab of Amenophis III is an unsolved 
mystery. Tuya is the name of an Amorite in one of the Tel el-Amarna 
letters, and Toi was the king of Hamath in the time of David." 

per writes to the Academy : " The letters in the Academy in regard to the 
legend of Etan-Gilgamos and his kindred in folklore have furnished a 
surprising mass of material for comparison. Since giving the translation 
of the Etana legend I have joined two more small fragments of the legend 
which relate that Etana went to the eagle and repeated his request for the 
birth-plant. Thus we learn that Samas referred him to the eagle for help. 
. . . The healing power of the eagle appears in other oriental legends. 
The eagle is the wise bird, the healer, and the enemy of serpents ; and all 
of these characteristics appear in the eagle of the Etana legend. 

" The king of the Garudas, referred to by Dr. Richard Morris (Acad., 
Apr. 4), who lives far to the north of the ocean, and who divides the sea 
by flapping his wings in order that he may eat the dragons, belongs ap- 
parently to the class of mythological animals, birds, bulls, etc., which 
arise from the personification of clouds, winds, and the forces of nature. 
We find such a personified wind in the Babylonian legend of Adapa and 
the Southwind-bird. The text is published in Winckler's Thontafelfund 
aus Tel el-Amarna (u, p. 166) ... The hero Ada(a)pa is unknown out- 
side of this legend. He is a demi-god ; for although he is the son of Ea, 
his name is written with the determinative of a man. ' It seems that 
Adapa was out fishing for the family, when the Southwind came up and 
overwhelmed him with the waves. In anger he broke its wings, and as 
the Southwind does not any longer blow over the land, Anu, the god of 
heaven who has the winds in his service, inquired of his messenger, the 
god Ila-abrat [O God, though art strong (?)], for the reason. Ila-abrat 
replied that Adapa had broken the wings of the Southwind, which news 
made Anu very angry. Ea perceives at once that it will go hard with 
his son, and contrives a plan by which he may appease the angry god. 
He directs his son to clothe himself with mourning, and thus secure the 
sympathy of Anu. Ea also relies on his friends Tammuz and Izzida, who 
are watchers at the gate of heaven, to speak a good word for his son. He 
further tells Adapa that when he is brought before Anu food and drink, 
a garment, and oil will be given him. The two latter he may use, but 


must not touch the food and drink, as they will bring death. When 
Adapa arrives at Anu's gate, everything comes to pass as his father had 
predicted. When Anu inquires why he has broken the wings of the 
South wind, he explains the matter as best he can.' 

" The end of his speech is mutilated, and we do not know what excuse 
he offered. It had the desired effect, however, and Anu gives up his 
wrath. He orders a banquet to be spread for Adapa, and furnishes him 
with food and water of life. Adapa, however, remembers the injunction 
of his father, and refuses to partake. Thereupon Anu laments over him. 
Why has he not eaten ? He has missed his chance of becoming immortal. 

" The Southwind appears in the inscriptions as one of the messengers of 
the god Anu. With the other winds it stands at the side of the great 
storm-god Ramman. It was the most dreaded of all the winds by the 
Babylonians, as it swept up from the sea and caused those terrible tidal 
waves which more than once devastated the southern portion of the valley 
of the Euphrates. This Southwind bird is closely connected with other 
gods of the Babylonian mythology. The Stormcloud was personified as 
the bird Zu, who in the legend {Chal. Gen., p. 103, ff.) robs the morning 
sun of his insignia. The translation in Chal. Gen. fails to bring out the 
meaning of the legend. A son of Zu is the raincloud bull (iv. B,., 23, 1), 
which is described as a great bull a mighty bull which treads the shining 
pastures, makes the fields rejoice, and sends down showers upon the earth. 
There is here a large field for comparison with Vedic mythology, in which 
winds and clouds are also represented as bulls and cows. 

" Tammuz and Izzida are both gods of the under- world, and their appear- 
ance here as watchers at the gate of Anu is remarkable, though not with- 
out parallel in the Babylonian myths. The Babylonian astrologers gave 
many of their gods, even those which belonged to the under-world, seats in 
the heavenly bodies. Tammuz is the well-known youthful spouse of Istar, 
who gave his name to the month June-July ; Izzida is the god of the follow- 
ing rnqnth, July-August (DEL. Ges. Baby. u. Assy., p. 69). 

" The recurrence of the incidents and ideas of this and the Etana legend 
in so many different forms, among so many different peoples, shows how 
much the story-tellers of later nations have been indebted to the Babylo- 
nians for the myths and legends with which they embellished their litera- 
ture and glorified their heroes. 

" The tablet before us is also exceedingly interesting from another point 
of view. It was found at Tell el-Amarna in Egypt, and is dotted over with 
red ink marks, made apparently by the Egyptian scribes, who puzzled 
themselves over its contents. In style it differs strikingly from the other 
legends. The stereotyped formulas for introducing the speakers are lacking, 
and the parallelism is much less carefully carried out. How it came to 


be among the letters of the Babylonian kings, and what interest the Egyp- 
tians felt in such Babylonian tales, are questions which further study of 
the Tell el-Araarna tablets may enable us to answer." EDWARD T. HAR- 
PER, in Academy, May 30. 


TUNIP AND THE LAND OF NAHARiNA. Bentcli/e, Eccles, Dec. 29, 1890. " In 
the Egyptian accounts of the wars of the kings of the xvm and xix dynasties 
against the Khita, mention is several times made of a town Tunip, whose 
exact locality is a puzzle. Wiedemann in more than one place says it was 
near Damascus. Brugsch, on the other hand, identifies it with Daphne, 
close to Antioch. I cannot think that either of these sites, which are a con- 
siderable distance apart, satisfies the conditions of the problem. 

" In the friezes preserving a version of the epic story describing Rameses 
II's battle at Kadesh, a town which is admitted to have been situated on 
some enlargement of the Orontes, and probably on the lake of Horns, the 
two spies are made to tell Rameses that the king of the Khita had with- 
drawn from Kadesh, and was then ' in the land of Khilibu [i. e., Aleppo] 
to the north of Tunip.' 

" It seems to. me that this phrase necessitates our putting Tunip somewhere 
between Kadesh and Aleppo. Now it is a curious fact that, in the inscrip- 
tions describing the campaigns of this period, I cannot find the name of 
Hamath at all ; and it seems to me that Tunip was in all probability the 
Khita name of Hamath, where several inscriptions have occurred proving 
it to have been a seat of Khita power. This identification would satisfy, 
I believe, all the conditions necessitated by both the Egyptian and the 
Assyrian texts where the name Tunip occurs. 

" This is not all. Tunip in one place is called ' Tunip in the land of Naha- 
rina.' It has been usual to identify the Naharina of the Egyptian texts 
with the Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates. I believe 
this to be an entire mistake. Naharina is no doubt the Naharain of the 
Old Testament, and means the land of the rivers ; but the rivers which 
bounded it were not the Euphrates and the Tigris, but the Euphrates and 
the Orontes. Brugsch reports that a learned traveller, a friend of his, 
informed him that the Arabs are still accustomed to call the fertile country 
to the west of Damascus which is watered by many rivers by the very same 
name of Naharain (Brugsch, History of Egypt, i, 292). 

" I believe also that it is here, and not in Mesopotamia, that we must put 
the Aram Naharaim of the Bible narrative. This clears up a difficulty. 
Aram Naharaim was also called Padan Aram in the Bible narrative. Now 
in the inscriptions of Shalmanezer (900-860 B. c.) a tribe Patena is placed 
in the Orontes valley and the watershed separating it from the Euphrates ; 


and these Patena have been identified as the people of Padan Aram and 
of Batanaea or Bashan by Rawlinson." HENRY H. HOWORTH, in Acad- 
emy, January 17. 


writes to the Academy : " Some of the letters from Palestine [in the Tell-el- 
Amarna series] are sent from places which are elsewhere mentioned only 
in the geographical list of Thothmes III., at Karnak. Thus, one of them 
(No. 153) is written by Pu-Dadi the governor of Yurza, the Yarza of 
Thothmes (No. 60) which Brandes and Mr. Tomkins identify with Khurbet 
Yerzeh, eleven miles S. S. W. of Mujedda ; another comes from Tubikhi 
(No. 171), which had been attacked by the Tyrians. Tubikhi is the 
Tubkhu of Thothmes (No. 6). It is not noticed in the Old Testament, 
like Khasabu, the Khashbu of Thothmes (No. 55), the governor of which 
alludes to the city of Kinza and the country of Am in Phoenicia, which 
had been invaded by the Hittites. In the list of Thothmes the name of 
Khashbu is followed by that of Tasult, unnamed in the Old Testament, but 
evidently the Tusulti of the Tell el-Amarna tablets (189, 193). Tasult is 
associated with Anukhertu, the Anaharath of Josh. xix. 19, in what was 
afterwards the territory of Issachar. Quddasuna, ' the sanctuary ' (Tell 
el-Amarna, No. 170), throws light on the Qitsuna of Thothmes (No. 4) ; 
and the Maskha of Thothmes (No. 25) may be the Musikhuna of Tell el- 
Amarna (Nos. 130, 192), of which the Mittanian Sutarna was governor. 
How much assistance may be derived from a comparison of the list of 
Thothmes with the tablets can be judged of from a single instance. The 
list mentions a place near Ta'anach called Gentu-asua or Gath-Ashan 
(No. 44). Now one of the Tell el-Amarna letters was sent by the governor 
of the city of *ti-as-na. One character has been lost at the beginning of 
the name, and the vacant space would just be filled by the sign which has the 
value ofgim. Gimti-asna would be the correct Assyrian form of Gath-ashan. 

" The tablets illustrate the North Syrian list of Thothmes as well as his 
Palestinian list. Thus the governor of Gebal, Ilu-rabi-Khur (' a great god 
is Horus '), states (No. 91) that the country of Am was threatened by ' the 
king of the country of the Hittites and the king of the country of Nariba.' 
Nariba must be the Nereb of the North Syrian list (No. 189) which Mr. 
Tomkins has identified with Nerab, south-east of Aleppo. It may be added 
that Am, also called Ammiya, is probably the Urarnah of Josh. xix. 30 ; 
and that Mr. Tomkins is shown to be right in extending the Egyptian 
empire to the eastern side of the Jordan, since one of the Tell el-Amarna 
letters (No. 132) is from Artama-Samas, the governor of Ziri-Basani or 
' the plateau of Bashan.' The latter name explains that of Zarbasana, 


which is found in an Egyptian stela of a prime minister of Merenptah, 
whose native Syrian name was Ben-Matsana, of the land of Zarbasana 
(see Mariette : Catalogue General des Monuments d'Abydos, Paris, 1880, 
p. 421, No. 1135)." 

to the Academy, Jan. 20 : "I have been studying the tablets of Tell el- Amarna 
which relate to the affairs of Southern Palestine, and have been published 
in the third and concluding part of the Mittheilungen aus den orientalischen 

" The publication reflects the highest credit upon the administration of 
the Royal Museum at Berlin, and more particularly upon Messrs. Winckler 
and Abel. The publication, like the readiness of the authorities in the Cairo 
Museum to place the tablets they possess at the disposal of scholars, sug- 
gests unfavorable comments on the conduct of the British Museum, which 
still withholds from Assyriologists that portion of the collection which has 
been purchased by the British public. Until we know what it contains, 
the information given us by the tablets in the possession of the Ghizeh and 
Berlin Museum, as well as of private individuals, must necessarily remain 

" I have, in the first place, to correct a reading which I published in the 
Academy last year. The local name of the deity worshipped on ' the 
mountain of Jerusalem,' according to Ebed-tob, the governor of the city, 
was not Marru, but Salim. The character must be read as one, and not 
divided into two. The name reveals to us the origin of the name of Jeru- 
salem itself. A cuneiform tablet long ago made us acquainted with the 
fact that uru signifies * city/ the Assyrian alu; Uru-Salim, or Jerusalem, 
therefore, must be ' the city of Salim,' the god of Peace. We can thus 
understand why Melchizedek, the royal priest, is called ' king of Salem' 
rather than of Jerusalem ; and we may see in the title, * Prince of Peace/ 
conferred by Isaiah on the expected Saviour, a reference to the early history 
of the city in which he lived. 

" The letters sent by Ebed-tob to Egypt are long and interesting. He 
tells us that he had succeeded to his royal dignity, not by right of inheri- 
tance, nor by the appointment of the Egyptian king, but in virtue of an 
oracle of the god who is called in Genesis El Elyon. At the same time 
he was a tributary and * vassal' of Egypt, and the district of which Jeru- 
salem was the capital, and which extended on the west to Rabbah and 
Mount Seir (Josh. xv. 10), and on the south to Keilah and Carmel, was 
* the country of the king ' of Egypt ; who had established his name in it 
' for ever.' Like the other vassal princes of Canaan, who had been allowed 
to retain their local titles and authority, Ebed-tob was compelled to admit 
an Egyptian garrison within the walls of his city, and from time to time 


to receive the visits of an Egyptian ' Commissioner-Resident.' One of 
the Commissioners mentioned by Ebed-tob was Pa-uru, whose stele has 
lately been discovered on the site of Mesides and printed by Mr. Wilbour. 
Another was Khapi, or Hapi, the son of Miya-Riya, or Meri-Ra, and the 
father of Amenophis, who erected the famous colossi at Thebes. A third 
Commissioner mentioned by Ebed-tob is Suti, in whom we should probably 
recognize the Egyptian Seti. The Egyptian Commissioner at the same 
period in the district afterwards occupied by the tribe of Issachar was Aman- 
khatbi, the Amen-hotep of Egyptologists, whose name Prof. Maspero is 
shown to be correct in reading Amun-hotpu. 

" Where the native prince had been displaced, as at Lachish or Megiddo, 
the town was under the jurisdiction of a Khazan, or Egyptian * governor.' 
In many cases the governor bears a Canaanitish name, and must therefore 
have belonged to the subject population. It would have been better if in 
all cases the local prince had been superseded by a governor, as the princes 
were perpetually quarrelling with one another and sending counter accu- 
sations to the Egyptian court. Ebed-tob, for instance, complains that Mal- 
chiel and Su-yardata had seized part of his territory ; and Su-yardata 
replies that Ebed-tob had tampered with the men of Keilah. Malchiel 
was a governor, the seat of whose power seems to have been Gezer. Gezer 
had been ' entered ' by a certain Labai (' the lion ') who writes a humble 
letter to ' the king,' his ' lord,' to explain why he had done so, as well 
as to answer the accusations brought against him by Ebed-tob. 

" Most of the letters appear to have been written towards the end of the 
reign of Amendphis IV, when the Egyptian empire was already beginning 
to fall to pieces. The Hittites were threatening Northern Canaan, the 
"Plunderers," or Beduin, were overrunning the central part of the country 
as far south as Ajalon and Zorah (Zarkha), while Southern Palestine was 
assailed by the Khabiri, or ' Confederates,' under their leader, Elimelech. 
There were constant complains that one or other of the vassal princes had 
joined the enemy. Thus, the king of Hazor in the north is said to have 
gone over to the Beduin, and the sons of Labai (who in one of the letters 
is stated to have attacked Megiddo) are accused of conspiring with the 
Khabiri. A suggestion has been made to identify the latter with the Hebrews, 
but the historical situation makes this impossible ; and since the word means 
' Confederates ' in Assyrian, it is better to see in them the confederated 
tribes who met in their common sanctuary at Hebron " the Confederacy." 
We know from the Old Testament that Hebron was inhabited by a mixed 
population, Amorite, Hittite, and probably, also, Canaanite ; and the only 
explanation of the fact that the name of Hebron does not occur in the let- 
ters of Ebed-tob, although his territory extended to the south of it, must 
be that it was in other hands. Ebed-tob declares again and again that the 


country and governors of the Egyptian monarch are perishing, and that 
if no additional troops are sent ' this year/ ' the country of the king ' 
will be lost to him. There is no record that the troops arrived ; on the 
contrary, it is probable that Amenophis died shortly after the despatch of 
the last of the letters of Ebed-tob. The Khabiri were allowed to continue 
their victorious career, and possibly to capture Jerusalem itself. At all 
events, when the Israelites entered Canaan, a century later, they found 
the city in the possession of the Amorite Jebusites, and Ezekiel tells us 
that its father was an Amorite and its mother a Hittite." A. H. SAYCE, 
in Academy, Feb. 7. 

the Palestine Exploration Fund has received information that the famous 
Siloam inscription has been cut out of its place in the rock and carried away. 
It was broken in removal, and the fragments are reported to have been 
sold to a Greek in Jerusalem. Fortunately we possess an accurate copy of 
this inscription, made (we believe) by Mr. Sayce. Academy, Jan. 24. 

most interesting object found in the excavations at Tell el-Hesy, in Palestine, 
last winter, was a fragment of pottery bearing a Phoenician inscription of a 
single word; the interpretation of that word, its position in the strata of the 
mound, and the age of the terra-cotta,would or ought to go far toward determ- 
ining the identification of the site. But,strangely enough, Mr. Petrie declared 
in his report that he found not a single inscription at Tell el-Hesy ; and it 
was Professor Sayce who told of it in the Academy, reading its characters 
le-Samek, " Belonging to Samech " (a deity or a person), and declaring the 
letter samech therein to be " of a peculiar form, more archaic than any 
hitherto met with in Semitic epigraphy." The full report of Mr. Petrie 
was awaited to clear up the mystery ; but, when the October Statement of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund came to hand it only added to the para- 
dox, for Mr. Petrie remained silent as to this inscription, and yet an illus- 
tration of it was thrust into the midst of his text, on p. 230, without a word 
of explanation apart from the subscript "Inscribed Fragment of Pottery 
from Tell Hesy." Finally, when a special monograph on Tell el-Hesy was 
announced by the Fund, it was expected that the matter would certainly 
and fully be cleared up. And now this quarto volume has appeared ; and, 
greatly to the disappointment of every one who cares a whit about the 
ancient place and its history, nothing whatever is said about the " Inscribed 
Fragment," either by Mr. Petrie or by any other writer for the Fund ; yet 
the same illustration in the October Statement is inserted as a tail-piece at 
the end of Mr. Petrie's memoir ! Naturally, if Mr. Petrie does not wish 
to recognize it, because apparently he does not believe in it, why should the 
officers of the Fund put it in their official publications withholding, at the 


same time, all information respecting it ? Of course it was to be expected 
that Major Conder would have his interpretation to offer, and that it would 
differ from Professor Sayce's indeed from every or any other one for that 
matter ; and it presents itself in the January Statement. Instead of the 
archaic character claimed by Professor Sayce, Major Conder makes it out 
to be Aramaic, and from certain gems of that alphabet, he selects parallel 
letters indicating an equivalent to iunS in Hebrew, and signifying " To your 
health," the assumption being that the potsherd is a fragment of a water- 
jug. But the inscription must have either dedication or ownership for its 
motive. Almost immediately after the publication of Mr. Petrie's report 
in. the July Statement, and Professor Sayce's articles contributed to various 
journals in England and America, Prof. J. A. Paine argued, in the Biblio- 
theca Sacra for October, the rendering " To Samek " suggests the Semachiah 
of the Bible, who was a grandson of Obed-edom the Gittite, and forms one 
of four indications going to show the site, Tell el-Hesy, to be Gath instead 
of Lachish. Is it possible that both Mr. Petrie and the managers of the 
Fund also perceive the bearing of this inscription, and do not wish to con- 
fess they have made a mistake? N. Y. Independent, May 14. 

MR. PETRIE'S REPORT. The Palestine Exploration Fund have issued Mr. 
W. M. Flinders Petrie's account of his excavations last spring at Tell el- 
Hesy, the site of Lachish. The work is published in demy quarto, uniform 
with his volumes of Egyptian exploration. It is illustrated with a large 
number of lithograph plates, showing the pottery of various dates, archi- 
tectural details, etc. 

NEW EXCAVATIONS. The committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
have obtained from the Porte a renewal of the firman, giving them authority 
to excavate in the Holy Land ; and Mr. F. J. Bliss, son of the president 
of the American College at Beirut, has been appointed to continue the work 
begun last spring by Mr. Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Hesy, the site of Lach- 
ish. Academy, Jan. 17. 

A HEBREW MANUSCRIPT. The Rev. Dr. Adler has acquired a valuable 
manuscript containing the Siddur (the weekday, Sabbath, and festival 
prayers) according to the rite of Yemen. It is written in square characters 
with the Assyrian punctuation. The rubrics are in Arabic written in 
Hebrew characters. The codex contains many poetical compositions taken 
from the Divans of Jehuda Halevi, Abraham ibn Ezra, Moses ibn Ezra, 
and Isaac Gayath, which have never been printed. Other interesting feat- 
ures of the MS. are the Megillath b'ne Chashmonai (the Roll of the Hasmo- 
neans) in Aramaic, containing an account of the Maccabees, and an elaborate 
treatise on the calendar, which proves its date to be 5233 A.M. = 1473 
A. D. Athenaeum, Jan. 31. 



Hogarth propose to visit Eastern Kappadokia again this year. Prof. Ram- 
say will start very shortly, and make a preliminary tour in Kilikia, in the 
hope of clearing up certain doubtful points with regard to the discoveries 
of the expedition of last year and of Mr. Theodore Bent. Mr. Hogarth 
(who will probably be accompanied by Mr. Munro) will go out to Tarsos 
as soon as the Oxford term is over, arid there join Prof. Ramsay; and the 
party will cross the Tauros and make for the Euphrates. Their plan is 
to explore the Kurd country north of Malatia, and follow the river up as 
far as Nikopolis, whence they will either turn westwards to the rock-cities of 
Boghaz-Keui and Eyuk, or go northwards into Pontos. In any case they 
hope to come out on the Black Sea. Two very different problems await 
solution in this country : the character of the early race which is responsible 
for the Hittite sculptures and inscriptions ; and the scheme of the Roman 
frontier defences. It is hoped that the expedition of this year may make 
discoveries which will elucidate both problems, if they manage to avoid 
troubles with the Kurds and the ever-present fever. Oxford Magazine, in 
Academy, May 16. 

From later advices we learn that Professor Ramsay was attacked with 
fever soon after starting and has been obliged to return to England, leaving 
Mr. Hogarth to carry out the projected journey. 

APAMEA(Dinair). ROMAN RUINS. In Apamea of Phrygia, the modern 
Dinair, there have been found in a garden south of the city marble frag- 
ments of all sorts parts of columns, architraves, and other architectural 
members also a number of inscriptions, which have been published in 
the Athen. Mittheil, 1891, 1, pp. 146-8. 

2pvpvr), 1890, No. 4216, announces that in the necropolis of Laodikea on 
the Lykos in building the railroad many objects in gold, marble and terra- 
cotta were found, three of which were confiscated, among them a terra- 
cotta group of good period similar to those of Myrina. A white marble 
vessel is described as being of early-Christian style, among whose reliefs is 
a representation of Eve, one of Charon, of Jonah, of the Ephesian Artemis. 
The third object mentioned is a bronze amulet in the form of a cross. These 
three, together with a portrait bust kept at Denisli, are to be sent to Con- 

Two inscriptions from Laodikea are published in the Athen. MittheiL, 
1891, pp. 144-146. 

MAGNESIA (on the Maiandros). Dr. DORPFELD has returned to Athens 
from Magnesia, and reports that the German School has explored the whole 


enclosure of the Temple of Apollo, in which many inscriptions were found. 
Around it stood porticoes andbuildings for the functionaries of the sanctuary. 
The excavations at the theatre have proved its resemblance to the theatre 
of Tralleis, and that it was altered in Roman times. Athenceum, Feb. 21. 

NYSA. GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. Near Nysa, in Phrygia, Messrs. Von Hil- 
ler and Kern have discovered a Greek inscription containing three docu- 
ments of the time of the Mithridatic war, viz., two letters from King Mith- 
ridates and one of Caius Cassius, governor of the Roman province of Asia. 
They will be published by Professor Mommsen in the next number of the 
Athenische Mittheilungen of the German School at Athens. Appian always 
styles this Cassius, Lucius ; but it would seem incorrectly. All three parts 
of this inscription refer to a certain Chairemon of Nysa and his sons. In 
the letter of the Roman general, Chairemon, a friend of the Romans, appears 
as making a gift of corn to the Roman army, and he is warmly thanked. 
The two letters of Mithridates offer a reward to whoever takes Chairemon 
and his sons, dead or alive, since they, as friends of the Romans, are ene- 
mies to himself. Chairemon with his sons took refuge first at Rhodes, 
afterwards in the asylum of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. Athenceum, 
May 2. 

OMARBEILI. A STATUE OF NERO In Omarbeili near Eirbeli, between 
Magnesia and Tralleis there was found a headless military statue, two met. 
high, on a base with the following inscription in two lines : Nepwva KAavSiov 
Oeov | KAauStbu KaiVapos vlov. The emperor wears a coat of mail decorated 
with two griffins facing one another with a row of small aglets beneath 
which are the usual leather bands, showing the undergarment. Over it 
slung to the girdle is a garment, partly covering the griffins, which Roh- 
den (Eonner Studien, p. 5) had traced back only to the time of Hadrian. 
The feet have sandals and the mantle hangs from the shoulder. The head, 
the right arm (which has since apparently been found, Nea ^/jivpvr), 1890, 
No. 4255) and the left fore-arm are wanting. There is brown color on the 
breastplate and red on the sole. The right leg is supported on a tree-trunk 
with a horn of plenty. The statue has been taken to Smyrna. Athen. 
MittheiL, 1891, p. 148. 


MOUNT IDA. ARCHAIC ANTIQUITIES. On Mount Ida some peasants have 
found fragments of bronze votive shields, lamps, and archaic j^tm'm', sim- 
ilar to those discovered at the shrine of Zeus a few years ago. It would 
appear that there are other grottoes in the mountain, now being searched 
in a disorderly fashion by the shepherds and peasants, which also contain 
votive offerings. 

ARVI. Other unauthorized diggings are now going on at Arvi, identified 
by Pashley as the site of the temple of Jupiter Arbius, where, according to 



Spratt, was found " the elaborately sculptured sarcophagus presented by 
Admiral Sir P. Malcolm to the Cambridge Museum, and figured in the 
first volume of Pashley's work." Athenaeum, May 16. 

M YKENAIAN WARE. Sig. Paolo Orsi has published a treatise on Cretan urns 
of the Mykenaian style (Urnefunebri Cretesi dipinle nello stile diMicene) 
and Dr. Furtwanglerin presenting it at the January meeting of the Archdolog. 
Gesellschaft in Berlin, called attention to the fact that it illustrated an en- 
tirely new kind of Mykenaian ware. In one urn the sloping roof is of 
especial interest in illustrating the construction of houses of the Mykenaian 
period, and equally so is the beginning of a use of profiles. The style of 
the paintings is in harmony with the theory that the so-called Grseco-Phoe- 
nician vases of Cyprus are immediate successors of the Mykenaian. Woch. 
/. Klass. Phil, 1891, No. 9. 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM PAPYRI. Since the British Museum published the 
text of the 'AdqvatW HoXireia, attributed to Aristotle, from the papyrus MS. 
which lately came into its possession, inquiries have been made as to the 
nature of the other unpublished papyri of a literary nature which are now 
in the possession of the Museum, although they are not of such extraordinary 
interest as rumour had for some time been asserting. A volume containing 
their texts, or, in the case of works already known, collations of their texts, 
will appear shortly. 

1. Homer, Iliad, n 101-iv 40. A papyrus of late date, which has been 
in the possession of the Museum for some years, but has not yet been pub- 
lished. It is in book form, not a roll, and on three of the blank leaves is 
written part of a work on grammar, entitled Tpu</>a>i/os viyy'n ypa/A/xari/c^. 

2. Homer, Iliad, in, iv, fragments. A late papyrus, containing about 
sixty lines of book in and the greater part of book iv. 

3. Homer, Iliad, xxin and xxiv, fragments. An early MS., perhaps 
of the first century B. c. It consists of a multitude of small fragments, 
but portions of most of the lines in both books survive. 

There are also some other unimportant fragments of Homer, Iliad, i, 
v, vi, xvin. 

4. The first half of the third epistle of Demosthenes, in a minute and 
very early hand. 

5. On the same roll of papyrus at the last, the conclusion of an unknown 
oration, which has not been identified with certainty, but may be the speech 
of Hyperides against Philippides. 


6. The oration of Isocrates, De Pace. The first half is fragmentary, 
but the rest is complete. 

7. Seven poems (with fragments containing the titles of two more) of the 
almost unknown writer Herodas. The poems are short, averaging about 
a hundred lines each, in scazon iambics, and mostly consist of humorous 
sketches of every-day life. The MS. is a somewhat late one. Athenceum, 
Jan. 31. 

Since the above was put into type the volume has been issued, under 
the editorship of Mr. F. G. Kenyon, aided by Messrs. Rutherford, Sandys, 
Hicks and Jebb. It contains, in addition to the fragments here named, a 
portion of an abridgment of what seems to be Tryphon's Ars Grammatica, 
written on the verso of papyrus No. cxxvi. There are nine excellent auto- 
type plates of facsimiles. With this volume and former publications, named 
in the preface, all the papyrus MSS. of literary works in the British Museum 
have now been given to the world. 

and Roman Sculpture in the British Museum, is engaged on a handbook 
of Greek Archaeology, which will treat in detail, and with many illustra- 
tions, of sculpture, vases, bronzes, gems, terracottas, and mural paintings. 
Academy, May 16. 

AN ITALIAN SCHOOL. The Greek government has granted a piece of land 
for the proposed Italian School at Athens. The site chosen is near the 
military hospital, and not far from the buildings of the British and Ameri- 
can Schools. Academy, Sept. 20. 

THE ARTIST KRESILAS. At the last Winckelmannsfest (Dec. 1890) Prof. 
Furtwangler enumerated a number of works which should be attributed 
to the artist Kresilas. These are : (1) the well-known herni of Perikles ; 

(2) the statue of the wounded Amazon, ascribed to him by Jahn, the three 
statues preserved being probably part of a votive monument at Ephesos ; 

(3) a marble head in the Berlin museum (Ant. Skulpt. 311) similar in 
style and conception to the Perikles ; (4) the Diadoumenos whose head is 
in Kassel and Dresden, which has no connection either with the Polyklei- 
tian or the Farnese Diadoumenos, and whose body is preserved in two small 
copies (terracotta, J. Hell. St. 1885, pi. 61 : marble, Berlin) ; (5) a youthful 
helmeted head of Ares, known from numerous replicas (e. g. in the Louvre, 
Arch. Anz. 1889, 57), whose body is probably repeated in a statue of the 
Villa Borghese; (6) a Diomedes in Munich ( Glypt. 162), attributed on inde- 
pendent grounds to Kresilas both by Loschcke and Studniczka; (7) the so- 
called Alkibiades in the Sala della Big a at the Vatican, perhaps the statue of 
a runner; (8) the Athena Velletri in the Louvre and its replicas ; (9) the Ron- 
danini Medusa in the Glyptothek (Munich) where the artist's individuality 
is very apparent ; (10) a Diadoumenos head in the Petworth collection, a 


late and elegant work of the master. There is so strong a relationship 
between all these works that they cannot be explained otherwise than as 
the work of a single artist. These traits are especially shown in the form 
of the eye, the structure of the forehead, the style of the hair, the shape of 
the lower face and its expression, as well as in the appearance of both body 
and drapery and finally in the size of the head. This artist was certainly 
influenced by Polykleitos, but internally he comes closer to Myron from 
whom he also borrowed some external traits. The works thus confirm what 
Brunn had recognized from literary evidence. Woch.f. Klass. Phil. 1891 , 6. 

THE ARTIST THRASYMEDES. Kavvadiasin the AcXrtbv (Apr .-May) shows 
that he arrived independently at the conclusion reached by Gurlitt ( Arch.- 
Epigr. Mittheilungen, xiv, p. 126) that the Thrasymedes mentioned in the 
Epidaurian inscription 'E^>. 'A/o^. 1886, p. 145 ff. as having undertaken 
decorative work in the temple is identical with Thrasymedes of Paros who 
made the statue of Asklepios. 

THE PAINTING OF GREEK SCULPTURE. At a meeting of the Soeiete des Anti- 
quaires on Feb. 18, an interesting discussion took place regarding the paint- 
ing of Greek sculpture. M. Nicard adopted the opinion of Petronius who 
affirms that it is a mistake to bring forward a passage of Plato in support 
of the theory that Greek statues were completely painted ; whereas, accord- 
ing to M. Nicard, painting was used only for accessories. M. Collignon 
referred to Plato's mention of encaustic painting on statues, to the inven- 
tories of the Erechtheion mentioning them and to traces on Asiatic statues. 
M. Guillaume referred to the fact that the statue of Augustus was entirely 
painted and M. Martha recalled the complete painting of terracottas. 

ARGOLIS. ARCHAIC INSCRIPTION. An important ancient Greek inscrip- 
tion has been found in Argolis, in archaic letters of peculiar shape, with 
dialectic forms analogous to some forms of Cretan archaic dialect. Athe- 
nceum, May 16. 

ATHENS. THE PEIRAIEUS. While the excavations in the Roman agora 
have for some time ceased, the work of lengthening the Peiraieus railroad 
has already given some archaeological results. In the neighborhood of the 
Theseion the trenches have not been dug deep enough to lead to any dis- 
coveries, but near the station of the railway which is being built between 
the Demarchy and the DXareta 'O^ovotas something has been found. In 
the first place there were uncovered a large number of ancient tombs made 
especially of roof-tiles, which confirm the placing of the ancient city wall 
a little south of the Demarchy. It can thus easily be recognized from the 
strata of earth in the deeper graves that north of the city walls there used 
to be a valley-like depression with a small rivulet whose existence might 
have already been conjectured from the horizontal curves of Kiepert's 


plan. Some walls of various periods and uncertain use also came to light. 
Athen. Mittheil. 1891, p. 140. 

THE AGORA. A considerable and very well-preserved part of the Agora 
has been uncovered but the greater part of the ruins remain hidden under 
the old mosque which at present serves as military bakery. Chron. des 
Arts, 1891, No. 7. 

SITE OF THE THESEION. Dr. DORPFELD has communicated to the German 
Institute at Athens his opinion that the newly discovered " Constitution of 
Athens " furnishes us with an important topographic indication for the real 
position of the Theseion. The present so-called Temple of Theseus at Athens 
was, according to Dr. Dorpfeld, most probably the Temple of Hephaistos, 
mentioned by the ancients as existing in the Kolonos agoraios. From the 
papyrus-text, however, it seems likely that the Theseion was on the north- 
west slope of the Akropolis. Athenaeum, April 4. 

A WORK BY BRYAXIS. In the continuation of the railway a pedestal was 
found bearing on three sides reliefs representing a horseman and a tripod, 
on the fourth side the inscription : 


A?7//,eas A^/xatvero 

On the pedestal is a raised arch with a hole in it, perhaps to fasten a 
tripod or a column. This pedestal is described and discussed by Kavvadias 
and further discussed by Lolling. It was probably (with the object upon 
it) an early work of Bryaxis, before he was engaged with Skopas in adorn- 
ing the Maussoleion. It commemorates not one joint victory of Demainetos 
and his two sons, but three victories. AeXnov, Apr.-May, 1891. 

THE KERAMEIKOS. The General Commission began to excavate in the 
Outer Kerameikos, northwest of the Dipylon. Three layers of graves were 
found. The lowest and earliest belongs to about the 7th century B. c. Here 
the bodies were buried, not burnt. Vases of the " Dipylon " style were found 
in and on these tombs. Two small lions of Egyptian porcelain with hiero- 
glyphics, and ivory figures of nude women of oriental workmanship also 

The second stratum belongs to the times before the Persian invasion. 
Here the bodies were burnt. 

The third stratum belongs to times not later than the fourth century B. c., 
and the bodies were not burnt. 

Besides the objects in and upon the tombs, many fragments of pottery 
were found. One ostrakon is inscribed Xo-av&TTTros Appt . . ., evidently a 
witness to the ostracism of the father of Perikles. 


The AeArtbv for April-May reports that in the outer Kerameikos further 
tombs were excavated. One tomb resembled that of Vourva. Several 
" Dipylon vases " were found. 

INSCRIPTIONS. In excavating for the underground continuation of the 
railway from the present station to the Place de la Concorde several inscrip- 
tions were found. One is dedicatory, belonging to the end of the third cen- 
tury B. c., and is here published. In the same place were found three 
decrees inscribed on one slab, and several other decrees. In four of these 
decrees the temenos of Demos and the Graces (TOT) AT^OV /cat TCOV Xapmuv) 
is mentioned, the site of which is therefore now fixed. These inscriptions 
are all published and discussed by Dr. Lolling in the AeXrtov for April May. 
Two inscriptions are in honor of Eumaridas son of Pankles of Kydonia. 
They bear the dates of the archons Heliodoros and Archelaos, who seem 
to have held office in 217 and 216 B. c. respectively. The third decree 
on the same slab is in honor of Charmion, son of Eumaridas, and his son 
Eumaridas. The date is the archonship of Phanarchides, probably early 
in the second century B. c. The fourth decree is in honor of Nikeratos, 
son of Nikeratos, of Alexandria. Ptolemy is mentioned as ^Tparryyos CTTI 
KvTrpov, which fixes the date before 173 B. c. The fifth is in honor of 
Timarchos of Salamis and belongs to nearly the same date, as do also the 
other fragmentary decrees found in the same place/ 

Besides publishing and discussing the inscriptions mentioned above, Loll- 
ing publishes and discusses the following in the AeArtov for April-May : 

Tatov Kappetvav Paio^u viov 2e/cowSoj/ c/>tAo- 
/caticrapa rov eTrtoru/x^ov ap^ovra /cat tepea 

[17 e 'Apetou Trdyov fiovXrj /cat 17 (3ov\r) TW X] 
/cat 6 S^/AOS KT\.] 

This C. Carinas was probably made archon for the year 66 A. D. 

Letters of Hadrian and Plotina. Professor Koumanoudis is going to 
publish a highly interesting inscription discovered in excavating the old 
market of modern Athens. So far as preserved the inscription consists of 
three parts: 1. A letter written in Latin by the widow of Trajan, the 
Empress Plotina, to her adopted son Hadrian. He is entreated in the 
name of the then head of the Epicurean School at Athens to promulgate 
an edict granting the privilege that the succession of the School should not 
be confined as hitherto to Roman citizens, but also be open to Greeks if 
among them men competent are found. 2. A letter of Hadrian's to Plo- 
tina in which he informs her that he concedes the privilege asked by her 
for the Epicureans. 3. A Greek letter of Plotina, in which she announces 
with pleasure to the president of the Epicureans, Popilius Theotimus, the 


success of her mediation. She at the same time advises him to take care 
that only the most distinguished members of his school should be chosen 
as successors of Epicurus. This inscription, which for the first time informs 
us of the interest felt by Roman ladies of high rank in the Epicurean phil- 
osophy, widely diffused of course at Rome among the men, will be pub- 
lished by Prof. Koumanoudis in the journal of the Athenian Archaeological 
Society. Athenceum, Jan. 17. 

ADDITIONS TO THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. The AeAn'ov reports as follows the 
additions to the National Museum. 

Oct. The National Museum received 17 numbers from Rhamnus, chiefly 
fragmentary sculptures and inscriptions ; eleven numbers from the tomb 
in Petretza, chiefly ceramics ; vases and fragments from the tomb at Mara- 
thon ; a marble hydria and a headless stone dog from Laurion. 

The numismatic museum has been transferred to the Academy under 
the charge of J. Svoronos. 

Nov.-Dec. The National Museum received a large number of vases 
from various places. Bacchic subjects seem to predominate. The museum 
also received a few coins, and a variety of objects from the excavations at 
Thespiai and at Lykosoura. Those from Thespiai are chiefly small bronze 
objects and coins; those from Lykosoura chiefly fragments of sculptures. 

The arrangement of the National Museum and the work and the cata- 
logue have been progressing during the year. The collection of Egyptian 
antiquities given by Johannes Demetrios is to be arranged in the National 

Jan -Feb. The National Museum was increased by 99 numbers, includ- 
ing a collection of 79 numbers, chiefly vases, presented by Stavros Andro- 
poulos. One vase (Dumont, Ceramiques de la Grece, i, pi. 18) represents 
the combat of Herakles with Busiris ; another black-figured Achilles lying 
in ambush behind a fountain, when he is discovered by Polyxena, and a 
third the metamorphosis of the companions of Odysseus. The museum also 
received 8 numbers (vases and terracottas) from Thorikos, nine (chiefly 
lekythoi) from Vari, the Plotina inscription ('E<. 'Apx- 1890, p. 141), a 
relief from Larissa with traces of color, and the Naxian relief of the birth 
of Christ ('E<. 'Ap X . 1890, p. 19). 

The work of arrangement and cataloguing goes on in the museum. 

March. The museum received two life-size marble heads and a sepul- 
chral urn bearing the inscription IIio-ToScopos 'ATroAAdSoopos 'EpoiaSat and a 
relief of two men greeting each other. 

April-May. The museum received a sepulchral marble hydria with 
relief, and three other reliefs, two of which are of Roman times. 

DELPHOI. By the Bill presented to the Greek Parliament, in conse- 
quence of the acceptance of the convention between France and Greece 




regarding the excavations of Delphoi, the cottages and other immovables 
in the Commune of Kastri will be evacuated, and the occupants compen- 
sated by a sum to be paid by the French Government. The Greek Govern- 
ment only pledges itself to secure the inhabitants a sum of 60,000 drachmas. 
The French acquire the right to excavate in the whole of the district. Every 
object found belongs to the Greek nation, the French retaining the right 
for five years to make casts, and priority in publication of the results of the 
excavations. After the conclusion of the explorations the lands abandoned 
fall to the Greek Government. Athenaeum, April 4. 

EPlDAUROS. NEW EXCAVATIONS. The AeXn'ov (Jau.-May) announces 
that excavations were commenced at Epidauros by the Archaeological Soci- 
ety under the charge of P. Kavvadias in order to complete the discoveries 
about the temple of Asklepios. The foundations of a Doric peristyle, appa- 
rently belonging to an inner court, were found ; a part of these foundations 
had been subsequently covered by the erection of an Odeion of Roman date. 
According to the last report the KolXov and orchestra of the Odeion had been 
completely excavated and the excavation of the stage was in progress. 

Eretria of ancient Grecian history is now known as Aletria, or Nea Psara 
the latter name owing its origin to the Psariotes, who settled here during 
the early part of the present century. Excepting Chalkis, the present 
capital, Eretria, under various names, has always been the leading town 
on the Euboian Island. In 500 B. c. it was completely destroyed by the 
Persians under Datis and Ataphernes, because it had incurred the anger 
of Darius by assisting the Athenians in succoring Miletus. It was rebuilt 
in time to be represented by seven ships in the naval engagements of Arte- 
mision and Salamis. At the battle of Plataia also Eretria furnished a 
considerable number of hoplites. After the freedom of Euboia from 
Athenian dominion it joined the Attic League and was active in the 
struggle against Macedonian supremacy. Since 198 B. c. the Romans, 
Turks and Greeks have successively possessed the whole island; and there- 
fore Eretria. 

City. During the past winter the American School has been carrying on 
excavations and topographical investigations in the town. Three parallel 
streets, about a quarter of a mile in length, extending almost due north and 
south, intersected at right angles by three others somewhat shorter, com- 
prise the present territory of Eretria ; and four hundred people who live 
in one-story, tile-roofed huts represent its population. It is bounded on the 
south and west by the Euripos. A block of marble bearing an inscription 
in honor of a liberal citizen marks the site of an ancient gymnasium. A 
little to the north of the present town is the Akropolis, which on all sides 
except the southwest, is surrounded by well-preserved remains of beautiful 


polygonal walls. There are also traces of a latter Grecian wall built of 
quadrangular blocks of stone. In several parts of |hese walls there is 
Roman patchwork. 

Theatre. Between the town and the Acropolis is an old theatre which 
heretofore was to be identified only by the artificial mound surrounding it, 
and a few of the stone seats that appeared above ground. In February the 
American School began excavations on this site, and has so far laid bare a 
large part of the stage, orchestra and seats. The stage is approximately 
nine feet high, and in the rear of it are five rooms. Its length is between 
fifty and sixty feet, and its breadth about seven feet. Its foundation is 
wholly of porous stone with superstructures of marble, some of which show 
that the theatre had been repaired and perhaps remodeled by different 
generations of the Greeks, and subsequently of the Romans. Below the 
stage-building is a low narrow platform, with an arch through the middle 
of the skenengebdude behind it. It is hoped that considerable light will 
be thrown by it on the construction of the Greek stage. The peasants, not 
knowing a better use to make of the marble remains found here, have long 
since burnt up the most of them statues and inscriptions indiscriminately 
in making lime to be used in the construction of their huts. 

The most puzzling discoveries brought to light by our excavations have 
been two tunnel-like arches in the theater, the larger extending from the 
front of the stage under the third of the five rooms above mentioned, and 
the smaller, from the center of the orchestra circle toward the stage. 

Another department of work, has been the tracing and measuring of the 
city walls, noting their towers, peculiarities of construction, the character 
and quality of the stones, and mapping everything of archeological signifi- 
cance. This work has quite satisfactorily proven that Old and New Eretria 
occupied the same extent of territory. The best remains of the walls and 
towers whose general character represents several periods of history are 
those immediately surrounding the Acropolis. Here the stones are poly- 
gonal, regular courses of masonry occurring only in the towers. 

The graves of Eretria found along the " Sacred Way " to the East 
extend on either side for miles in regular lines. The place seems a bury- 
ing ground for the whole region. Then the presence of the names of other 
cities on the tombstones shows that even strangers were brought here for 
interment. These graves are of all epochs. Sometimes as many as four 
were found, one above the other. A foot or two below the surface, are the 
poor Byzantine graves made of pottery. One slab is laid flat on the bottom 
of the grave, then two others lean together over the body forming an equila- 
teral triangle. Just below these, sometimes only a few inches, appear the 
rectangular Roman graves, made of slabs of stone, well fitted, but often 
showing plain indications that the stones had been used in some previous 


structure. Lower still, come the Greek graves of a good period, and lowest 
of all, six feet and more deep, the archaic ones. 

While the archaic tombs have almost invariably an east and west 
direction, the next in order of time are frequently due north and south, 
and the Roman and Byzantine seem to be put at any angle which was 
most convenient. 

In the Greek graves proper we made our richest find. For it is this 
series which in Eretria sometimes contains those wonderful white vases 
only found here and in Attica. Other kinds of vases, terracotta figures 
and masks, gold and silver ornaments are also numerous. The archaic 
graves yield a few archaic vases. 

One grave, contrary to the rule, was not filled with earth, so the bones 
of the skeleton could be seen. Right where the breast of the figure had 
been, lay a mass of more than two ounces, more than two hundred gold 
leaves. Thin gold plate had been cut into the shape of oak and ivy leaves, 
and all the veins of the natural leaf were carefully marked upon them. 
There were six graves in this group. Two of them had been robbed in 
antiquity ; but the grave on the opposite end of the structure, which corres- 
ponded in position to the one just described, contained a rich treasure. 

A few vases of good Greek workmanship, a terracotta mask of the god 
Pan, and some terracotta statuettes came forth ; and, the following morning 
seven gold crowns. With these were found two specimens of the stylus, 
and a pen which from its appearance might have been made fifty instead 
of twenty three hundred years ago. Then, on the slab which covered the 
grave beside this, was an inscription stating that here was buried the daugh- 
ter of an Aristotle. Soon it was rumored that this richest grave was that 
of Aristotle the Stagirite ! Further excavation yielded less. But from one 
grave came a beautiful gold ring with a rampant lion as a seal. Another 
yielded ear-rings : two golden doves swinging in a hoop of gold. The eyes 
are of precious stones, the feathers of granulated gold work. Precious stones 
are set in the wings and the breasts, and the feathers of the tails are so 
arranged as to move as the pendant swings. 

Perhaps the most interesting find, archseologically, are the white vases, 
the lekythoi, two of which are as fine as any known. They form an impor- 
tant link in the chain of evidence which shows the close connection which 
existed between Athens and Eretria. Were they made in Athens, and 
exported to Eretria, or did they come from an Eretrian studio ? 

To these must be added a marble head, and a marble statuette of excell- 
ent workmanship, a large number of vases of greater or less merit, several 
bronze dishes, and a few coins and terracottas. All these now rest in one 
of the private rooms at the Central Museum in Athens. Finally there were 


found thirty-two epitaphs, which will be published in the JOURNAL. N. 
Y. Independent, April 23 and 30. 

THE GRAVE OF "ARISTOTLE." The New York Nation publishes the follow- 
ing letter dated Athens, March 12 : " Contrary to my wishes, the news has 
already leaked into the papers here that I have discovered the grave of 
Aristotle. As I am very anxious that no sensational report be spread, not 
warranted by conscientious scientific investigation, I feel bound to make 
public at this juncture the grounds upon which this premature conclusion 
has been arrived at. 

" During the excavations which have been carried on by the American 
School of Classical Studies under my direction on the site of the ancient 
Eretria, I was making tentative excavations in the neighborhood of the 
city, in order to discover the temple of the Amyrinthian Artemis. I came 
upon beautifully worked marble foundations, which, however, proved to be 
the enclosures of a family grave, such as exist in considerable number 
about Eretria. But these walls were of such workmanship and magnifi- 
cence that I concluded they must be the finest graves in the neighborhood. 
After much digging, and opening of two graves, we came upon one within 
this precinct which contained a number of articles (twenty-three), among 
them six diadems of pure gold and one laurel wreath of pure gold about 
the head ; furthermore, a most interesting specimen of a writing-pen in 
silver, and two styluses of the same material ; also a statuette of a philoso- 
pher, with hands folded, in terracotta. 

" It seemed evident to me at the time that the person here buried was 
a man of literary pursuits, and furthermore a man of considerable note. 
When, in the grave adjoining, containing the remains of a female member 
of the family, an inscription was found, [B]IOTH [A]PI2TOTEAOY, the 
tempting question flitted through the mind, whether the gold-wreathed 
philosopher buried with such distinction was not the famous Stagi rite ? 
This grew still more tempting when one bore in mind that Aristotle died 
at Kalchis in the adjoining city to Eretria. Finally, Christodoros describes 
a statue of Aristotle, which he saw in a gymnasium at Constantinople, as 
" standing with hands folded together," which corresponds to the unique 
terracotta found in the grave. According to Prof. Richardson, the inscrip- 
tion goes back to the third century B. c. 

" This is an outline of the facts connected with the discovery. But I 
should like to refer to the following points which militate against the iden- 
tification : first, that Kalchis is not Eretria, though it adjoins it, though 
graves run almost continuously from Kalchis as far as Bathia, two hours 
beyond Eretria, and though one must not assume that these were the same 
distinct and inimical communities after the Macedonian period which they 
were in the previous centuries. One must further remember that there 


were several Aristotles in antiquity, and that the daughter of Aristotle by 
his wife Pythias is mentioned in his will, and that her name was Pythias, 
not Biote : though he might have a daughter by Herpyllis. Finally, re- 
search has not yet considered and settled the question whether the terra- 
cotta figures in graves had any such direct reference to the deceased as the 
statuette of the philosopher in the grave in question might tempt us to believe 
existed in this case ; though we can, even now, maintain that a general rela- 
tion subsisted, such as that of ephebi in graves of youths, children in chil- 
dren's graves, and women with articles of toilet in those of women. 

" These are, on the whole, the facts which I can at present make public. 
Perhaps more light may come to us. 


The real date of the Eretrian Aristotle. We take the liberty of quoting 
the following from a private letter to the editor, as it may help to settle 
the question of the date of the Eretrian Aristotle and to make an identi- 
fication with the philosopher impossible. 

" I forgot to tell you the other day that probably his (Waldstein's) 
Aristotle has turned up in an Eretrian inscription. I have been saying 
that it was pretty sure to do so, if enough inscriptional matter were at 
hand, and this week I was turning over the E^/x,. 'Apx- for 1887 and 
came on a long list of names among which are two Aristotles (the name 
occurs four times) both from the same district. They would seem to arrange 
themselves in this way : 





Aristophanes Nikandros 


Ttiuntas thinks the inscription belongs to the beginning of the second 
century B. c. but ran over a series of years. If the above table is right 
the Menippos- Aristoteles would go back quite as far as the father of Bioto ; 
indeed might be the very man. Hence the philosopher theory may be 
safely laid upon the shelf of undigested notions." 

KAMBOS. BEE-HIVE TOMB. A bee-hive (OoXos) tomb has been dis- 
covered near Kambos in the deme Abia, a little southeast of Kalamata. 
The top has fallen in, and there is some hope that the tomb has not been 
plundered. AcXrfoy, March 1891. 

MARATHON. The AcXn'ov for April-May reports that excavations were 
begun again in the tomb of the Athenians at Marathon with a view to 


more complete investigations, after which the tomb is to be restored to its 
former appearance. 

MEGALOPOLIS. Excavations in the theatre have been renewed and 
will be reported in our next issue. Meanwhile the Athenceum of May 30 
publishes the following letter : " In the last number of the Journal of 
Hellenic Studies was published a provisional plan of the theatre at Mega- 
lopolis, now in course of excavation by the British School at Athens. It 
will be remembered that the most interesting feature in this plan was formed 
by the scena; it is of fourth century structure, and is remarkably well pre- 
served up to a certain height ; and upon the way in which it is restored 
the whole question now in dispute with regard to the existence of a raised 
stage in the Greek theatres of early period may be said to turn. Accord- 
ing to the restoration there given by the excavators, it was a raised stage 
in the strictest sense of the words, approached by a flight of six steps from 
the orchestra, and entered *by three doors from the stoa behind it; thus it 
appeared to settle the question once for all. This restoration, especially 
as regards the existence of a raised stage, was disputed by Dr. Dorpfeld 
in the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift for April llth and 25th. He 
maintained that the structure of which they formed the basis must be 
restored as a high wall or colonnade the scena from. Instead of continu- 
ing our controversy, we wish to make public at once, in a common state- 
ment, certain facts which have, for the most part, come to light during the 
continuation of the excavations this spring. The English excavators wish 
to acknowledge that their significance was first pointed out by Dr. Dorpfeld 
during his visit to Megalopolis. 

" 1. The wall bearing the three thresholds must be of later date, both 
from the manner of its construction and from the fact that it has, built 
into its foundations, bases (in situ) corresponding to the bases of the stoa 
behind. This evidence for the height of the steps therefore disappears. 

" 2. Of the steps facing the orchestra, and restored as six in the pro- 
visional plan, the fourth and fifth have actually been found ; but it appears 
that the lowest three steps were not part of the original plan, but were added 
in consequence of a change in the level of the orchestra. There may be a 
difference of opinion as to when this change was made. 

"3. On the fifth or top step there are indications that columns have 
stood ; some drums of columns lie near, and also some pieces of Doric frieze 
and architrave, which correspond in measure to the slabs of the steps. Dr. 
Dorpfeld therefore restores this step as a stylobate, carrying columns about 
20 ft. high, with entablature to correspond. 

" The English excavators wish to consider all this evidence carefully, 
and to search for more before expressing a final opinion as to all details, 
and as to the chronological relation of the various parts. They will also 


require the assistance of an architect upon the spot before any final publi- 
cation is possible, as the evidence is extremely difficult and complicated. 
They feel no doubt that there exists at Megalopolis the material necessary 
for determining the original plan of the scena; and in the Journal of 
Hellenic Studies for the current year the evidence in favor both of their 
view and of Dr. Dorpfeld's will be carefully sifted. 



MYKENAI. The excavations of the archaeological society at Mykenai 
were discontinued in last December. On the Akropolis foundations of 
houses of the Mykenean epoch were found. In one of these were many 
bronze objects. A paved road leading from the Lions' gate to the upper 
part of the akropolis was discovered. A number of bronze utensils were 
found in a cistern. A bronze statuette of a man was found. Two tombs 
were found and investigated outside of the Akropolis. The entrance to 
one was adorned with color. In the other were found three gems (Insel- 
steine) with representations of animals (a lion pulling down a bull, an 
antelope wounded with a spear, a lion with his head between his legs). 

The so-called tomb of Klyteranestra was afterwards investigated by the 
archaeological society (conducted by Ch. Tsountas). Parts of the adorn- 
ment of the entrance were found, 'and a drain running, apparently, the 
whole length of the Spo/^os. AeA/riov, Nov.-Dec., March. 

NIAUSTA (near). A GREEK PAINTING M. Heuzey announced on Jan. 
16 to the Acad. des Inscr. that a Danish archaeologist, M. Kinch, had dis- 
covered in Macedonia, near the city of Niausta, a Greek painting exe- 
cuted on the wall of a sepulchral chamber. It is well known how rare 
paintings of the classic period are in Greek lands. The subject is a combat 
between a horseman and a barbarian foot soldier. The costume of the 
horseman includes a second yellow tunic with narrow sleeves, under a blue 
Chiton with red border, a panther's skin used as saddle-cloth, a crimson 
helmet in the shape of a Phrygian cap, whose frontlet alone has the tone 
of gold or bronze. The foot-soldier has an almost black complexion ; on 
his head is a white cap similar to a Persian bashlik, a green tunic with 
sleeves, red anaxyrides and an oval buckler. The painting is not of the 
first order, and appears to have been rapidly executed ; but it is remarkable 
for its wonderful action and lifelikeness. The barbarian seems to cry out 
as he defends himself; the horse of the Greek, thin, nervous and full of 
fire, is galoping with great animation. The same characteristics are found 
in certain vase-paintings and in the battle scenes of Alexander carved on 


the Sidon sarcophagi found by Hamdi-Bey : it is an indication of its age. 
Rev. Arch., 1891, 1, p. 114. 

THEBES. AN ARCHAIC RELIEF. A relief representing a maiden with the 
archaic inscription A/X^OTTO was found hidden in a house near Thebes. 
AeXrtov, Jan. Feb. 

THORIKOS. BEE-HIVE TOMB. Investigations at Thorikos were carried 
on in December by B. Staes. A " bee-hive" tomb like that at Menidi was 
opened. Fragments of " Mykenai " pottery, two bronze fragments, bones, 
and ashes were found. The tomb had been opened before. In shape it 
was elliptical. The Spo/xos was in part at least roofed over by a false 
vault formed by the projection of each course of stone beyond the course 
below. Near this was an elliptical structure, 4 m. long by H m. wide, 
and 1J m. deep, in form like a "bee-hive" tomb without a top. In this 
were many black-figured lekythoi and archaic terracottas. There was a 
sort of door at one end. The purpose of this enclosure is unknown. The 
objects in it were all broken. Perhaps the enclosure was a receptacle for 
broken votive offerings. AeXrtov, Nov.-Dec., 1890. 

TROIZEN. All the antiquities discovered at Troizen by the French 
School have been brought together in a small shelter in the village of 
Damala. Exception was made, however, for the statue of the Hermes 
Kriophoros, which has been placed in the national museum at Athens. The 
importance of this latter sculpture consists in its forming a new type of its 
kind , different from the Hermes of the artist Onatas, where the goat is carried 
under the arm, and from that of the artist Kalamis, where it is carried on 
the shoulder. The Hermes of Troizen is clothed with the chlamys and wears 
the petason on the head ; the left hand bears the kaduceus, and the figure 
is represented in the act of seizing by the horns the goat standing before 
it, and of raising it from the ground. Athenceum, March 7. 



PREHISTORIC CITIES OR TERREMARE. M. Geffroy has recently called the 
attention of the Acad. des Inscr. (Jan. 2) to the importance of Prof. 
Pigorini's researches among the terremare or prehistoric cities of Emilia, 
details of which have been given from time to time in the news of the 
JOURNAL. In his opinion the exploration of that of Castellazzo di Fon- 
tanellato has shown that these ancient Italic cities were built on the same 
plan as those of the Etruscans : in both are found the quadrilateral shape, 
the agger and the ditch, the decumanus and the cardo. These facts, says 
M. Geffroy, should be brought into relation with the ancient legends " on 
the foundation of Rome, on Roma quadrata, with its augural orientation, 


its agger, sacred ditch and wood bridge devoid of any iron on so many 
remembrances of the bronze age preserved in primitive Rome." 

called Casale, seven kilom. from Altamura an ancient necropolis has been 
discovered. Fifty tombs have been opened, equidistant and of similar 
shape and size. Their contents are of small importance. Near by are 
also traces of isolated tombs at three points. 

Cav. Jatta while considering the discovery of but slight archaeological 
interest points out its historical and archaeological importance. It is by 
such discoveries that we discover the sites of the towns that arose in ancient 
times around the great cities and were dependent upon them, demonstrating 
over what a broad and populous territory these cities held sway. The vases 
found in the tombs belong to the close of the third century B. c. and appear 
to be all of Apulian manufacture, similar to the Ruvo vases. Not. d. Scavi, 
1890, pp. 357-61. 

AMELIA. A PREHISTORIC TOMB. In the territory of Amelia under an 
accumulation of stones was found a stone box formed of six slabs of stone 
(67 X 41 X 40 cent.) carefully joined. Within it were five ossuaries, four 
accessory vases, five unguent vases and a lance cusp. All the vases are in 
good preservation. Inside one ossuary were two fibulas, a belt-clasp, a ring, 
and two bronze slabs. Four of the ossuaries are with heavy body, without 
handles or foot, with a short neck and projecting mouth : they are of red 
paste, hand made, badly cooked and without decoration. The covers are 
turned, of finer clay, with brown varnish, well- worked with foot and handles, 
of campaniform shape. Of the smaller vases one is remarkable for a pal- 
mette decoration around two concentric circles, itself inclosed within a band 
of five oblique lines. The ornaments are few in number. A silver fibula 
is of the Cenisola. Tombs of a still more ancient type have been found 
in this region, contain grains of amber and gold objects. The present tomb 
has been purchased by the Minister of Public Instruction for the museum 
at Genoa. Not. d. Scam, 1890, pp. 368-70. 

reports in Not. d. Scavi (1890, p. 393-5) on various discoveries and investi- 
gations of minor importance in the territory of Apice. Such are some bronze 
statuettes of Hercules, some tombs of the time of Constantine, ruins of build- 
ings, a Christian inscription of considerable length, Consular and other 
coins. There are the ruins of several monasteries : such are ; that of S. 
Lorenzo al Bosco, erected in 792 ; that of the Franciscans ; that of S. Anto- 
nio, including a cloister. 

ARICIA. DISCOVERY OF ITS WALL. Prof. Lanciani has discovered the 
fortified wall of Aricia, near Rome, constructed by Sylla, after the new 
military colonization. The walls extend over a length of 700 metres and 


have a mean height of 3.50 met. The general plan is that of a paralello- 
gram whose long sides are parallel to the Via Appia. There remain the 
long western side and one half of the north and south sides, with one of 
the gates. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 10. 

BENEVENTUM. The city of Beneventum, whose important monuments 
are so unfamiliar is to be illustrated finally by a competent hand in the 
following fully illustrated work which appears in monthly instalments : 
Imonumenti e le opere d'arte delta citta di Benevento, lavoro storico, artistico, 
critico, dell'ingegnere architetto ALMERICO MEOMARTINI. in-8o, pubbl. men- 
sile. Benevento, de Martini, 1889-91. 

in the Seavi (1890, pp. 371-3) the finding of four tombs in the Nanni 
property outside the Porta Isaia, opposite the Arnoaldi property, 138. 
met. s. and 3 w. of the Guglielmi house. In an area of a hundred metres 
only these four tombs came to light, two for inhumation and two for cre- 
mation. Beyond the last of these a trench tomb had been begun and never 
finished, probably through the disuse of the necropolis. To the north there 
were no traces of tombs. Consequently here appears to be the western 
boundary of the Italic necropolis. As yet the trench which marks its 
consecrated limits has not been found. The fact is the confirmation of 
excavations made in 1888. 

BOSTEL (Venetia). A VILLAGE OF THE VENETI. At this place have been 
uncovered remnants of huts and their contents which evidently belonged 
to a rude and barbarous tribe of the Veneti, both agricultural and war- 
like in character. The village had been destroyed by fire, probably by 
the Komans . Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 293-4. 

CASTELLUCCIO. Comm. Gamurrini reports as follows on some exca- 
vations near Chiusi : " In the territory of Chiusi, west of the hills separating 
the valley of Orcia from that of Chiana is a place called le Foci as Fauces 
used to be the name for the easiest pass. Here was anciently a passage 
for Italics and Etruscans, who fortified it from the beginning and who 
inhabited the heights above, now called Casa del Vento. They then sur- 
rounded it with solid walls of great square blocks, a piece of which has 
been discovered to the west. Cav. L. Micali, the owner of the place and of 
the medieval fort called Castelluccio . . . has made many excavations and 
after having opened and examined the large necropoli, the city walls and 
various antiquities, believes this to be the Camars vetus or the Clusini veteres 
noted by Pliny. It is at all events certain that in these foci the Italics 
first established themselves and were then succeeded by the Etruscan culture. 
Three years ago Sig. Micali gave to the University of Siena the vases, bronzes 
and Etruscan inscriptions that had up to that time been found. Since 
then many other objects have been discovered in the necropolis and pre- 


served on the spot. There are numerous vases of black bucchero, some of 
them impressed in the Phoenician or Carthaginian style and with the reliefs 
of lions, panthers, etc., with which the archaic Etruscan vases are decorated. 
There is no lack of Greek vases from the severe black-figured style to the 
red- figured vases from Attica. The antiquities show the place to have 
flourished from the remotest times down to the third century B. c. when it 
languished and finally became extinct before the Imperial period. 

Two years ago a tomb was found closed by a large block of sand-stone 
with Etruscan inscriptions on the front and another along the thickness ; 
the latter being the main inscription of the tomb. The short inscriptions 
on the front contain various names which appear to denote those who were 
successively buried here. Unfortunately it was not dug out entire and two 
inscribed fragments were left behind. But even as they stand the inscrip- 
tions from the archaism are of great value. The main epitaph is incised 
in the form of a snake : it shows the tomb to be that of Larthia Largienia 
whose mother appears to have been Tana Situnia. The other lines it is 
impossible to decipher. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 300-12. 

CHIUSI. ETRUSCAN ANTIQUITIES. The vicinity of the lake of Chiusi 
was dotted in Etruscan times with a number of villages. Of these no traces 
remain except small groups of tombs which are sometimes met with, espe- 
cially on the summits of the hills in front of the lake. These tombs are 
excavated in the slope without regular orientation. A number were dis- 
covered during the past year at a spot called il Eanocchiaio under the villa 
of Cav. A. Mazzuoli : from them came jars, vases and four travertine urns 
with Etruscan inscriptions on their cover. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 307-8. 

CITTADUCALE. ROMAN REMAINS. At Cittaducale, where stood the 
ancient Aquse Cutilise, some thermae have been discovered and fragments 
of inscriptions. Athenceum, March 21. 

CIVITA-CASTELLANA=FALERII. A number of new tombs have been 
opened which date from the third century B. c. and contain terracottas 
bearing numerous Faliscan inscriptions. Rev. Arch. 1891, 1, p. 241. 

continued work in the part of the military necropolis nearest the city, and, 
though no works of art came to light, there were found a number of fune- 
rary inscriptions of some interest, especially in regard to the penalties for 
violation. The Batavian Glabruna stipulates for a fine of three ounces of 
gold to be paid to the fisc. Flavius Ziperga [his full name was probably 
H. Zip. Pudens, contrary to the Seam, ED.], of the Prima Martia, Victrix, 
wishes his violator's head unless a payment of eight pounds of gold be made. 
Flavius Martidius insists on unredeemable capital punishment. The rest 
are satisfied with pecuniary compensation. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 339- 


FOLIGNO (near). A ROMAN TEMPLE. Canon Faloci Pulignani reports 
that in 1888 that on the hill called Monte Tabor, near Foligno, he found 
important remains of an ancient temple with fragments of architraves, 
columns, sculptures (though the sculptures are a Christian work of about 
the fourth century) which demonstrate that the temple was of considerable 
size. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, p. 316. 

FORLI. A STATUETTE OF HERCULES=BES. A small bronze statuette 
found in digging for a water-conduit in Forli is interesting as representing 
an amalgamation of Egyptian and Latin deities. It represents a man of 
low and heavy stature, muscular and with large head, thick beard, turn-up 
nose, long ears, and rudimentary horns. The skin of a lion (?) covers his 
neck and back. In his right he appears to hold a purse and in his left 
squeezes by the head a serpent which twists about his arm. On his head 
he bears an open lotus. The statuette seems to represent the Egyptian 
god Bes with some Latin characteristics. Not. d. tScavi, 1890, p. 344. 

GREAT ST. BERNARD. PLAN DE JUPITER. E.Ferrero, who was charged 
by the Italian government with the excavations on the Plan de Jupiter, 
at the Hospice of the Great St. Bernard, has issued in the Notizie degli 
Scavi (1890, pp. 294-306), a report on the first part of his excavations 
during which he cleared the site of the temple of Jupiter Penninus and 
the entire east side of the plateau. To this he prefixes a summary of 
previous excavations undertaken, in 1760-64 by Canon Murith, in 1837 
by Countess di Sala, in 1838 by Carlo Promis, in 1871-4 by Canon Mar- 
quis and, since 1883, by Canon Lugon. In none of these partial excava- 
tions was any systematic attempt made to throw light on the topography 
of the plateau. The excavations of 1890 under Sig. Ferrero have com- 
pletely uncovered the plan of the temple consecrated by the Romans to 
the local divinity to which they gave the name of Jupiter. It seems probable 
that its construction dates from the time of the building of the roads across 
the pass, concluded only when the conquest of Rhaetia in 15 B. c., made 
ten years after that of the valley of Dora Baltea, and the beginning of 
the Germanic wars, had made it necessary to establish regular communi- 
cations between the new city of Augusta Pretoria and the valley of the 
upper Rhone, between Italy and the camps on the Rhine. The temple, 
already in ruins, must have been completely destroyed, when, at the close 
of the tenth century, St. Bernard made use of its material for the construc- 
tion of his Hospice at the opposite end of the plateau. But the Carlo vin- 
gian coins found here confirm the idea that even in the ninth century there 
remained here a place of refuge for travellers. 

The rock on which the temple was founded was of uneven surface and 
the builders instead of equalizing it, satisfied themselves with cutting for 
the foundations stepped recesses. The structure consisted of a pronaos 


and a cella, the former 2.45 by 5.80 met. the latter with a length of over 
six metres. The outside measurement of the structure are 7.40 by 11.20 
metres. The temple was in antis but it is uncertain whether there were 
columns in front. The walls, 80 cent, thick, were entirely of stone. Within 
and around it were found many objects, especially some good bronze. Of 
the coins found some (17) were Gallic, some (30) Roman of the Republican 
and Imperial periods, and one Carlo vingian. 

LOKROI. THE APHRODITE OF MELOS. M. Ravaisson called the attention 
of the Acad. des Inscr. on Jan 23 to a confirmation of his theory regarding 
the restoration of the Venus of Melos which he considers to have formed 
part of a group with Ares. Sig. Orsi in his excavations at Locri (Gerace) 
discovered a terracotta relief which he attributes to the time of Pheidias, 
on which is a female figure resembling the Aphrodite of Melos, grouped 
with the figure of a warrior recalling the Borghese Mars or Ares, towards 
whom she turns and leans upon his shoulders. 

LUNI=SARZANA. ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. In the Not. d. Scavi for 1886 
(pp. 5, 35) it was reported that Marquis Q. Gropallo had discovered on 
his lands, included within the limits of the ancient city of Luni, a number of 
Latin inscriptions. Among these was the fragment of a Christian inscrip- 
tion ascribed to the ancient church of St. Mark near which there evidently 
had existed some important public edifice of the ancient city, all the more 
that at the beginning of last century several Latin tituli were found, one 
being in honor of Augustus, the patron of the colony. 

The recent excavations were undertaken within the ruins of the church 
and, by the removal of a mass of debris belonging to ancient buildings, 
there was laid bare the plan of the church as well as an elevation of over 
two metres about the apse. The plan is oblong, measuring 30.50 met. long 
up to the confession by 19 met. wide. The confession is 1.13 met. above 
the level of the church, and is formed of an apse 7.80 met. in diameter : 
around it is an ambulacrum which is reached by descending two flights 
of three steps and is 80 cent, wide and 12 met. long. This ambulacrum 
is paved with a mosaic in opus sectile of good workmanship. In a space 
arranged between the outer wall and the ambulacrum is a rectangular 
sepulchral cassa (1.80 X 0.80 X 1.10 met.) covered with large slabs of 
brown stone. On opening it, was found a body in perfect preservation, 
which crumbled to dust. [This was undoubtedly the body of the martyr 
to whom the church was consecrated. The arrangement of a deambula- 
tory around the apse is rare and early, having been* found in a few basilicas 
of the iv and v cent. ED.] Along the axis of the deambulatory and 
apse, is cut a passage formed of two parallel walls, probably originally 
covered with a vault or slabs and forming a crypt-passage under the 
altar. The apse has seven square-headed windows on whose cornices rest 


as many engaged colonnettes. This decoration in brick is adossed to the 
wall of the original structure, constructed below of large blocks of tufa 
and above of bricks. 

This latter work is of a good period. A semicircular side apse is a pos- 
terior addition of rude stone-work. At about four metres from the main 
entrance rises the square tower which is now reduced to a height of 2.50 met. 

The rectangular pagan structure on which the church is based is paved 
in the centre with slabs of white marble and on the sides with a rough 
mosaic of white and black slabs forming stars and crosses, like other 
mosaics from the excavations of Luni mentioned by Promis. A small 
well was found in front of the side apse. 

A trench dug along the axis of the apse through the church uncovered 
a series often piers arranged in two parallel rows : they were used as bases, 
and eight of them are inscribed one on all four sides, one on three, and 
the rest on one side only. An eleventh was found overthrown and out of 
place : it was hexagonal instead of being rectangular. None of the statues 
which stood upon these piers have been found in the interior, and only 
fragments outside. 

The longest of the inscriptions reads 


A bronze statue was erected to L. Titinius : other statues were dedicated 
to the emperors Carinus, Diocletian, Galerius, Maxentius, to Claudius 
Sabinus and other distinguished men. 

The following are some of the marble sculptures unearthed. Four torsi 
of statues in long togas ; two male busts ; several heads ; two small statues 
of matrons, of excellent workmanship ; a small female statue without head 
or extremities ; a relief with two figures ; a large number of architectural 
fragments, among which the most remarkable are a capital and two pieces 
of cornice decorated with foliage and flowers in the best classic style. There 
are some capitals and spiral columns of mediaeval workmanship, partly 
belonging to the entrance of the church, as did also a colossal lion devouring 
an animal. Beside these marbles, many objects in terracotta, glass, bone, 
bronze, iron and stone were found, as well as coins. 


The ancient building was apparently built of large blocks of tufa and 
of a construction that carries one back to the time of Augustus. Judging 
from the inscriptions dedicated in it by the ordo populusgue lunensium to 
emperors and important personages, this must have been the main public 
building of Luni. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 374-85. 

MARZABOTTO. To the north of the Piano di Misano, at the spot 
marked Q on the plan (Mon. Ant. Line, n) a conduit has been found which 
received and carried off the drainage of the houses on the north side of the 
Etruscan city. It was preserved along a length of 23.50 met., with an 
internal measurement of 29 X 63 cent, and was constructed of large blocks 
of hard travertine, on all four sides. It led toward the river. Not. d. 
Scavi, 1890, pp. 373-4. 

editor of the Ami des Monuments, has published in that review (No. 24, 
1891, pp. 87-93) a paper illustrating the twelve drawings exhibited at the 
Salon of 1891 in which he attempts to reconstruct the architectural struc- 
tures of the ancient Metapontum. In the first plate is the plan of the city 
with its wall, agora, theatre, temples, streets, suburbs, port and necropolis. 
A good plan of the Tavola dei Paladini is given (No. 16) giving the place 
of the E. colonnade and of the cella wall, thus for the first time giving an 
accurate idea of the structure of this temple, which he,following Lenormant, 
attributes to Demeter. M. Normand indulges in an elaborate sculptural 
and pictorial decoration of his reconstructed temple, taken from ancient 
models, the subjects being taken from the myths of Demeter and Persephone. 
He gives thirteen columns on the sides and six in front, thus a hexastyle 

The Archivio Storico Lombardo (June 30, 1891, xvm, 2, pp. 415-453) 
publishes the usual interesting annual report of the objects added to the 
archaeological museum in Milan ; this being for the year 1890. 

I. GIFTS AND PURCHASES. Prehistoric. The widow of Sig. Delfinoni 
gave the collection of prehistoric objects formed by him. They all come 
from the prehistoric stations south of Lake Maggiore where, on the two 
banks of the Ticino, along a distance of some 40 square kilometres are 
scattered necropoli in groups, some on hills some in vales, all known by 
the general name of Golasecca from the site of the most important dis- 
coveries. The museum already possessed the noted Giani collection from 
the same region, the tomb of Sesto Calende, the antiquities of Vergiate, 
etc. The Delfinoni collection comprises over 300 pieces. Prof. Castelfranco 
has catalogued them in two groups of which over half are terracottas and 
the rest bronzes. The earliest group goes back to the close of the bronze 
age or the beginning of the first iron age and comes down to pieces that feel 


the influences of the Illyrian invasions and even perhaps the Celtic influ- 
ence of the La T6ne type. This period is characterized by urns with 
scratched triangles and other peculiarities of technique. The later group 
is characterized by smooth surfaced urns red or black varnished with a 
decoration not scratched but raised and sometimes without any decoration. 
The most important pieces are, in the first group : (1) the earliest urn with 
six bands of scales and parallel lines instead of triangles ; (2) a second urn 
which has beside the usual triangles, filled in with white enamel, a lower 
band of horses drawn with geometrical lines and comparable to the later 
but similar design on the prehistoric vases of Rondineto near Brescia ; (3) 
a cup with high foot, decorated with three geometrical animals: (4) three 
open bronze bracelets like the Coarezza type of the close of the bronze age. 
Among the pieces of the second group are several vases, a bronze situla, a 
pin-head with six ducks, etc. 

Cav. Ancona gave a number of prehistoric objects found at Bosisio, 
Alzate, Caramanico, near Lodi, etc. The most important are : (1) a fine 
bronze hatchet of the Lodi type ; (2) a bronze lance head found at Gola- 
secca, 18 cent, long, similar to those of the Cascina Ranza. 

Cav. Zerbi gave a series of prehistoric objects found at Vergiate, which 
while comprised within the Golasecca zone are of quite a different character 
and not quite as ancient. Comni. Vela gave some objects found in the 
territory of S. Pietro di Stabio where the famous stone with the inscription 
Komoneos Varsileos was unearthed. 

Gallic antiquities. In 1890 Prof. E. Decker and Cav. P. Clerici exca- 
vated at Gerenzano near Saronno and gave the results to the museum. 
They include vases of terracotta and stone (gneiss), fibulae, objects of 
bronze and iron. They are partly Gallic and partly Roman. It is thought 
that systematic excavations would yield important results, especially if 
continued to a certain depth below the later strata. 

Roman antiquities. Count Trivulzio donated some Roman antiquities 
found at Briosco. Comm. Vela gave a leg of a statue and a marble vase 
found at S. Pietro di Stabio. 

Lombard antiquities. Dr. G. Carotti gives a dissertation on some sculp- 
tures of the vin century of early Lombard style, from the monastery of 
Cairate on the Olona. On account of its importance it is summarized 
separately under the head Cairate (q. v.). 

Middle Ages and Renaissance. Cav. Zerbi gave an interesting capital 
of the xin cent, decorated with beardless heads and with the arms of the 
ancient Alemanni family. 

A bust of white marble, representing an Ecce Homo was purchased. It 
belongs to the close of the xv cent., is in good preservation and 52 cent, 
high. The head of Christ is full of character : it is slightly bent over the 


right shoulder ; the mouth is opened as if words were being spoken through 
heavy lips ; the sunken cheeks express lassitude ; the melancholy drooping 
eyes, a thoughtful resignation ; the hair is soft and delicate falling in broad 
simple style in undulations on the shoulders. The simple and pure lines 
of the head give an ascetic and philosophic impression. The chest is broad 
and the shoulders heavy : in their clumsy lines there seems to be an anti- 
thesis to the head. The work is characteristically Lombard broad and 
not graceful. The contrast between the inner sentiment of the artist, deep 
and thoughtful and the execution still partly enslaved to a rude realism 
bring to mind the works of CRISTOFORO SOLARI, especially during the 
period anterior to his journey to Rome (1495-99). 

Among other purchases was that of a rectangular begging box of wood 
from Piacenza decorated with reliefs in the late Gothic style (xv cent.) on 
a gold ground and with colored figures. Such boxes are almost unique. 

Cav. Zerbi gave the fragments of the base of a column from a double 
window in the castle of Abbiategrasso belonging to the Visconti. The 
Gothic decoration encloses the initials I and M and the words dux mediolanl. 
They therefore belong to Giovanni Maria Visconti, duke of Milan from 
1402 to 1412. 

zino a Roman statuette of late art and a capital were found. The capital 
is exceedingly interesting. It belongs partly to the Corinthian style passing 
from the round to the square or cubic. Its imitation of a classic capital 
is almost perfect but it has elements of Syrian and Byzantine style in the 
style of cutting and the kind of foliage. It shows, in fact, the passage 
from Roman to Byzantine decoration in Milan. It is comparable to a 
capital found at Rome in the forum of Trajan and now in the Lateran 
which is Ionic in its upper part and below has laurel leaves in the- Syrian 
style, sawed out and with hard modelling. From a similarity with the 
capitals of the crypt of the church of S. Stefano in Lenno, on lake Como 
(Riv. Arch, di Como, x, pi. 2) the date of the Milanese capital would be the 
fifth or early sixth century, and certainly anterior to the disasters of 539. 

A capital and column of the xui cent, belonging to the old church of 
Brera have been found. A capital of the early xv cent, with the arms of 
the Arconati, and a fragment of terracotta frieze of the same century with 
delicate Gothic arcaded decoration from Via Broletto ; arid an early cast 
of a Virgin and Child from Via Cordusio, we also added to the collection. 

cently called the attention of the R. Istituto Lombardo to the inscription 
scratched on an amphora found in Via del Ratti. The first line has in 
Etruscan characters the word trimetr, the Etruscan reduction of the Greek 
in the sense of trimodia or amphora : the second line has the 


latin cifres for 76 indicating the contents in pounds. The milanese 
amphora would thus appear to be short, holding 3 pounds less than the 
80 Italic pounds, the measure of the regular Roman amphora. The two 
together form probably the earliest Etruscan bilingual inscription worthy 
of being placed side by side with the other precious palaeo-Italic piece in 
Milan, the Messapian helmet of the Poldi Pezzoli collection. Arch. St. 
Lomb. 1891, p. 452. 

ORVIETO (near). In the territory of BARDANO in digging a grotto, 
about eight kil. froin Orvieto an Etruscan tomb was opened. It was cut 
in the tufa, with an entrance on the east. It had been despoiled and there 
were found a bronze armlet, three pottery paterae and many fragments of 
vases, rough terracottas and painted vases. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp, 385-6. 

Near CASTELGIORGIO Sig. Gaddi of Orvieto started excavations in his 
property of Fattoraccio and found two chamber tombs along a branch of 
the Via Cassia in a sandy knoll. They belong doubtless to an Etruscan 
necropolis dispersed in groups over the entire plateau around the east side 
of Castelgiorgio which is probably situated on the site of an ancient pagus. 
The existence of such a necropolis was ascertained as early as 1865 and 
the tombs then found had a rich contents of gold objects, of terracotta 
vases in imitation of metal vases, engraved mirrors, and bronze vases with 
Etruscan inscriptions, all of which proved the age of these tombs to be 
between the third and second centuries B. c. Other important discoveries 
succeeded in 1877 when Sig. Mancini of Orvieto explored the entire right 
side of the branch of the Cassia, opposite the Gaddi tombs. It thus appears 
now that this road was entirely lined with ancient tombs, thus showing it 
to have been originally a main road, probably the Etruscan highway over 
the Fattoraccio plateau, leading from Orvieto to Grotte di Castro. 

The two tombs found by Sig. Gaddi had fallen in: they had been 
violated at some time when the vaults were still intact. The first tomb 
was composed of a single chamber with two funerary benches on which 
the bodies rested and between which, near the dear were heaped about 
thirty small vases of rude manufacture except two oinochoai in Campanian 
style. There were also two mirrors and a gold bracelet-sheet. 

In the second tomb there were no terracotta vases but many fragments 
of bronze vases, mirrors of good style, part of an inscribed bronze oinochoe, 
and decorative covers and handles of vases with masks, heads, dolphins, 
etc. A few decorative pieces escaped the devastators a pair of gold 
pendants, a pair of spiral gold earrings, a gold bracelet, two fibulae, etc. 
Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 351-3. 

PETRIGNANO. ETRUSCAN ANTIQUTIES. Opposite Petrignano near the 
lake of Chiusi is a place called Malestante, the property of Sig. A. Romizi. 
There, on the s. side the Etruscans excavated a necropolis with a double 


row of chamber tombs. Excavators have been usually discouraged because 
nearly all the tombs were found to have been previously pillaged. The 
village to which this necropolis belonged appears, from the age of the few 
remains on this hill, to have flourished in the fifth and sixth centuries B. c. 
The principal monument found lately by Sig. Romizi has been one side of 
a square tufa cippus left there after the Etruscans had sawed away the 
greater part of the monument. This peculiar custom was apparently for 
the purpose of dividing the work among tombs of the same family, without 
regard to the preservation of the carved figures. In this case two of the 
figures have been cut lengthwise. The work is in very low relief, in the 
archaic Etruscan style and consists of three figures : on the r. a man, on 
the 1. a woman and in the centre a child. The man salutes the woman 
with his right hand : his head is covered with a broad-brimmed hat, and 
he wears a fringed shirt reaching below his knees ; and over it a mantle. 
The woman has earrings and a frontlet and wears a pleated robe and a 
mantle : she salutes the man with her left hand. The child salutes her 
and walks with the man while she proceeds in the opposite direction. It 
represents the supreme farewell of the wife and mother to whom the 
monument was erected. The remaining section on the right shows a flute 
player and that on the left a mourner. The style though archaic is 
extremely correct, and the outlines sharp and firm : the eyes project and 
the lips are thick but the action is good. 

A number of vases and of terminal cippi were also found on the same 
spot. Opposite it at Petrignano is an Etruscan site with a few Etruscan 
tombs of the third and fourth centuries B. c. It is singular to find here 
some slabs of the volcanic tufa of the Monti Cimini which the Southern 
Etruscans as they went northward seem to have been in the habit of 
carrying with them. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 308-10. 

POMPEII. The following is an abstract of the recent Journal of exca- 
vations compiled by the Superintendents. 

September 1890. Excavations were continued in isola 2 reg. vin on the 
south side of houses 20, 19, 18, 17, 16 and 14, which communicate with 
each other internally. Besides this the excavations of the agger outside 
the Porta Stabiana has been continued. The discoveries outside the Porta 
Stabiana were of considerable importance : only the inscriptions are re- 
ported. On the left are two semicircular tufa chairs, like those of Mamia 
and Veius, each in an area surrounded by walls. Flanking the first were 
two cippi of lava each with the inscription M TVLLIO [ M F | EX DD. 
The analogy of the cippus of M. Portuis (C.LL. x., n. 997) placed similarly 
by his tomb outside the Herculanean gate show that these cippi were placed 
to indicate the limits of the sepulchral area given to M. Tullius by decree 
of the decurions. This man is certainly the M. Tullius, son of Marcus, 


three times a justiciary duumvir, quinquennial, augur and military tribune 
by popular vote who in the time of Augustus built at Pompeii solo et peg 
(unia) sua the aedes Fortunae Augustae. This is further demonstrated by 
the identity of material and lettering with those of the cippus placed by the 
above temple on which is inscribed : M. Tulli M. f. area privata. The 
benefits which M. Tullius conferred on the colony sufficiently explain the 
decurions concession. During the half century before the destruction of 
the city his sepulchral area was invaded and the terminal cippi cast down. 
The second tufa chair has on its back the following inscription in fine let- 
TVRAE- PVBLICE- DATVS EX- D- D. Although the existence of the 
Alleii in Pompeii was known, the name of the duumvir M. Alleius Minius 
was hitherto unknown. No trace of his tomb remains. 

The most important inscription found south of the forum (Is. 2, reg. 
vm), both for date and interest is one which belongs to the series of the 
inscriptiones ministrorum Mercurii, Maiae, postea Augusti. It reads as 
follows : 

A- A- P- R- D- D 





D- V- V-A-S-P-P 


The date is 3 A. D. Of the usual two duumvirs only one is mentioned, Q. 
Cotrius Q. f. while his colleague's name, M. Numistrius Pronto, is omitted, 
the latter having died in that very year. The most important peculiarity 
of this inscription is the series of initial letters on the first line. The last 
two stand for D(ecrefo) ~D(eeurionum), and perhaps one A may be connected 
with Augustus. For the other letters no interpretation is even suggested. 

An inscription found in the same vicinity is read : [A]lleia \_M~\ai. /. | 
[S]acerd. V\_eneri]s \ et Cerer[is. si]bi j ex. dec.\_q. pub. Up to the 
present only priestesses of Ceres were known. This inscription appears to 
show that in Pompeii as in Surrentum, Casinum and Sulmo the priesthood 
of Venus was joined to that of Ceres. The priestess Alleia appears to be 
the daughter of the well-known On. Alleius Nigidius Mains who was called 
princeps coloniae. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 327-334. 

Excavations have been conducted at the furthermost extremity of the 
Via Nolana, and at the extreme angle of the triangular forum of a small 


subterranean construction which stands before the temple of Hercules, 
hitherto supposed to have been a bidental. It is now proved to have been 
a simple well of spring- water, for the stone casing ceases at a certain depth, 
and underneath only earth is found. Amongst the latest objects discovered 
is a small bronze head of a woman, with a silver band around the hair and 
a crown of ivy. Athenceum, July 19. 

REGGIO (province of ; in Calabria). AN ARCHAIC ACHAEAN INSCRIPTION. 
A fragmentary bronze plaque was recently given to the National Museum 
in Naples upon which is a Greek inscription in archaic characters. The 
entire left side is wanting. The place of discovery is unknown, though it was 
purchased in the province of Reggio. But the alphabet is that of the 
Achaean colonies, thus excluding Rhegion, which was essentially Chalki- 
dian. The grafia, the characteristic dividing dot and the mention of the 
7r/>]oevoi, evidently as magistrates, arbiters or witnesses all call to mind 
the well-known bronze of Petilia (Rochl. I. G. A., n. 544) and indicate a 
common source. The number of Achaean inscriptions is too small for much 
comparison, especially as the present, so far as preserved consists mainly 
of proper names such as 2i/u'xa>, ^I'AITTTTOS and Aop/ceus. A comparison with 
the Petilian tablet shows that we have here an enactment which the 
proxenoi sign and to which they give the Kvpos. Noteworthy, though not 
novel in the epigraphy of Southern Italy and Sicily, is the use of initials 
or abbreviations, such as Au, Eav, etc. two of which follow proper names 
and appear to be abbreviations of their demotikon, while the third may 
stand for the name of a tribe. The period is that of the bronze of Petilia 
which is considered by all to be not later than the sixth century B. c. 
Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 361-3. 

ROMA. AN ANCIENT PIER OR LANDING. On p. 585 of vol. V the dis- 
covery was announced of a tufa platform with remains of a circular peri- 
style with a diameter of 19 metres, open on the south, in the form of a 
horseshoe. But its destination was then unbroken. The following is the 
result of further excavations reported in the Jan. number of the Bull. 
Comm. arch. The portico enclosed a circular tempietto 4.20 met. in diameter 
in front of which was a marble altar carefully executed evidently sacred 
to Bacchus. Far earlier than this temple and portico is the immense pier 
below it constructed of large blocks : the former belonging to the second 
half of the third century, the former at least as early as Augustus. The 
pier is therefore of great interest. At a distance of 160 metres from the 
Ponte S. Angelo it projects into the river 26.50 metres : its present total 
length is about 50 metres, its width 13.70 met., its depth between 3.60 and 
56 metres. It is built mostly of volcanic tufa mixed with some harder tufa 
and travertine. Two platforms on the north side are formed by the help 
of dykes and piles. Basing himself on Padre Bruzza's documents Sig. 


Marchetti concludes that this is the Statio marmorum, the pier where 
imported marbles were disembarked. Its size and strength is well pro- 
portioned to such a purpose. It was probably established, in connection 
with the first port, at the close of the Republic and became, later, the 
Statio Patrimonii mentioned in inscriptions. 

All around such a pier it would be natural to find traces of establish- 
ments for the working of marbles, for their preparation for use in temples 
and public edifices of all sorts. In fact, in many of the excavations carried 
on in this neighborhood there have come to light numerous traces of work- 
shops of marble cutters and workers with columns and blocks of marble 
still rough or only partly blocked out. 

Sig. Lanciani writes in regard to it : " Above the bridge of S. Angelo, 
has been discovered a pier or landing built of blocks of tufa, put cross- 
ways without any help of cement, and coated with an outside facing of 
travertine. This construction looks like a raised causeway or embank- 
ment, protruding into the river for a distance of 26 m. at an angle of forty 
degrees to the main line or direction of the stream. On each side of the 
causeway there are two spacious landings almost level with the water's edge, 
built of concrete, and faced with a palisade. This palisade, a perfect speci- 
men of Roman hydraulic engineering, is composed of square beams of 
Quercus robur, from 6 to 8 m. long, ending in a point protected by a four- 
pronged cap of iron. The size of the beams is 55 centim. by 50, and they 
are made to fit into each other by means of a groove on one side and a 
projection on the other, both shaped a coda di rondine, or swallow's tail. 
Sheets of lead, 4 millim. thick, are nailed against the inner face of the pali- 
sade so as to make it thoroughly water-tight. A line of piles runs in front 
of the palisade, to protect it from the action of vessels moored alongside 
the landing. The origin, the nature, and the destination of this interesting 
construction have been very cleverly described by the inspector of the works 
of the Tiber, Signor Marchetti, in a recent contribution to the Bullettino 
Archeologico. It was the landing-place, or wharf, for the marbles of every 
size and description to be used in the buildings of the Campus Martius, 
and of the Pincian and Quirinal hills. 

" Suetonius, speaking of the transformation of Rome under Augustus, 
says that many wealthy patricians and personal friends of the emperor, 
Cornelius Balbus, Marcius Philippus, Statilius Taurus, Vipsanius Agrippa, 
moved by his enterprise, covered the Campus Martius with colossal con- 
structions. In the space of twenty-two years from 721 A. u., which is 
the date of Agrippa's sedileship, to 743, which is the date of the erection 
of the horologium, or sundial, one of the last works of Augustus these 
five men raised nine porticoes, three theatres, one amphitheatre, fifteen 
temples, five public parks, thermae, aqueducts, fountains, artificial rivers 


and lakes, altars, mausolea, fora, a complete system of drainage, and a 
bridge across the Tiber. 

M The old marble wharf, at the southern end of the city, near the modern 
Mannorata, could not have been used for the purpose of landing the materials 
destined for these constructions of the Campus Martius, because the trans- 
portation of columns, pillars, and obelisks through the narrow and tortuous 
streets of the ix, xi, and xrn regions would have been impossible in some 
cases, difficult in others, and always costly to excess. And besides, there 
was no reason why preference should be given to transportation by land, 
when the vessels loaded with transmarine marbles could easily be brought 
within a few yards of the buildings in construction. The blocks were evi- 
dently discharged on the side landings, level with the water's edge, which 
have a water frontage of 100 met. and then raised by means of cranes (such 
as the one represented in the bas-relief of the Aterii, published, among others, 
by Parker in part iv. of the Archaeology of Rome, plate xxin.) to the level 
of the causeway, and pushed on rollers (ehamulei) towards their destination. 

" The discovery of this new topographic feature of ancient Rome fits 
remarkably well with others previously made in connection with the sale, 
trade, and working of marbles in this portion of the Campus Martius. 
When the church of St. Apollinaris was modernized and disfigured in 
1737-40 by Popes Clement XII. and Benedict XIV, ruins and inscrip- 
tions were discovered proving that there stood in old times the Statio 
Rationis Marmorum, that is to says, the central office for the administra- 
tion of marble quarries, which were the private property and monopoly 01 
the Crown. Around this office, and on each side of the avenue connecting 
it with the pier just discovered by the Tor di Nona, stone-cutters and 
sculptors had settled in large numbers. Wherever the ground is exca- 
vated between S. Andrea della Valle and the left bank of the river we are 
sure to find traces of these workshops and artists' studios, the site of which 
is marked by a layer either of marble chips or of that yellowish crystalline 
sand which is used to the present day for sawing the blocks. Pietro Sante 
Bartoli, Flaminio Vacca, Ficoroni, and Braun describe many such shops 
found under the Monte Giordano, S. Maria dell' Anima, the Collegio 
Clementino, the Chiesa Nuova, etc. It is difficult to explain why many of 
these should have been abandoned so suddenly that works of sculpture in 
an unfinished state have been found, together with the tools of the trade 
hammers, chisels, and files. More difficult still to explain seems the fact 
that, in the majority of cases, the unfinished statues represent Dacian kings 
or Dacian prisoners, in the same characteristic attitude of sad resignation 
which we notice in the prototypes removed from the triumphal arch of 
Trajan to that of Constantine. One of these figures of Dacians, discovered 
in the reign of CJement X in the Via del Governo Vecchio, was placed on 


the staircase of the Altieri Palace ; a second was found in July, 1 841, under 
the house No. 211, Via de' Coronari ; a third in January, 1859, under the 
house of Luigi Vannutelli, near the Via del Pellegrino ; a fourth in 1870, 
under the house of Paolo Massoli, in the same Via de' Coronari. These 
singular facts lead us to believe that the sudden abandonment of the ateliers 
of the Campus Martius must have taken place soon after the death of Trajan, 
the conqueror of Dacia, or else that the production of the article a la mode 
under his rule must have been in excess of the demand. 

" Semicircular Portico. A second discovery has taken place under the 
Teatro Tor di Nona, that of a semicircular portico in the shape of a Greek 
fi. It is built of white marble, with one single row of columns. In the 
centre of the hemicycle stands a diminutive round temple, 4.20 met. in 
diameter, and before it an altar ornamented with the customary sacrificial 
emblems. For singularity of shape, plan, and architecture the shrine stands 
unique among this class of monuments'. The capitals of the columns are 
modelled in the shape of a leopard's skin folded and twisted round the top 
of the shaft. This motive of decoration, and the name LiB(er /) engraved 
on a fragment of the architrave, make us believe that Bacchus was the 
titular god of the place, a god always welcomed and cherished by sailors. 

" Inscriptions of Lucretius Zethus. Higher up the river, near the church 
of S. Lucia della Tinta, that is to say, near the site of another pier (and 
ferry connecting the left bank with the Domitian gardens in the Prati di 
Castello), an important inscription has come to light, describing how, in the 
first year of our era, 754 of Rome, under the consulship of Caius Csesar and 
Lucius Paullus, a freedman named Lucius Lucretius Zethus was warned in 
a vision by Jupiter to raise an altar in honor of Augustus, under the invo- 
cation of Mercurius Deus JEternm. Following these directions, Lucretius 
Zethus had the altar made, and dedicated it not only to Mercury- Augustus, 
but to Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, the Sun, the Moon, Apollo, Diana, Fortune, 
Ops, Isis, Piety, and the Fates. From an epigraphic point of view this 
monument ranks amongst the very best discovered in the works of the 
Tiber/' RODOLFO LANCIANI, in Athenaeum, April 25. 

DISCOVERIES IN THE FORUM OF AUGUSTUS. In vol. v, pp. 114-5 and 221 
of this JOURNAL, an account was given of the discoveries made daring the 
excavations in the Forum of Augustus. A supplement is given by the 
Bull. Comm. Arch. (1890, pp. 251-59) by Sig. Gatti, describing both the 
fragments of sculpture and of inscriptions found over the surface of the 

Sculpture. (1) Torso of a military statue, over life-size, with corslet : 
it is headless and without legs. The chlamys is not draped over the left 
arm as usual but passes from the right shoulder to the left arm in graceful 
folds, as in a statue of Trajan in the Villa Albani. This paludamentum 


is unique among military (imperial ?) statues in having a fringed border. 
The work is delicate but badly injured. (2) Trunk of a male statue, with 
toga, over life-size. (3) Life-size male head, the portrait of a beardless 
middle-aged Roman with thin hair, badly damaged and lacking the lower 
part, but of excellent art. (4) Female head, slightly under life-size; por- 
trait of a Roman lady with headdress of the time of Trajan and Hadrian. 

Architectural fragments. The pedestal of one of the piers which divided 
the southern hemi cycle from the area of the forum still remains in place. 
To them were engaged channelled half-columns of cipollino of which two 
large fragments were found. There also remained in place a considerable 
part of the pavement formed of large rectangular slabs of African, grey, 
cipollino, yellow and purple marbles. To the decoration of the portico 
which rose on both sides of the temple of Mars Ultor, belong the shafts of 
columns of giallo antico which have at all times been found here, especially 
during the last excavations. The "fragments of cornices, architraves and 
the capitals are nearly all of the finest workmanship. 

Inscriptions. The inscribed fragments found belong to two distinct kinds 
of monuments. Some are remains of plinths on which were erected the 
famous honorary statues placed here by Augustus : others are pieces of 
large framed slabs. On the former were simply inscribed the names of the 
persons to whom the marble statue was erected with the note of the offices 
filled by him. The latter contained the elogium or narration of the most 
noteworthy acts and especially of the triumphs which had honored these 
great leaders. The size of the plinths agrees exactly with that of the square 
niches cut in the hemicycle of the forum, where they must have rested. 
Under the niches were placed the slabs containing the elogia which formed 
a sort of marble revetment in harmony with the magnificent decoration of 
this noble structure. 

Lanciani published three fragments of inscriptions from the plinths, 
relating to Appius Claudius, Cornelius Silla and Fabius Maximus. There 
are two others, one of which is too fragmentary for conjecture, while the 
other can only be in honor of L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, brother of 
Scipio Africanus, who was consul in 564 and triumphed over King Antio- 
chus in the following year. It was already known that three statues were 
erected to him, one on the Capitol, one in the family tomb on the Appian, 
another in Sicily in 561 . Now we know of a fourth in the Forum of Augustus 
whose inscription can be restored thus : 


L. CorneliVS. P. F. Scipio 

Cos. praet. aed. cwR. TR. mil. 


In regard to the fragments belonging to the series of elogia there are a 
number besides those published by Lanciani and already noticed in the 
JOURNAL ; especially nine fragments of one and twenty-five of a second. 
TOMBS ON THE VIA TRIUMPHALIS. In the Bull. Comm. arch, for Nov. 
1890, it was reported that to the left of the Porta Angelica along the 
bastions of the Vatican gardens there had been discovered the remains of 
a series of tombs which were anciently situated on the left side of the Via 
Triumphalis, which belong to the first half of the first century of the em- 
pire. In the Jan. 1890 No. some inscriptions are given which were found 
here. One is of the Apulei. Another is of Heraclitus son of Hermias of 
the city of Bargylia in Caria. The sentence BapyuXi^rrys <vAr}s 'AXartSos 
is written in latin letters : the tribe Alatis is new. To a third tomb belonged 
a cippus showing that it belonged to the poet Claudius Diadumenus. It 
is in the form of an elegant epigram, probably written by the poet him- 
self, as follows : 

D M 












The verses are divided by special signs of punctuation. They show that 
Claudius Diadumenus, descendant of a libertus of Emperor Claudius and 
educated in literary studies, exercised at first important offices in the im- 
perial household and then gave himself up entirely to poetry. The dis- 
tich commencing Hylle pater, veni; expressed the right of burial given 
here to his father Hyllus. The monument was erected by Claudia Fruc- 
tiane, probably wife of Diadumenus. A second cippus was erected by 
Diadumenus to his son Tiberius Claudius Hyllus, who died at 23, having 
been a lictor popularis of the class of denuntiatores, of which there was one 
for each regio of the city to announce the popular festivals. Bull. Comm. 
arch. 1891, pp. 70-5. 


publishes in the Bull. Comm. arch. (1891, pp. 23-36) a veritable monograph 
on the marble workshops of ancient Rome. He is led to it by the discovery, 
in Reg. xiu, in the Testaccio, of a private house in the midst of a region 
entirely devoted to shipping interests and containing nothing but ware- 
houses. It turned out to be the office of a marble cutter, whose yard 
contained some hundred columns to be put to his use. Passing from this 
to more general considerations Sig. Lanciani gives us details on the marble 
trade, on the quarter occupied by the marble cutters, on the discoveries of 
marbles made there since the sixteenth century, and finally on the traces 
of the residen ce there of real artists sculptors and modellers. This qu arter 
was in the Campus Martius. 

DISCOVERY OF THE TERENTUM. In the course of the diggings required 
for the opening up of the new Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Prof. Lanciani 
found after long search between the Palazzo Sforza Cesarini and the Chiesa 
Nuova, at a depth of about six metres, the three enceintes of Aradites patris, 
Proserpinae and Euripus where the sulfuric waters mentioned by Valerius 
Maximus were piped. It is the famous place Terentum or Tarentum with 
which are connected several of the most ancient legends of Rome and in 
which the secular games were performed. The topographers of Rome had 
placed it either near the mausoleum of Augustus or in the Circus Maximus. 
Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 10. 

URN OF NERO'S NURSE ECLOGE. Sig. Lanciani writes : A marble cinera- 
rium, inscribed with the name CLAVDIAE ECLOGE PIISSIMAE, was found in 
the region of the Vigne Nuove, between the Vie Salaria and Nomentana, 
about 175 years ago, embedded in the front wall of a farmhouse which is 
now the property of Signer Chiari. Although the Vigne Nuove are scarcely 
four miles distant from the Porta Pia the inscription had never been noticed 
by an antiquary. My attention was called to it by Cavaliere Rodolfo Buti, 
a learned and conscientious explorer of our Campagna. I saw the inscrip- 
tion on November 28, and considering that the site of the Vigne Nuove 
corresponds exactly to the site of the Suburbanum Phaontis, in which 
Nero's suicide took place considering also that Signer Chiari's farm con- 
tains the ruins of a noble and extensive Roman villa of the first century 
I was led to believe that the Claudia Ecloge mentioned on the cinerary urn 
found among the ruins of this villa 175 years ago may be identified with 
the faithful nurse who, together with Acte and Alexandria, paid the last 
honors to the corpse of her imperial nursling. I may add that this identi- 
fication has been fully approved in archaeological quarters, especially on 
account of the gentilicium Claudia, which is " de rigueur " in a freedwoman 
of Nero. The finding of Ecloge's urn at the Vigne Nuove, among the ruins 
of Phaon's villa, makes us believe that the pious old woman must have been 


buried, at her own request, on the very spot in which her favorite had 
stabbed himself ; but this is a simple supposition, independent of the text 
of the epitaph, which contains only three words. Athenaeum, March 14. 

ACTS OF THE QUINDECEMVIRI. Professor MOMMSEN will publish, in the 
Monumenti Antichi of the Koman Lincei, his commentary on the Acts of the 
quindecemviri recently discovered in the works on the Tiber. Athenceum, 
April 4. 

A collection of casts of Greek sculpture. Demetrius Stephanovich Schilizzi, 
a British subject of Italian origin established at Athens, has given to the 
Italian government a very important collection of plaster casts from the 
principal monuments of Greek sculpture and architecture. The 324 cases 
containing it have already reached Rome. Rev. Arch. 1891, 1, p. 241. 

SCULPTURE DISCOVERED IN ISQO. The Bullettino delta Comm. Archeo- 
logica for Dec. 1890 gives a catalogue of the sculptures discovered during 
1890 by the archaeological commission. The statues are: (1) statue of 
Fortune, about life-size, in 34 fragments, without the head, found on the 
Esquiline : (2) herrn of Hercules, less than life-size, covered with lion's 
skin, and with bearded head, in an excellent decorative style : (3) head- 
less female statue, life-size, representing Ariadne or a bacchante: (4) 
headless statue of an old peasant, dressed in the exomis and sheepskin, of 
good style, lacking the lower "limbs and lower arms. The busts and heads 
are : (1) a head larger than life-size, of the in century, the portrait of a 
Roman, probably Imperial personage, and forming part of the statue of 
an emperor as Mars : (2) a life-size female head of a type like Faustina 
the Elder but with different head-dress : (3) a life-size male head resem- 
bling Trajan, of good work : (4) a good head, over life-size of a Roman 
matron of the third century ; (5) head of a Cupid ; (6) small head of a 
child of beautiful workmanship. Reliefs. (1) fragment of a large high- 
relief with the torso of a man perhaps of Mars : (2) another fragment 
with a seated figure of Phaedra (?) ; (3) a head of Medusa of the pathetic 
type; etc. 

There are no metal objects of much importance. 

Of the terracottas the most notable are the following : (1) female seated 
statuette probably a goddess with Cornucopia ; (2) headless and legless 
male statue in attitude of Sophocles ; (3) head of Minerva, of Etrusco- 
Latin art ; (4) well-modelled head of Venus ; (5) fragment of a beautiful 
frieze in high-relief on which remains a figure of Silenus (?) ; (6) four 
decorative friezes with sea-tigers carrying genii, winged children carrying 
festoons, bust of bacchante giving drink to panthers, etc. Some of these 
and others here omitted have been already mentioned, vol. vi, p. 585. 

SENTINUM = SASSOFERRATO. A preliminary report has been made 
to the Not. d. Scavi (1890, pp. 346-50) in view of excavations to be under- 


taken on the site of the ancient city of Sentinum near Sassoferrato. The 
identity of the site is proved by numerous inscriptions mentioning the ordo 
and plebs of the Sentinians. The city lay nearly at the junction of the 
streams Marena and Sanguirone with the Sentino. To the south rose the 
acropolis placed on a natural elevation and fortified by strong walls. Of 
these walls and of those that surrounded the city the foundations remain 
almost everywhere. They are constructed of small parallelipipeds of cal- 
careous stone, while the summit must have been formed of large blocks 
of travertine which have been for the most part removed and used for 
building material. 

Five years ago in reconstructing the provincial road from Fabriano to 
Sassoferrato which passed through Sentinuum numerous remains of private 
buildings were uncovered as well as a main road paved with large polygonal 
slabs which appears to have been a decuman road : at right angles with it 
there run drains which appear to indicate the existence of cardinal roads. 

The magnificence of the private buildings of Sentinum is shown by the 
heavy stone Avails and fine mosaic pavements. Such are that now in 
Glyptotek of Munich representing the sun and the signs of the Zodiac and 
the earth with the seasons. A second mosaic represented the sea full of 
fishes. A third mosaic, twelve metres square is now in the vigna Ippoliti 
and is remarkable for marine and fantastic animals : it doubtless belonged 
to some baths. Remains of a public building, perhaps a theatre, were 
uncovered in August : here, in a subterranean vault a number of objects 
in bronze and marble were found. Such were : a tragic and a comic mask ; 
part of a colossal figure in military costume ; many parts of columns ; several 
hundred pieces of marbles for wall-decoration ; a wooden casket decorated 
with plaques of bone and ivory covered with decoration of oves and figures 
(a Victory). Near the city part of an equestrian statue of excellent work- 
manship was found. 

VHO (near Cremona). PREHISTORIC DEPOSITS. Sig. Parazzi publishes 
in the Bull, di.palet. Italiana (1890, pp. 85-97) the results of his excava- 
tions at Vho, on the road from Cremona to Mantova. In some black earth 
numerous flint knives had been found ; this led to the investigations. In 
the stratum of black earth were found bits of vases sun-dried, numerous 
knives, blades, pieces of flint, bones of animals ; but no clear ashes or coals 
such as abound in the terremare or deer horns or piles or bronzes or arrows 
or lance heads or spindles. The diameter of the basin of earth was eight 
metres. This appears to have been a flint work shop under cover. Around 
it were evidently huts, perhaps a village of the stone age. The entire neigh- 
borhood abounds in prehistoric remains, showing in the upper region of 
Vho between the Oglio and the Delmona there originally existed a numer- 


ous population during the stone age. The stone objects found are of the 
greatest variety. 


LOWERS. Miss M. Stokes exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
on March 19 one hundred illustrations of the vestiges of Irish saints in Italy 
in the dark ages, and the Director read a paper by her on " The Tombs 
of Columbanus and his Followers at Bobbio," Attalus, Congal, Curnmian, 
and others, whose names are given by Padre Rossetti in his catalogue of 
the followers of Columbanus, but in their Latin forms, the Irish equiva- 
lents to which are omitted. The tomb of Columbanus is a white marble 
sarcophagus (formerly surmounted by a marble recumbent statue of the 
saint) the front and sides of which were adorned with bas-reliefs illustrating 
events in the life of the saint. Among the interesting features in these 
bas-reliefs should be noted the book-satchel carried by St. Columbanus in 
the first, and the water-vessel presented by Gregory the Great to the saint 
at the consecration of his monastery, in the central compartment. This 
sarcophagus stands as an altar in the crypt of the old Lombardic church 
dedicated to the saint at Bobbio, while the tombs of those disciples who 
followed him from Ireland to Italy are ranged in the walls around that of 
their master. The sculptures on five of these sarcophagi offer fine examples 
of the interlaced work described by Canon Browne at the meeting of the 
Society held on February 19th as found in Italy at this period and before 
it, even in the time of imperial Rome. Such patterns were spoken of by 
Miss Margaret Stokes in her paper read upon the same occasion as gradu- 
ally introduced with Christianity into Ireland, and there engrafted on a 
still more archaic form of Celtic art. Thus an Irish variety of such patterns 
sprang into life. The fact that there is no trace of such Irish individuality 
in the decorations on the tombs of the Irish saints at Bobbio, that there is 
nothing to differentiate these designs from those that prevailed throughout 
Lombardy in the seventh century, goes far to prove that this style did not 
come from Ireland into Italy. Whether, on the other hand, it reached the 
Irish shore borne directly from Lombardy by the passengers to and fro 
from Bobbio to its parent monastery in Bangor, co. Down, is yet matter 
for future research. The next monument described was the marble slab 
inscribed to the memory of Cummian, bishop in Ireland at the beginning 
of the eight century. We learn from the epitaph itself that Liutprand 
(King of Lombardy from A. D. 720 to 761) had the monument executed 
of which this slab was the covering, the artist's name, Joannes Magister, 
being given at the foot. The inscription consists of nineteen lines, twelve 
of which are laudatory verses in hexameters, the remaining portion being 


a request for the saint's intercession . The knife of St. Col u mbanus, described 
by Mabillon in 1682 as well as by Fleming, is still preserved in the sacristy 
of the church. It is of iron, and has a rude horn handle. The wooden 
cup out of which the saint drank is also preserved, and in the year 1354 
it was encircled by a band of silver, with an inscription stating that it had 
belonged to St. Columbanus. The bell of the saint is another relic, and 
it is known that on the occasion of the translation of the saint's relics to 
Pavia this bell was carried through the streets of that city at the head of 
the procession. The vessel brought by Pope Gregory the Great from Con- 
stantinople, and given by him to St. Columbanus at the consecration of 
his monastery, agrees in form with that which is represented in the bas- 
relief on the saint's tomb, and is said to have been one of the water vessels 
used at the wedding feast at Cana in Galilee. A silver bust representing 
the head of St. Columbanus completes the list of relics connected with this 
saint which are still preserved in the sacristy of his church at Bobbio. 
Rev. Prof. Browne said he had now had the opportunity not only of seeing 
Miss Stokes's careful drawings and diagrams, but of discussing the matter 
with Miss Stokes herself, and he was glad to be able to say once and for 
all that the Hibernian theory of the Irish origin of interlacing ornament 
in Italy was now quite dead. With regard to the date of the remarkable 
vase preserved at Bobbio, and said to have been given to St. Columbanus 
by St. Gregory, the President Dr. J. Evans thought the vase was quite as 
early as, if not earlier than, St. Gregory's time, and probably of Greek 
origin. Athenceum, March 28. 

COMO. DISCOVERY OF SILVER COINS. Early in February a treasure- 
trove of about 6000 silver coins and other pieces of the xiv century was 
made in Como. Among them were 52 coins of Co mo, all of Azzo Visconti ; 
686 of Pavia ; 4 of Cremona, and more than 5000 of Milan. A full report 
has been made upon them by Dr. Ambrosoli in the Rivista Italiana di 
Numismatica (1891, p. 163). 

GIFTS TO THE ARCH/EOLOGICAL MUSEUM. In a recent number of the 
Rivista archeologica delict provincia di Como a report is published on the 
gifts made during 1890 to the archaeological Museum of Como, whose 
importance is rapidly increasing. 

follows Sig. Carotti's report on the early Lombard sculptures of Cairate. 
Cav. Seletti recently gave to the Museum of Milan two mediaeval sculp- 
tures which came from Cairate on the Olona, in the building of the ancient 
Benedictine nunnery dedicated to S. Maria Assunta. Attracted by in- 
formation regarding some ancient paintings still existing in this ancient 
structure, now private property. One of the owners gave him for the 
Museum a capital in sandstone. It is still an imitation of the Corinthian 


type but very debased, on the same plan as those in the baptistery of 
Cividale (737 A. D.) and the ciborium of S. Giorgio di Valpollicella (712 
A. D.). The body is cubic, the four acanthus groups take almost the form 
of shells. The rectangular abacus has the interesting decoration of twisted 
rope used in Lombard works between the vn and xn cent. The origin 
of the monastery of Cairate goes back to the viu cent, to a bull of Liut- 
prand and Hildebrand of 774, followed by a papal bull of John VIII in 
874. The capital would indicate the existence at this period of a modest 
construction by an essentially local art. A narrow frieze with two doves 
remains also from this time. Among its ruins were found the two frag- 
ments of sculpture given by Cav. Selletti. One represents a lion with the 
book the symbol of St. Mark : the other represents a seated figure holding 
a book (probably St. Matthew). With the assistance of ANNONI'S old 
work (Tre statuette di signore Longobarde, gia del soppresso monistero di 
Benedettine in Gajrate) three statuettes now fastened into the wall of the 
central court of the Ambrosian library were identified as also coming from 
this monastery of Cairate. They are of the same style and workmanship 
and all seem from intrinsic evidence to date from the foundation of the 
monastery in 742. Two of the statuettes are 93 cent, high, the third measures 
62 cent. : they are in extremely high relief and of great rudeness. Com- 
pared with other early Lombard pieces they most resemble the reliefs of 
the altar of Pemmo at Cividale (744-79 A. D.). The latter are in very 
low relief, so that in the sculptures of Cairate we have examples of Lombard 
art which are unique for two reasons, their high relief and the complete 
lack of any foreign influence, especially the Byzantine, which is evident at 

A reconstruction of the monastery took place in the xm cent. The 
cloister with its double portico several times rebuilt preserves on the lower 
story a row of columns with capitals of the xni century. These capitals 
have the alternate arms of the Torriani and Visconti. The reconstruction, 
therefore, must date between 1257, the year when the Comasks encamped 
at Cairate to succor the nobles against the Milanese, and 1262 iu which 
first broke out the hostility between the Torriani and the Visconti. 

ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. The additions made to the department of 
the Middle Ages and Renaissance in the museum of Milan (Brera) during 
the year 1890 are given with the prehistoric and classical antiquities on pp. 
154-5 in order not to divide the report. The reader is referred to this page. 

RIETI. DISCOVERY OF MANUSCRIPTS. In the ex-convent of Sant Antonio 
del Monte near Rieti a notable group of manuscripts has been brought to 
light which since 1860 had remained hidden in the recess of a vault. Prof. 
Monaci has examined them on behalf of the government and reports that 
of the seventy-one manuscripts fifty-eight are important. Although they 


do not contain new matter, still, either on account of the great age of some 
of them the x and xi centuries or for the beauty of their calligraphy 
and from being dated, and, finally, on account of the illuminations of others, 
they constitute a group that would do honor to most collections. The sub- 
jects are mostly theological or of canon law. Arch. Rom. di St. Patria, 
1891, p. 205. 

ROMA. AN EARLY MANUSCRIPT. Padre CossA-Luzzi has prepared for 
publication in phototype the Vatican codex of the Prophets, which dates 
from the sixth or seventh century. It will be accompanied by a commen- 
tary from Professor Ceriani, of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, and will 
appear shortly. Athenceum, March 21. 

HOUSE OF JOHN AND PAUL. Padre Germane continues with perseverance 
his excavations under the basilica of SS. Giovanni e Paolo which he is now 
describing in the pages of this JOURNAL. He has cleared out several new 
halls during the winter arid found new paintings of a rather barbarous 
style representing soldiers dividing Christ's garments, Christ in the tomb, 
the Descent into Limbo, etc. It is thought that the date of these paintings is 
about the eighth century. They form another link in the series of frescoes 
of the ancient house which cover a period of some eight hundred years, 
from the third to the eleventh century. We call our readers' especial 
attention to Padre Germano's important series of papers in the JOURNAL : 
they form the first complete and official report on these unique excavations 
so interesting for students of early Christian art and history. 

discovered in a half-filled cubiculum of the catacomb of SS. Peter and 
Marcellinus on the Via Labicana, traces of an important series of paintings 
covering its vault. They date from about the middle of the third century. 
The vault is divided into nine compartments, five of them rectangular, the 
other four, placed at the angles, being circular. Near the entrance is a 
woman seated before whom a figure stands, speaking. This subject is 
shown, by the two following, to be the Annunciation. These latter repre- 
sent the adoration of the Magi, in the usual form, and the Magi themselves, 
who point to the star which has the pre-Constantinian form of the mono- 
gram of Christ. In another compartment the Saviour is curing the blind 
man with his right hand. In the centre of the vault Christ is seated on a 
throne surrounded by saints, the scene of special judgment. Finally at the 
corners are oranti representing the souls of those buried in this cubiculum. 
The importance of these paintings lies especially in their significance and 
connection, as they form a complete symbolic and didactic cycle. Rev. de 
I' art Chretien, 1891, p. 271. 

A MEDIXEVAL MUSEUM IN THE VATICAN. Great and expensive prepara- 
tions are being carried on at the Vatican for the installation of a Mediaeval 


museum in the famous Borgia apartments. It is to receive the numerous 
paintings and works of art of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance which 
have hitherto been crowded into the cases and wardrobes of the Museo 
Cristiano. Until now it has been almost impossible to study a large part 
of this collection, hidden as it was behind wooden doors. The collection 
of small Byzantine paintings of various periods is unique and those of 
enamels, including many fine examples of early Limoges work, and of 
carved ivories are large and of the highest interest. But few of them have 
been described in print, and still fewer illustrated. [The editor spent, years 
ago, several months in making careful descriptions of several hundred of 
these pieces and can testify to the fact that they will prove a fruitful source 
of study for students of the history of art. A. L. F., Jr.]. The collection 
of paintings of the xiv and xv cent, includes several works of unusual 
excellence especially of the Umbrian school. 

ber of Comin. De Rossi's Bull, di arch, cristiana (Serie V, Anno J, No. 2-3.) 
the learned writer gives a preliminary report on his discovery of the basilica 
of St. Silvester already alluded to. 

It was already known that the early and important historical crypts 
discovered during the past few years in the cemetery of Priscilla should 
be divided into two groups. The first is that of the hypogeum of the Acilii 
Glabriones, which has been already described ; the second reached from 
the last cubiculum of the Glabriones is the cubiculum clarum of the martyr 
Crescentianus. Here also the graffiti of visitors are numerous. In one 
of them the reason is expressed for the veneration in which this spot was 
held. As the basilicas erected over the tombs of the apostles in Rome 
were called limina apostolorum, so these crypts of the cemetery of Priscilla 
were termed in these graffiti limina sanctorum. New discoveries have sim- 
plified the description of the crypts of S. Crescentianus. These were the 
confessio of an open air basilica erected by Pope Sylvester above the cata- 
comb. The itineraries of the seventh century speak of ascending to the 
basilica of S. Silvester in visiting this cemetery ; the stairway that leads 
down to the crypts of Crescentianus or Crescentius. Excavations at the 
top of it showed the ruins of rased buildings which were found to be a 
basilica surrounded by Christian oratories and mausoleums. The stair- 
case opens up near the bema, as is customary. As the work of excavating 
the ruins was not finished at the time of writing the full report is delayed. 

The basilica was completely razed and despoiled, doubtless at a time of 
invasion. No fragment of inscription or of sculpture has yet been found. 
But from the foundations of the buildings it is easy to perceive the form 
of the apse, the site of the altar and the remains of a couple of the papal 
tombs. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 4. 


A graffito of the year 375. On the wall of a staircase in the cemetery of 
Priscilla is a graffito traced on the cover of an arcosolium which is unique 
in character. On the first line we read : In pace ; on the following lines . . . 
lidus febr. conss Gratiani III et Equiti Florentinus, Fortunatus et (Fe) 
lix ad calice benimus (for ad ealicem venimus}. In the first place this is 
the first graffito dated by year and day : its date is 375 A. D. Secondly 
the formula ad ealicem venimus is entirely new. The graffito, it should be 
observed consists of two parts, the in pace being earlier and the rest com- 
memorating a visit in 375 to the tomb on which the graffito is scratched. 
The explanation is that, as we learn from ecclesiastical writers the pagan 
habit of coming on certain occasions to eat and drink at the tombs of rela- 
tives and friends was continued by Christians and the rioting and drunken- 
ness that it led to are the occasion of much criticism and led finally to 
severe steps for its repression. Ad ealicem (sumenduin) venimus records 
this rite performed in honor of the defunct by Florentinus Fortunatus and 
Felix, and this graffito is the first and only allusion to the habit in the 
range of Christian epigraphy. DE Rossi in Bull. arch. Crist., v, i, 2-3. 

CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS. In the Campo Verano three fragments of in- 
scriptions have been found belonging to the ancient Christian underground 
cemetery which existed there. They originally closed locuii. The name 
Quiracos which occurs in one is interesting because the catacomb itself, in 
which the martyr. St. Laurentius was buried, is eponymous of one Ciriaca 
and this name has been met with in a number of inscriptions from this site 
showing in the persons some relationship to the martyr. The second 
inscription is a metrical epitaph whose importance lies in its being a record 
of the burial in this cemetery of a sacred virgin. Comm. de Rossi some 
time ago demonstrated that the epitaphs of sacred virgins which have come 
in considerable numbers from this Christian cemetery and belong to the 
fourth and fifth centuries show that there must have existed in the Agro 
Verano one of the very earliest of the ascetic houses of the Roman church 
where virgins and widows lived together in monastic fashion retired from 
the world. Bull. Comm. arch. 1891, p. 77. 


A FOUNDRY OF THE BRONZE AGE NEAR LEI. Sig. Vivanet reports in the 
Scavi (1890, pp. 334-6) the discovery in the commune of Lei of a number 
of ancient bronzes which have been placed in the museum of Cagliari. 
They include statuettes (of the usual warriors) lances, axes, pestles, arm- 
lets with linear decoration, poniard handle, rings, etc. 

In the same locality, which is of granite formation, there were found 
many pieces of rough caolino and volcanic stone brought here apparently 


to make receptacles for fusing metal. Besides finished objects there were 
pieces of mineral of irregular shape, the remnants of the pyrites fused to 
obtain copper. It is therefore to be concluded that we have here another 
important factory of the bronze age, in the place called sa Maddalena. 

The many nuraghic constructions which are found in the neighboring 
mountain and valley, especially the latter, show that this was an important 
centre of population which may have encouraged the development of a 
foundry. The now semi-destroyed nuraghe called Muros de Rosario placed 
a few dozen meters away on the summit of the hill may have been the 
artisans' dwelling. Not. d. Scavi, 1890, pp. 334-6. 

THE SITE OF THE ANCIENT CARES. The ancient Cares, placed near Olbia 
has been incorrectly located by all authorities. It is in reality situated 
about eight miles N. w. of Terranova in a territory still called Caresi, in 
an uncultivated spot of square shape along the slope of a hill. The ancient 
city extended into the plain below. There are many remains of it, the 
most notable being a ruined building measuring 58 by 23 met. divided 
into seven rooms, by internal walls, all of stone. Two gold coins and rods 
of bone have been found inside it. In a considerable radius are other 
buildings some arranged in regular lines, some in confused groups, some 
quite isolated. Between two lines of ruins are the remains of an ancient 
paved road and where it is interrupted are the remains of a circular 
building where starts a wall that joins another transverse wall. There 
seem endless ruins and remains of streets. What the extent of the ancient 
city may have been is difficult to ascertain on account of its extending on 
one side into thick woods. One of the greatest of the modern destructions 
from which it has suffered took place some thirty years ago when it was 
used as a quarry and its stone transported everywhere. Hence the well- 
known local proverb : s'abba in su mare e sa pedra in Caresi or " you find 
water in the sea and stone at Caresi." At the beginning of this century a 
great part of the walls were still standing. Sig. Tamponi undertook lately 
some excavations among the ruins but they were unsuccessful. Not. d. 
Scavi, 1890, pp. 363-6. 


lished his report on the neolithic station of Stentinello. This prehistoric 
village, near Syracuse, contained a group of dwellings built upon a natural 
terrace of tufo, about five metres above the level of the sea, all of which are 
now destroyed. The village was girded by natural trenches in the rocks, 
which served for drainage. Amongst the objects found are some of obsidian, 
flint knives, axes in basalt, carved bones, and fragments of large earthen- 
ware vessels imperfectly baked at an open fire, the oven not then being 


known. The vases are decorated in geometric style, before baking, with a 
hard stick, or even with the human nails ; some, however, showing a more 
advanced period when blocks and puncturing were in use. The handles 
are mostly circular, strong, and broad. The rude body of an animal 
(fragmentary) of which the head (now wanting) was fixed separately by 
means of a wooden stick was found amongst the debris. Another rude 
terracotta is of a horned animal ; and a third is a human body now without 
head or arms, the latter made separately. Athenceum, May 16. 

The report alluded to by the Athenceum is published in the Bullettino di 
Paletnologia Italiana and its importance w 7 ill justify a full summary in the 
next number of the JOURNAL. 

In January the Italian government commenced excavations in the ne- 
cropolis of Megara Hyblaia, near Syracuse. After a month's excavation, 
Dr. Orsi reached the oldest part of the necropolis. At the outset he was 
rewarded by finding a tomb of a woman, with two fine silver fibulae, at the 
height of the shoulders, and on the breast some silver rings with Phoenician 
scarabcei, and also a large chamber sculptured with an elegant border round 
the top representing archaic leaves entwined with astragals, all splendidly 
preserved. Dr. Orsi has now come on a rich mine of proto-Corinthian vases 
and silver objects. In one tomb containing three infant skeletons were 
found nineteen buttons of thin silver ; three spirals also of silver ; twenty- 
one silver rings, ten being on one finger ; a long necklace of twisted wire ; 
a girdle richly decorated with repousse lines and geometric figures, like 
the Olympian blades ; together with some very small but elegant bronze 
brooches, some in the form of a horse, some in that of a boat, with other 
brooches in wood, bone and iron a rare collection for one tomb, but 
unfortunately in bad condition. These brooches are important as they 
resemble in type those belonging to the Italian cemeteries of the first age 
of iron, while they are very rare in Greek tombs, especially in Sicily. In 
another tomb were found a gold button and a fine gold rosette with six 
repousse leaves. Outside the necropolis, near the pharos of Lumidoro, 
below the sea-level, Dr. Orsi has been able to trace out the quay of the 
ancient port of Megara Hyblaia, formed of huge blocks of limestone. The 
wall is more than five metres in width. All the objects found will be 
placed in the museum at Syracuse, of which Dr. Orsi is director. Athe- 
nceum, April 4. 


GRANADA. FIRE IN THE ALHAMBRA. On Sep. 15, a violent fire broke 
out in the Alhambra. The Sala de 1'Alberca and a part of the court of 
the Array ane were alone destroyed, and an architect from Madrid is already 


busy reconstructing them. A few days before the fire, several works of 
art had been stolen from the Alhambra and it is conjectured that the fire 
was started to cover the theft. Chron. des Arts, 1890, No. 31. 

QUILLENA Discovery of a dolmen. Two Sevillan archaeologists, Josd 
Cascales and Felicien Candan, have discovered near Quillena a corridor 
dolmen, the only one of the kind hitherto known to exist in Andalusia. 
The walls of this construction, whose section is trapezoidal, are formed of 
enormous unhewn stones, 1.25 met high, connected without cement. The 
roof is formed of very wide slabs whose dimensions are as large as 2.15 by 
1.15 met. Rev. Arch. 


is an extract from the program of the section of archaeology at the great 
annual congress attended by delegates from all the learned societies of 
France, which meets at the Sorbonne. It gives the topics within whose 
limits the papers and reports were kept. 

(1) Notices of inventories of private collections of antiques, statues, reliefs, 
coins, found in the provinces between the xvith and the xviuth cent., with 
the object of tracing the history of monuments in the museums of to-day. 

(2) Recent discoveries of milestones or signs of ancient roads which may 
serve to determine the line of Roman roads in Gaul or in Africa. 

(3) Study in a determinate region of Africa all the ancient buildings, 
such as triumphal arches, temples, theatres, etc. and draw up plans. This 
is in view of the fact that a passion for epigraphy has led to the neglect of 
the monuments in Africa, especially those of early Christian period. 

(4) Notify of the antiquities preserved in provincial museums which are 
of an origin foreign to the region. 

(5) Call attention to notary acts of the xiv xvi centuries containing 
information on artists' biographies, especially contracts relating to paint- 
ings, sculptures or other works of art. 

(6) Draw up a list, accompanied by plans and drawings of the Christian 
buildings of a province or department considered anterior to the year 1000. 

(7) Study the characteristics which distinguish the various schools of 
architecture during the Romanesque period with especial stress on the 
constitutive elements of each monument (plan, vaults, etc.') This is to 
encourage monographs treating of the common characteristics of buildings 
in a department, a diocese or an arrondissement. 

(8) Statistics of monuments of military architecture of various periods, 
with notice of historical documents that serve to date them. 

(9) Note the rural constructions erected by monasteries or individuals, 
such as granges, mills, etc. 


(10) Documents relating to naval architecture. 

(11) Point out in each region of France the centres for the manufac- 
ture of works in precious metals during the Middle Age. Indicate the 
characteristics and especially the marks and stamps by which they can 
be recognized. 

(12) Seek on figured monuments of antiquity or the Middle Ages the 
representations of implements of trades. It is often difficult to identify 
the age and use of such when they are found. 

(13) Study the centres for the manufacture of ceramics in ancient Gaul, 
and the places where this industry has been handed down to the present time. 

(14) Collect written or figured documents illustrating the history of cos- 
tume in any special region. 

(15) Study in the Ada Sanctorum among the biographies of saints of 
any region of France, what may interest the history of art in that region. 
Rev. de Part Chret. 1891, pp. 179-181. 

TECTURE. The abbey church of St. Denis was the subject of an interesting 
discussion at the last congress of learned societies at the Sorbonne. 

That work was begun in 1140 and not in 1137 was demonstrated by M. 
Authyme Saint-Paul from a careful study of a document. The facade 
must have been built in five or six years, and its date being certain, the 
part of the vestibule placed under the towers belongs to the same period. 
The ribbed cross vaults placed here are worthy of study on account of the 
heavy profile of their ribbing. The choir was erected between 1140 and 
1143 and is a remarkably bold construction. It is possible that the churches 
of Poissy, of St. Maclou of Pontoise and of St. Martin des Champs were 
built under Suger's inspiration : they may be therefore considered as the 
prototypes of the basilica of St. Denis, which is the first Gothic church. 
Such were the views expressed by M. Anthyme Saint-Paul. On the other 
hand M. de Lasteyrie objected to calling Saint-Denis the first Gothic church. 
It is but one link in a chain of transformations lasting from the close of the 
eleventh up to the thirteenth century. It certainly had considerable influ- 
ence in the entire district ; but all its essential characteristics are to be 
found in other buildings of the same or of an earlier date, like St. Etienne 
of Beauvais or Morienval. M. Anthyme Saint-Paul did not lay sufficient 
stress upon the chronological order of the other buildings of the same type 
which remain. He supposes the church of Poissy and that of Saint-Maclou 
of Poiitoise to be earlier than St. Denis, but what is there to prove it? 

M. E. Lefevre-Pontalis called M. Anthyme Saint-Paul's attention to the 
fact that the church of St Maclou of Pontoise must, on the contrary, have 
been built some time after the basilica of St. Denis, as is proved by the 


ossature of the vault of the deambulatory, the only part of the building 
that still dates from the twelfth century. Rev. de Vart Chret., 1891, p. 179. 
BAPTISMAL FONTS. M. P. Saintenoy has contributed to theSociete d'archeo- 
logie de Bruxelles a detailed monograph on baptismal fonts from the bap- 
tisteries to the xvi century. Among other points discussed is that of the 
various centres for the execution of fonts in bronze and marble during the 
Middle Ages, especially in Belgium and north Germany. The monuments 
are classified as : baptisteries, piscinae of baptisteries with raised borders, 
fonts with aedicula over them, baptismal vases, etc. Rev. de Part Chretien, 
1891, p. 247. 


Gazette des Beaux Arts and the Chronique des Arts (No. 11 of 1891) many 
new and interesting facts are noted in regard to two sculptors of the xv 
cent., Jacques Morel and Antoine le Moiturier, both of whom were among 
the first sculptors of the great Burgundian school which started the Renais- 
sance in northern France. 

has lately published, in the Archives historiques, urtistiques, et litteraires a 
very interesting document found in the Archives Nationales (K 44, No. 6). 
Documents on French painting during the xiv cent, are extremely rare. 
The one in question seems to relate to the famous Jean Coste, painter of 
King Jean and presumed author of the portrait in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale. It presents the double interest of describing an important 
decorative work executed in one of the most magnificent chateaux of 
France and of furnishing precious information regarding the technique 
of the art of the day and its special vocabulary. 

It is an account for the year 1345 ; Jean Coste had been charged in 
1340 by the duke of Normandy with various important work in the chateau 
of Vaudreuil and at Paris. The following is the tenor of the account of 
Gisors, in modern orthography. 

" Pour faire en la chapelle du roy, peindre la et faire en lad. chapelle 
environ xn toises de long et in toises de le, et doit etre le ciel de lad. 
chapelle lumande* (sic) des armes de France, et sera le lambris peint 
d'une couleur futine, 1 les trez 2 et les ponchons 3 d'azur semes de fleurs de 
lis, les bases, les chapiteaux, voute, de vermilion, de vert et d'arpel, 4 les 
ogives de fin vermilion et de fin vert, tout fait a 1'huile, et les joints de la 
couleur des trez, les sablieres d'une orbe voie faites en filatieres; 5 les cotes 
de lad. chapelle rousses et quartelles 6 de blanc refendu de brun ; pour le 
clotet, 7 tout le comble vert estencele 8 d'orpel, les ogives de fin vermilion, 

1 Wood color. 2 Beams. 3 King-posts. 

4 Imitation gold. 5 Scallops. 6 Checkered. 

7 Aedicula reserved to the royal family. 8 Studded. 


voute d'orpel, et les reprinses 9 semblablement, les joints d'azur semes de 
fleurs de lis, les sablieres, voute, de fin vermilion et de fin vert a 1'huile et 
d'orpel, et les murs de draps 10 roues 11 de France, de Bourgogne et de 
Normandie ; et le centre coeur de 1'autel, la table peinte des Ymages de 
la Passion et le champ de fin vert estencele et de fin or et les diadismes w 
de fin or et le devant armoye de France et de Bourgogne. Pour ice avoir 
fait bien et convenablement par Jehan le paintre, a icelui bailie" a rabais, 
pour tout xv livres." Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 15. 

the great Jean Foucquet was painter to King Louis XI, none of his work 
done for the court had been identified. M. Durrieu has found the copy 
of the statutes of the Ordre de Saint-Michel (Bib. Mat. Ms. Franc. 19.819} 
which belonged to the king, its founder. On the first page is an admirable 
illumination representing the holding of the first chapter of the order. All 
the heads of the figures are admirable portraits, and from them and certain 
details of costume and a comparison with other monuments M. Durrieu 
has been able to identify, beside Louis XI, duke Charles of Guyenne, his 
brother, duke Louis II of Bourbon, the count of Roussillon, admiral of 
France, grandmaster Antoine de Chabannes, count Dammartin, Jean 
Bourre, governor of Charles VIII, the poet and author Jean Robertet, etc. 
Revue Grit., 1890, n. p. 408. 

in the Bulletin of the Comite des Travaux Historiques a study on the con- 
tents of the treasuries of St. Maurice d'Agaune and of Sion. For the former 
he makes rectifications in the magnificent monograph of M. Aubert adding 
much to the description of the reliquary of the Ste. Epine and the Mero- 
vingian reliquary. He shows that the so-called antique cameo on its front 
is a verrefile whose singular technique he explains: this may lead to the 
discovery of the same fact in the case of other so-called cameos. In the 
treasury of Sion he studies especially two pieces ; the small reliquary of 
St. Althea, a work of the viri century, restored in the xn, and the chef- 
d'oeuvre of the collection, a coffer containing relics of the Theban legion and 
dating from the middle of the xiv century. It is a work of great interest 
though hardly noticed. It is covered with plaques of silver gilt, stamped, 
pierced a jour, representing alternately a king and a queen enthroned in 
a quatre-feuille in high relief. The ground is decorated with plaques of 
silver enamelled and gilt, with most delicate translucid enamels. A multi- 
tude of wonderful details make of this piece a jewel. Revue de I' art Chretien, 
1891, p. 246. 

9 Brackets. 10 Draperies. 

11 With coats of arms. 12 Diadems. 


FORM OF THE CROSS OF THE CRUSADERS. M. de Mely communicated to 
the Academie des Inscriptions (April 25) the reproductions of some monu- 
ments that show the form of the cross worn by the first crusaders. These 
monuments are: the glass windows of St. Denis, given by Suger; a minia- 
ture in a manuscript at Bern, representing Frederic I ; and a panel in the 
reliquary of Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapelle. Revue Crit, 1890, i, p. 360. 

movement to establish a Caisse des Musees or fund destined to enable the 
French museums to make large purchases of works of art was alluded to 
on p. 390, vol. vi of this JOURNAL. It seems to have been made a possi- 
bility by a most munificent act of Mme. la Marquise Visconti-Arconati, 
daughter of the recently deceased senator Peyrat. This lady wished to 
arrange in advance the disposal of her large fortune and has made a will 
including legacies to hospitals in Italy, to the city of Brussels, to the 
Institut de France, the Bibliotheque Nationale and the Museum. This 
last legacy makes the state heir to the sum of eight millions of francs whose 
income is destined to increase the collections of the Louvre and Cluny 
museums. In case the Caisse des Musees is in operation when the legacy 
comes due, it shall have the disposal of this income. Otherwise the state 
itself shall employ it in purchases in the proportions of one-fifth for the 
Cluny museum and four-fifths for the Louvre. This is therefore, says M. 
Gonse in the Chron. des Arts (1891, No. 4), " a peremptory reason, a unique 
occasion for our law-givers to vote the creation of a museum fund which 
can alone give to our artistic acquisitions that breadth and elasticity that 
are so necessary. In reality it needs nothing but a simple authorization 
on their part ; that the principle of the financial autonomy of our museums 
should be recognized in the budget : the rest will come of itself. The 
Seve~ne and Barellier funds will form a first nucleus . . . example is con- 
tagious ; we know of amateurs ready to open their pursestrings as soon as 
they know at what door to knock. It is indispensable that by the time 
the Arconati legacy comes into operation the Fund should have been 
organized and have given proof of vitality." The Louvre can preserve 
its artistic supremacy only by some such means as this. 

ANNECY. GALLIC DISCOVERIES. Dr. Thonion communicated at a meet- 
ing of the Soc. des Antiquaires (April 9), the results of a discovery under a 
tumulus constructed of unceraented stone in the neighborhood of Annecy. 
The objects found are Gallic and consist of swords, fibulae, lance-heads, 
bracelets, bear-teeth, etc. M. Flouest adds that these objects belong to 
the last period of Gallic independence before Caesar's invasion. Revue 
CriL, i, 1890, p. 360 ; and Bull. Soc. des Antiq., 1890, p. 176. 

AVENCHES=AVENTICUM. The Society ProAventico is zealously carry- 
ing on excavations at Avenches. A wall 8 ft. in thickness has been un- 


earthed at the east end of the theatre, and also traces of the pavement 
around the theatre. It Avill soon be possible to give an exact picture of 
the theatre of ancient Aventicum. The excavators also came upon the 
grave of a young girl (whose skeleton was much damaged), and a great 
quantity of vases, pots, and small lamps made of a fine red clay. Not far 
from a spot which is supposed to have been the site of a temple, a marble 
hand, part of a foot, and the fragments of an inscribed marble tablet have 
been found. Athenceum, March 7. 

to publish (Chronique des Arts, 1890, No. 31) his studies on the Architects 
of Avignon, with information derived from new documents. The earliest 
here mentioned is Maitre Quillaume, operarius of the bridge of Avignon 
and constructor of that of Raudnitz in Bohemia. Bishop John IV of 
Prague (d. 1343), the great protector of art in Bohemia before the advent 
of Charles IV, became acquainted with this architect while at the Papal 
court, and invited him to Prague, where he came in 1333 with three other 
operarii. They build two piers and a vault, and left the rest to their 
Czech confreres, after working several years. This bridge was about 
550 ft. long, was composed of seven piers and eight circular arches, and 
was destroyed during the Thirty-years War. He also built the choir of 
the conventual church of the Virgin at Raudnitz, begun in 1333 and 
finished in 1338. 

The second document shows that Pierre Poisson de Mirepoix was ap- 
pointed architect of the palace of the Popes at Avignon as early as the 
beginning of 1335. Also, in 1335, Benedict XII charged his brother 
Johannes Piscis to go to Rome to superintend the restoration of the basilica 
of St. Peter. A brief of Oct. 18, 1338 says, that he had shone in this 
sedulam curam and had caused to be executed magnam partem reparations 
et reslaurationis hujus operis. He died in 1338. Two other Frenchmen 
succeeded Jean Poisson. They were Petrus Canon of Arras and Thomas 
Guirandus of Avignon. 

A third document of June 18, 1348, concerns the works undertaken on 
the palace by Clement VI and under the direction of Jean de Loubidres. 
It tells us that Johannes de Luperia, serviens armorum domini nostri ac 
magister operum palacii apostolici, in preparing to go ad paries Franciae 
charged Guillelmus Riclionie praeparator sen director ejusdem operis and 
Herricus Godefredi alias dictus de Luperia, a cousin-German of the above 
John, to regere et gubernari during his absence. They were also authorized 
to receive from the Apostolic chamber the regular payments of 70 florins 
per week of six work-days, 60 per week of five and 50 per week of four 


Further researches have allowed M. Miintz to prove that to the architects 
of the palace of the Popes we owe the plans of the constructions undertaken 
at Montpellier by Urban V between 1364 and 1370; namely, the college 
of St. Benedict (now the School of Medicine), the Cathedral, and, finally, 
the College de Mende. On several occasions, Bertram! de Mause, one of 
the architects of the palace, made payments for these works, which he appears 
to have directed from a distance. One of his confreres, Henri Clusel, visited 
Montpellier to oversee. Even the architect-in-chief of the palace, Bertrand 
Nogayrol, oversaw at Avignon the execution of the stalls and paintings 
for the college of St. Benedict. 

Finally, regarding the Pierre O brier who was long considered the only 
architect of the palace, he is shown, by a document of 1376, to have been 
called indifferently Petrus Obrerius or Petrus Operlarus. 

MONUMENT OF CARDINAL LAGRANGE. We here complete our report (c/. 
JOURNAL, vi, p. 390) of the study made by M. Eug. Miintz in the Ami 
des Mon. (1890, pp. 91-5 and 131 ; 1891, No. 1) on the monument of Card. 
Lagrange. The relief belongs to the naturalistic French revival of the 
close of the xiv and the first part of the xv century. It and the statues 
surrounding it are in the style of the strongest works from the workshop 
of Andre Beauneveu, the famous imagier of Charles V. Another mauso- 
leum to the Cardinal was ordered for Amiens. Its effigy still remains, 
now placed behind the high altar of the Cathedral. Finally another statue 
of the Cardinal is placed on one of the buttresses added under Charles V 
to the north side of the facade near that of Bureau de la RiviSre. It is a 
work in every way worthy of the chisel of Beauneveu and quite comparable 
to the " Transi " of Avignon. 

lately published by the Abbe Requin (' L'Imprimerie a Avignon en 1444,' 
Paris, Picard, 8vo., pp. 20) contains an account of some interesting and 
important documents discovered by him in the course of his inquiries about 
the early painters of Avignon. These documents are preserved among 
the acts of three notaries who practised at Avignon in the middle of the 
fifteenth century, and are printed at the end of the pamphlet. A photo- 
gravure of one of them is given as a frontispiece. The story which they 
disclose is briefly as follows. In 1444 one Procopius Valdfoghel (Wald- 
vogel), a goldsmith of Prague, was living at Avignon : he there in- 
structed two students, Manaud Vitalis and his friend Arnaud de Coselhac, 
in the art of artificial writing (scribendi artificialiter'), and furnished them 
with the instruments of the art, consisting of two abecedaria of metal and two 
iron/orwce, a steel screw, forty-eight formce of tin, and other implements. 
About the same time Valdfoghel instructed one Davin of Caderousse, a 
Jew, in the same art; and two years later, on the 10th of March, 1446, 


he entered into an agreement with the Jew to supply him with twenty- 
seven Hebrew letters cut in iron (sdsas inferro') and other implements for 
the practice of the art. At the same time the Jew agreed not to disclose 
the art, either in theory or practice, to any one as long as Valdfoghel 
remained at Avignon or in the neighborhood. Meanwhile Valdfoghel 
appears to have entered into partnership with Manaud Vitalis and Arnaud 
de Coselhac, and in April, 1446, this partnership was dissolved so far as 
Vitalis was concerned, and Vitalis gave up to his partners all his share in 
the instruments of the art, whether of iron, steel, copper, lead, and other 
metals, or of wood. Upon his doing this, Vitalis, at the request of Vald- 
foghelj made oath upon the Holy Gospels that the art of artificial writing 
taught him by Valdfoghel was a true art, and easy and useful to any one 
who desired to work at it and was fond of it. The Abbe" suggests that pos- 
sibly Valdfoghel was afraid of being punished by the Inquisition as a sor- 
cerer, and it may be remembered that Gutenberg was afraid that people 
might think his art was jugglery (gockelwerck) ; but it seems more likely 
that Valdfoghel feared that it might get about that Vitalis was leaving 
him because he found the invention was a failure, and that to prevent this 
opinion he asked for the declaration. 

The great importance of the discovery of these documents will be mani- 
fest when it is considered that it was in 1439 only five years before we 
find Valdfoghel at Avignon that Gutenberg was experimenting at Stras- 
burg, and that Valdfoghel was actually practising and teaching his art 
of artificial writing at Avignon before Gutenberg removed to Mainz. If, 
therefore, Valdfoghel's artificial writing was in fact printing with movable 
types, Avignon, instead of Mainz as hitherto supposed, becomes the second 
city where printing was carried on. That the artificial writing practised 
by Valdfoghel was printing seems to be clearly shown by the documents. 
They mention letters cut in iron, abecedaria, or alphabets of metal, types 
(/ormce), and metal screws, the use of which cannot be explained otherwise 
than on the supposition that Valdfoghel was in truth printing by means of 
movable letters. How had he learnt the art? How long did he continue 
to practise it at Avignon or elsewhere ? The Abbe Requin has not been 
able to find any answer to these questions. It is possible that Valdfoghel 
learned the secret either from Gutenberg himself or from one of his ser- 
vants or workpeople, but we have no certain knowledge. I hope that in 
his future researches the Abbe may discover some further information about 
this early printer, and even some specimen of his work. Meanwhile we owe 
to him the most important discovery in the annals of typography since the 
finding in 1745 of the record of Gutenberg's lawsuit with the representa- 
tives of Andreas Dritzchen. J. SHELLY, in Athenceum, Aug. 30. 


BASSOUES. DONJON. The donjon of Bassoues (arrond. Mirande, dep. 
Gers) is classed as an historical monument. Drawings and a description 
of it are for the first time published in L'Ami des Monuments, 1891, pp. 
8-13, by MM. Lauzun and Benouville. It is a square tower, reinforced 
by four immense angular buttresses and containing four stories each con- 
sisting of a fine hall covered with a ribbed cross vault and lighted by trefoil 
windows. The summit is crowned by an octagonal construction. It formed 
part of a castle which belonged to the archbishops of Auch. It was built 
in 1368 by Archb. Arnaud d'Aubert, Seigneur of Bassoues. It remains 
in a perfect state of preservation. 

BERNAY. DECORATION OF THE ABBEY. Mr. J. P. Harrison communi- 
cated a note on churches built by Kichard II, Duke of Normandy, and 
also exhibited photographs of capitals in the south aisle of the choir of 
Bernay Abbey, founded circa 1017. Mr. Harrison considered that the 
ornamentation of the capitals was of a decidedly Eastern type and exhibited 
features derived from the foliage of the palm tree. As the chronicles of 
Verdun Abbey record a visit to Richard by Simon, Abbot of Mount Sinai, 
with some of his monks, about the time that the work at Bernay was in 
progress, the sculpture of the capitals may perhaps be attributed to their 
skill. It appears also that Simon and one of the monks named Stephen 
remained at Rouen for two years, and whilst there Simon suggested the 
foundation of a monastery in the suburbs, and deposited in it relics of St. 
Catherine which he had brought with him from the East. The church is 
no longer in existence, but a capital belonging to it, Oriental in character, 
is preserved in the Rouen Museum. Work similar to that at Bernay exists 
at Evreux. Fecamp Abbey contains little more than a single bay of Duke 
Richard's work. Here the ornament is altogether different from that at 
Bernay, and resembles some in the choir of Oxford Cathedral and the 
illuminated MSS. of the period. Atfienasum, Nov. 15. 

works of art left to the city of Besan9on by M.Willemot are the following 
paintings of the early Italian schools. (1) A small triptych by Giottino, 
with the Crucifixion, Annunciation, and two saints. (2) Two sides of an- 
other triptych by the same master; on one is the Crucifixion, on the other 
several saints. (3) A predella of the early Siennese school : in the central 
compartment is Christ, in two others are busts of the Virgin and St. John. 
(4) A fine altar-piece of the middle of the xv century representing the 
mounting of Calvary, with a procession in rich Byzantine costumes. On 
the sides and in a predella are sixteen small compositions from the lives 
of Christ and the Virgin. It is attributed either to Pisanello or Pesellino. 
A. CASTAN, in Cour. de FArt, 1890, No. 30. 


BLAIN (Loire-Inf.). TOMBS OF THE ROHAN. In demolishing the old 
church at Blain a crypt was found in which were four leaden cases, two 
large and two small , which are supposed to have contained the remains 
of Rene II, of Catherine de Parthenay his widow and of their two children, 
and two vases, also of lead, bearing the dates 1575 and 1586 which must 
have contained, one the entrails of Henri I, vicomte de Rohan, who died 
in 1575, the other the heart of Rene II de Rohan, who died at La Rochelle 
in 1586. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 6. 

burial place of the Merovingian period has been discovered at Bouilland. 
Several tombs have been cleared and were found to contain, besides well- 
preserved skeletons, several vases and medals, as well as belt plaques with 
traces of silver damasquinery. The deceased were buried in sarcophagi 
made of local lava. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 12. 

BOURGES. Excavations for a bridge over the Auron have led to the 
discovery on a line parallel to the river of a row of monoliths and steles 
some of which carved, and behind them a mass of earth containing a mix- 
ture of Roman tiles, pottery, etc. In the same region there were found a 
hand mill and some perfectly-preserved mill stones. The Auron having, 
at an early period, been turned from its normal course it is supposed that 
the line of steles was established as a barrier. Ami des Mon., 1890, p. 317. 

CAHORS. Discovery of paintings in the Cathedral. In restoring the 
domes of the cathedral of Cahors some remarkable mediaeval frescoes were 
uncovered in the western dome, eight metres in height and surrounded by 
rich borders. M. Corroger describes them in the Ami des Monuments, 
1891, p. 3 : " The decoration of the western dome remains complete in its 
composition, for though the coloring has somewhat faded the outline traced 
in black with remarkable science, vigor and sureness of hand, remains 
complete or nearly so. The western dome, sixteen feet in diameter, like 
the eastern, is divided into eight segments separated by bands formed by 
arabesques of flowers or fruits vigorously drawn. The figures of eight 
prophets form the centre of each segment: the four great and four of the 
twelve minor prophets are placed each within an architectural motif of 
the close of the xm cent. ; his outline traced boldly on a ground of 
masonry whose courses are indicated by a double brown line on a ground 
of light ocre, each prophet holds an unrolled scroll with a name in fine 
letters of the xm cent. The bands (or segments) centre in a frieze sur- 
rounding the summit of the dome, forming a starry heaven, in the midst 
of which is represented the apotheosis of St. Stephen, the patron of the 
parish church. The frieze is composed of twenty-two figures of life size, 
representing in varied and lively attitudes the scenes of the stoning of 
the saint." 


Historical evidence shows that these paintings were executed either in 
1275 by care of bishop Raymond de Cornil, or in 1300 by bishop Ray- 
mond de Gauchelle. As a decoration it is unique in France as representing 
the best style of the xni century. 

In the eastern cupola and on the pendentives there were traces of paint- 
ings under the whitewash which could not be preserved or even copied on 
account of their dilapidation. 

distinguished epigraphist of Toulouse, has been enabled, by the help of a 
Government grant of 3000 francs to undertake excavations at Martres- 
Tolosanes, a small town s. w. of Toulouse. Ninety-six pieces of sculpture 
were discovered scattered closely at a depth of three or four metres : among, 
them were eight heads of marble, the bust of an emperor, several basreliefs, 
a statue of Minerva, some fragments of male statues, capitals, pottery, 
marble bases for busts, etc. 

The Minister of Public Instruction charged MM. Perrot and Robert de 
Lasteyrie to study the results of these excavations, and M. Perrot reported 
the results of his observations to the Acad. des Inscriptions (March 6, 13). 
In the first place he showed that before the present discoveries numerous 
finds had been made on the same site not only in the xvn and xvm cen- 
turies but later. Some very fruitful excavations were carried on at the 
expense of the department of Haute-Garonne between 1826 and 1830 and 
between 1840 and 1842 when a large series of varied monuments came to 
light, now placed in the museum of Toulouse among which are a statue of 
Augustus and the well-known Venus de Martres. 

According to M. Perrot the entire series of monuments from these various 
excavations should be classified in three distinct groups. The first group 
includes replicas of ideal types created by Greek sculpture, figures of divini- 
ties and heroes. The beautiful head known as the Venus de Martres recalls 
the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles ; there is also an Ariadne in marble of 
two colors, not without charm. To the same series belong the fragments 
of a frieze in high relief representing the labors of Hercules which reflects 
the style in vogue at the beginning of the second century B. c. through the 
influence of the Rhodian school. There is the same seeking after effect, 
the same muscular exaggeration, but less artistic skill than in the great 
altar of Pergamon. 

The second group consists of busts of Roman emperors and of princes 
and princesses of the imperial family. There is a remarkable head of 
Augustus. None of the three busts of Trajan are of first rank : after the 
second century everything is of little value or is bad art. 

The third group consists of heads in which it is impossible to recognize 
Roman busts, though they appear to have the characteristics of portraits. 


As works of art they are extremely mediocre. They are like photographs 
of Gallo-Roman men and women of the first two centuries of our era : in 
their back is the hole by which they were clamped to the wall. 

After examining also the collection in the museum of Toulouse, M. 
Perrot studies the question of origin. It had previously been thought 
that the best of these pieces were imported into Aquitaine. It was even 
said that they were of Greek or Italian marbles. Skilled experts have, 
however, shown that all the monuments are, without exception, executed 
in marble of the Pyrenees or of the locality, leading one to suppose that 
they are the product' of an entirely local school of art which flourished 
vigorously during the first centuries of our era. Some sculptures at the 
museum of Toulouse which were brought from Beziers and Narbonne have 
the same origin. The ateliers which supplied the cities of the Narbonnaise 
and Aquitaine must have been founded in the first century by artists com- 
ing from Greece, or rather from Italy, who brought with them fine models ; 
but the personnel employed in these ateliers was afterwards recruited from 
among the natives, and there being no longer chefs-d'oeuvre to imitate, 
a decadence ensued which became at the close of the first century far 
more rapid than in Italy : after the Antonines it is so rapid as to end in 
barbarism. M. Perrot called attention to the remarkable fact that all the 
marbles found bear traces of violent and wilful destruction. He refutes 
the theory of a destruction by flood, which would not have gathered them 
together but have dispersed them. Many of the heads bear the marks of 
the blows which have split them vertically, sometimes detaching the 
occiput : such blows could have been made only by an instrument like 
an ax or a pick. It is evident that these marbles were brought here and 
piled up after being broken to pieces. This was done either by a riot of 
Christians or an invasion of barbarians. Dismissing the idea of a local 
sculptural atelier, M. Perrot believed that there was here a town of con- 
siderable importance containing a temple consecrated to Hercules, whose 
image is reproduced under every possible form, and also a rich villa full 
of works of art, probably the property of some great senatorial family. 
All these buildings were doubtless sacked in the fourth century by the 
Christians or pillaged by the barbarians. Chron. des Arts, 1891, Nos. 1, 
12 ; Ami des Mon., 1891, pp. 108-9. 

MAS D'AZIL. In L' Anthropologie for April M. Emile Cartailhac gives 
an account of the researches, pursued by M. Ed. Piette since 1887, and 
still going on, in the cavern of Mas d'Azil (Ariege). Among the objects 
discovered the most remarkable are a number of pebbles painted with 
designs in a red coloring matter. The design usually comprises a thin 
border round the circumference of the pebble, and within bars and. circular 
and heart-shaped objects. Others, without the border, have zigzags, 0, 


crosses, and other designs. Harpoons of staghorn were also found. Though 
M. Piette alone had authority to explore the cavern, some persons in his 
absence intruded into it, and among the remains disturbed by them were 
afterwards found portions of a skeleton bearing traces of red paint. 
Athenaeum, May 30. 

MAVILLY (Cote-d'Or). M. Reinach read to the Acad. des Inscriptions 
a paper on the altar of Mavilly discovered during the last century. It is 
in the form of two superposed cubes whose sides are covered with reliefs 
that have never been satisfactorily explained. The writer shows that the 
figures represented are simply the twelve great gods of the Roman pantheon 
plus the serpent with rarn's head. The figure which he identifies with 
Apollo is that of a child, which is in harmony with the peculiarly Celtic 
conception of him as the Bonus puer. M. Reinach's conclusions are 
stated at length in an article in the Revue archeologique. 

MUREAUX. PREHISTORIC DISCOVERIES. Dr.Verneau has directed some 
excavations in the commune of Mureaux near Meulan (Seine-et-Oise). He 
unearthed a covered alley, which included a sepulchral chamber and a 
vestibule, and contained numerous crouching skeletons accompanied by 
objects in bone, silex, etc. The children were buried separately against 
one of the walls of the monument. The materials employed are gigantic: 
the sepulchral chamber is 9 met. long, 1.60 to 2.10 wide, and 1.55 to 1.60 
high. The entrance to the gallery was partly demolished at the time of 
the construction of a Roman road which passed immediately over the vesti- 
bule, thus demonstrating the greater antiquity of the monument. Near it 
were found several Roman antiquities, notably a small square building 
covered with paintings. Revue Grit., 1890, u, p. 212. 

communicated to the Acad. des Inscr. (Nov. 21), through Alex. Bertrand, 
his discoveries in a Merovingian cemetery near Dijon, at Noiron-lez-Citeaux. 
For details, see Revue Grit., 1890, n, p. 407. 

PARIS. THE PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS. At one of the meetings of 
the Comite des monuments parisiens it was announced that the superb 
Hotel des Prevots de Paris, a unique example of the constructions of the 
xvr century was about to be demolished. A protest was made. M. 
Charles Normand suggested that careful study should be made of the 
openings projected by the plans of the city. From them it is possible to 
know many years in advance what buildings are menaced and to offer 
suggestions by which the plans may be modified before it is too late. M. 
Hoffman has undertaken to draw up the plans of all the buildings that 
may be demolished. Ghron. des Arts, 1891, No. 5. 

DONJON OF JEAN-SANS-PEUR. The French Society for the Protection of 
Ancient Buildings had need bestir itself in defence of that most interesting 


relic, the donjon of Jean-sans-Peur, in the Rue Etienne Marcel, Paris, 
which is reported to be in a ruinous state. Athenceum, Jan. 17. 

Baron de Menasc&s Egyptian collection. On Feb. 23 and 24 took place 
the sale of the collection of Egyptian antiquities of the baron de Menasce. 
The museum of Copenhagen was the principal buyer, next the Louvre and 
the museum of Berlin. The collection comprised a number of statues and 
figures of calcareous stone basalt, granite, marble and hematite, some fine 
gold jewelry, statues in silver of Nofre-Toum, a large number of good 
bronzes and some figures in wood. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 10. 

Episcopal vestments of St. Thomas de Canteloup. At a recent meeting 
of the Academie des Inscriptions, M. de Mely read a paper upon certain 
episcopal vestments, which are preserved at Lisieux, and are there ascribed 
to Thomas a Becket. On a close examination of them, M. de Mely ascer- 
tained that both the form and the material belong rather to the thirteenth 
than the twelfth century, and also that they are emblazoned with armorial 
bearings, a kind of ornamentation not in use in the time of Becket. A 
medieval parchment kept with them containes only the words /St. Thomas 
de C. Now there was in the thirteenth century another English prelate, 
with the same Christian name as Becket, who likewise obtained the honor 
of canonization. This was St. Thomas de Canteloup or Cantilupe, Bishop 
of Hereford (1275-1282), and for a short time chancellor under Henry 
III. He belonged to the family of Gournay, and was allied to that of 
Bockenham ; and it appears that the armorial bearings on the vestments 
are precisely those which English heralds assign to these two families. 
Academy, March 28. 

CLUNY MUSEUM. RECENT DONATIONS. M. Mannheim has presented an 
important panel of carved wood of the xv cent, of Spanish style, and a 
group in wood, painted and gilt, dating from the xin cent, representing 
the Virgin and Child. Mme. Leon has offered a collection of French bronze 
weights of the xm to the xvu centuries on which are emblems, arms or 
monograms of a large number of French cities. From M. Haas-Lan a 
reliquary of the xv cent. Among other gifts are : a chalice with a partially 
gilt silver paten of the xv cent. ; two censers, one of Limoges, xin cent., 
in champleve enamel, and the other, without cover, a Greek bronze of the 
xn cent. ; finally a Virgin in bronze of the xn cent. The museum has 
received a death head, a delicate work in ivory, a low cup of Muraus glass, 
xv cent., etc. Ami des Mon., 1890, pp. 325-6. 

The sculptor Antokolsky has given a statue of fine Portland stone rep- 
resenting St. Denis carrying his head, an extremely refined work of the 
Parisian school of the close of the xiv or the beginning of the xv century. 
M. Ed. Bonaffe has presented a charming figure of a young shepherd in 


painted stone, a French work of the xvi century. Chron. des Arts, 1891, 
No. 11. 

On the death of Isaac Strauss all his collections of works of art were sold, 
with the exception of his Hebrew collection. Baroness Nathaniel de Roths- 
child purchased the latter and made a gift of it to the Cluny Museum. 

GUIMET MUSEUM. M. Aymonier has brought to the Musee Guimet from 
Cambodia some steles and statues ; M. Guimet some specimens of Chinese 
ceramics and a jade sceptre ; M. Tornii has given a satsuma vase and M. 
Boulloche some wcoden statues of divinities from Tonquin. 

MUSEE DES ARTS DECORATIFS. This museum has purchased a large 
number of objects in copper and bronze : a cup from Padua ; Persian 
basins with chandeliers and boxes, Venetian knocker, Arabic chandeliers 
and box. Also a number of pieces of faience and porcelain : some Persian 
(a box and a plate), others Italian either of Robbia ware (a vase), or from 
the environs of Florence (a plate with mask of the Medici) or from Venice 
(a ewer and cups) ; other pieces are in faience of Marseilles or Rouen, or 
from China and Japan. 

object of the great association called the Union Centrale des Arts Deeoratifs 
is to do for France a work similar to that done in England by the asso- 
ciation which organized the South Kensington Museum. It has not yet 
succeeded iii establishing its great (in project) artistic and industrial mu- 
seum, but it facilitates for students and especially for artists and artisans 
the study of models and reproductions of the works of art of former periods 
by means of the large collections in its library. A few words will give an 
idea of one of its collections its encyclopaedic collection of engravings and 
graphic documents. Begun about three years ago, this undertaking is now 
completed in its main division and is sufficient for all practical purposes. 
It consists of about five hundred large portfolios in which are classified 
chronologically documents relating to the history and development of art 
and especially of decorative composition. The general system of classifica- 
tion adopted has placed first the works of architecture, followed by sculpture 
and painting in all their subdivisions of periods and uses. Then come the 
external and internal decoration, sculptured or painted, of buildings, all 
the details of the furnishing and productions of art in wood, iron, metal 
and other primary substances concurring in the decoration of the house ; 
then come the personal needs of man ; his garments and their variations, 
his means of defense and offence, the art of weaving and all the implements 
and utensils necessary to him, and finally the resources placed at his dis- 
posal, to be transformed by art, by the flora, fauna and other natural pro- 
ducts. A. C. in Chron. des 4rfc, 1891, No. 4. 


sian room. The third and last room of the Susa Gallery at the Louvre 
will be opened to the public at Easfcer. It will contain portions of a frieze 
of animals discovered by M. Dieulafoy in the ruins of the Apadana, which 
from their position had evidently been built in the walls of a later building. 
The basrelief is unglazed, and from indications on the surface was probably 
painted. The execution and modelling are most masterly. The frieze may 
date from the period of Darius I. The room will contain other interesting 
relics of the Achsemenian epoch, and a small collection of fragments of 
pottery of the Mohammedan era. One or two pieces are similar in style 
to the pottery found at Braminmabad, now in the British Museum, which 
is anterior to the eleventh century A. D. A carefully executed model of 
the Apadana will occupy the centre of the room. This valuable attempt 
at restoration of a celebrated historical monument implies a rare union of 
artistic talent and the capacity for archaeological research seldom found in 
combination. The reproduction of the frieze of the Archers of the Guard, 
presented by the Louvre to South Kensington Museum, will be sent to Lon- 
don next week. The text of the remaining volumes of M. Dieulafoy's Les 
Fouilles de Suse is nearly completed, and awaits only the production of the 
chromo-lithographs which will illustrate the work Athenceum, March 28. 

New arrangement. Attention was called lately to a new departure in 
classification and arrangement according to groups and materials inaugu- 
rated in the Louvre by the installation in one hall of the large collection 
of ivories which had previously been scattered through many halls. The 
Conservateur of the department of the Middle Ages and Renaissance has 
continued this work by uniting in the former hall of the Musee des Souverains 
the greater part of the works in metal belonging to the Museum. It is a 
superb collection and the objects show to far better advantage. The 
Davillier and Gatteaux collections, and many pieces recently acquired but 
never exhibited, are included. M. Gonze, who writes in the Chron. des 
Arts (1891, No. 1), counsels some exchanges to fill up lacunae. 

The Bulletin des Musees announces that the Direction des Musees Natio- 
naux has decided that notices, containing a brief description of each hall 
and information regarding its decoration, should be posted in all the halls 
of the Louvre for the instruction of the public. 

Oriental Antiquities and ancient ceramics. The following pieces in this 
department were purchased at the Piot sale. I. A Phoenician king in 
bronze and a fragment of Babylonian enamelled brick, n. A series of 
antiquities of Cyprus and Rhodes : some female heads in Cypriote calcare- 
ous stone, six horsemen, a warrior and the upper part of another, a crowned 
female and a rough model of a man with tiara, all Cypriote terracottas of 
archaic style. Some Cypriote pottery : aryballoi with straight neck, in the 


form of a head of Herakles, oinochoe with trilobe mouth : a three-foot lebes, 
a large alabastron in the form of a draped Aphrodite and an Aphrodite 
in the form of a round sheath. Finally some figurines of the finest Greek 
style from the Cypriote factory of Larnaka : a bust of Demeter, a veiled 
woman, a draped woman, also torsi of seated Aphrodite, draped goddess, the 
head of a grinning Silenus. in. Antiquities of Asia Minor, of Hellenistic 
style, factory of Smyrna : a head of Herakles with traces of gilding, head 
of an ephebe, a beardless head like that of Alexander the Great, the head 
of a comic actor, the mould of a group : Silenus with a goat. iv. Antiqui- 
ties of Greece and the Islands, terracotta plaques of archaic style supposed 
to come from Milo; the subjects are: Bellerophon upon Pegasos: a female 
sphinx whose head is covered with the polos: No. 41. End of a Greek 
mirror : figure of a winged Nike, in the Athenian peplos of the fifth cent., 
running to the left : found at Athens. Skylla, turned to the right, right 
hand on hip, left at chin : she has a nude human waist, below which are two 
fins ending in dog's heads, while the figure ends in a large curling fish's tail : 
a female sphinx, seated between the volutes of a capital with wings spread. 
A fragment of a painted plaquette with parts of a horseman and a 
quadruped, archaic black figures found in 1852 on the Akropolis at 
Athens. A Boiotian figurine, probably from Tanagra, representing a 
horseman, of primitive style, decorated with black geometric designs. A 
Hermes Kriophoros, an archaic Boiotian figurine, probably from Thespiai. 
A vase found at Corinth, in the shape of a crouching man, of early Egyp- 
tianizing style, draped in a costume of white and black checks. A small 
Attic lekythos with gilt ornaments, and red figures touched up with white, 
representing Aphrodite and Eros by the sea. v. Italian antiquities are 
represented merely by a rectangular plate in the Italiote style of the fourth 
(third ?) century, from the Basilicata, on which is a frame of painted fishes 
and shells with red figures touched up with white and yellow. Ami des 
Mon., 1890, p. 324. 

Among the most recent acquisitions of the Oriental department is a bas- 
relief belonging to the so called Hittite art. This basrelief represents a 
deer hunt : the hunter on his chariot, driven by a retainer is discharging an 
arrow at the deer who leaps before the horses. Inscriptions in relief 
surrounded this scene. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 13. 

Hall xii of Greek sculpture has been reopened after numerous changes. 
The Hera of Samos is in the centre : the three metopes from Olympia are 
placed below the Parthenon relief, and opposite are the fragments of steles 
and funerary monuments. 

The Marchant Collection. This collection, offered to the Louvre by its 
owner, includes 52 Punic stelai, 30 Greek and Latin inscriptions, 150 
Roman lamps, medals, fragments of statues and some 15 heads of divini- 


ties and emperors. It was formed while Commander Marchant belonged 
to the army of Africa, and is composed of objects found at Carthage. 
Among the heads is a magnificent one of Jupiter Serapis, a laureated head 
of Hadrian, and another of an empress in admirable preservation. 

M. Renan, editor of the Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum, has com- 
municated to the Acad. des inscriptions the impressions of the stelai, and 
has called attention to some that have extremely rare subjects, especially 
three which represent, (1) a funerary banquet, (2) a sacrifice, (3) a hare 
or rabbit. Cowr. de I' Art, 1890, Nos. 27, 32, 34. 

Christian antiquities. Some new objects have been exhibited in the 
newly opened hall. They are terracotta tiles from Kasrine (Tunisia), 
a cartel with dove-tails containing a discourse mentioning the sacred pre- 
cincts of the virgins, and a window from the tomb of a martyr, a double 
arcade allowing the faithful to approach the sarcophagus. An inscription 
(memorial) mentions relics and is the earliest record of the habit of collect- 
ing and transporting them. It comes from a ruin situated between Tixter 
and Ras-el-oned. Some bricks with figures in relief and Greek inscriptions 
come from Kilikia and Constantinople ; and finally a Byzantine capital 
discovered at Bogdan-Serai in the latter city. Ami des Mon., 1890, p. 323. 

Middle Ages and Renaissance. Harbaville ivory triptych. The most 
important work of mediaeval art recently acquired is the magnificent Byzan- 
tine ivory retable or triptych of the Harbaville collection, made known 
by M. de Linas's study of it in the Revue de VArt Chretien for 1887. It 
is the most wonderful work of Byzantine ivory carving of the mediaeval 
period, on account of the beauty of its types and style, the delicacy of its 
execution and its perfect preservation. It is a work of the xnth century. 

Reliquary of Medina del Campo. Mme. Spitzer has offered, in memory 
of her husband, a piece of great artistic importance, a reliquary dating from 
the first half of the xv cent., of almost the same date and of nearly the same 
style as the famous Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux. It is an arm-reliquary in 
rock crystal and silver gilt and enamelled, measuring 60 cent, in height and 
coming from the convent of the Dominicanas Reales of Medina del Campo 
in Spain. The style is of great delicacy and similar to that of the best con- 
temporary French works. The foot is decorated with enamelled arms and 
friezes ; the crystal cylinder is flanked with four elegant buttresses : the top 
is occupied by a charming enamelled arm bearing a dedicatory inscription. 
It contains a relic of St. Louis, bishop of Toulouse, son of Charles of Anjou. 
It is mentioned in the Hist. Gen. de Saint Dominique by Juan Lopez : the 
convent for which it was executed was founded in 1418 by Queen Leonora. 
It had not yet been arranged in Mr. Spitzer's collection at the time of his 
death. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 4, 


Renaissance Sculptures. The continued demands of the Societe des Anti- 
quairesfoT the restoration of the monuments removed after 1816 from the old 
Musee des Monuments Francais have begun to produce an effect. The terra- 
cotta figure of the Virgin by Germain Pilon, formerly at the Sainte Cha- 
pelle, long at St. Cloud, has been returned to the Louvre, as well as the 
Virgin in marble that formerly decorated the chapel of the Chateau of 
Ecouen, and after the Restoration the sacristy of Notre Dame in Versailles. 
Revue Crit., 1890, i, p. 480. 

Miscellaneous additions are : A medallion of Robinet (1521) represent- 
ing Marin Le Pigny. Two bronzes of the xv cent, attributed to Ulocrine 
a nymph and satyr, and another mythological subject. A painted Vene- 
tian enamel plaque of the close of the xv cent. 

Sword of Francesco Gonzaga. An addition to the Renaissance depart- 
ment of the Louvre is a beautiful short sword or cinquedea, also called 
langue de bceuf, which figured at the exhibition of Tours. It is a fine work 
of the close of the xv cent., and undoubtedly by the hand of the same famous 
artist, named Ercole, by whom is the sword of Caesar Borgia owned by the 
Duke of Sermoneta. The devices and arms show that this sword belonged 
to the celebrated marquis of Mantova Francesco di Gonzaga. Cour. de 
FArt, 1890, No. 32. 

M. Plot's gift. The objects presented by M. Piot (see vol. vi, p. 244) were 
placed on exhibition in August. They are the following : i. RAPHAEL 
SANZIO. Head of St. Elisabeth. Study in tempera on cloth for the painting 
of the Visitation now in the Museum of Madrid ; it measures 34 by 24 cent, 
ii. Portrait of Michelangelo Buonarotti : bronze bust of the xvi cent, of the 
Florentine school, from the Bianchetti collection of Bologna. The expres- 
sion is powerful and melancholy and the font of extreme delicacy. It has 
been suggested that its author was Antonio del Franceze. in. Terracotta 
medallion of the Virgin adoring the infant Christ : a work of the Florentine 
school of the xv cent, attributed by M. Piot to Donatello. The Virgin is 
a half-figure, nearly in profile, iv. Three basreliefs of painted and gilt 
wood of the Milanese school of the close of the xv cent. They represent 
(1) Joachim expelled from the temple, (2) the Nativity of the Virgin, (3) 
the meeting of Joachim and Anna. v. Wooden figure of St. Christopher, 
painted and gilt : Italian art of the middle of the xv cent, vi-vm. 
Three superb rectangular inlaid wooden panels of North Italian art of the 
xv cent., with decoration in relief, from the choir of a church. They were 
purchased at Padova, and bear a note on the back giving the name of 
their artist, Fra Vincenzo, as follows : II bel gallo con gli altri due quadri 
lavorati di tarsi adornavano il sedile a destra della cappella maggiore della 
soppressa chiesa di S. Benedetto novello, e sono lavoro di Fra Vincenzo dalle 
Vacche Veronese, monaco Olivetano ricordato dal Brandolese nella sua de- 


scrizione delle pitture di Padova, ivi 1795, in 80., p. 166. Cour. de I' Art, 

1890, No. 34. 

M. Rattier's gift.M. Rattier (d. June 9, 1890) left the following pieces 
to the Louvre, which have been accepted : a painting of the Virgin by 
Quentin Matsys, and a fine Renaissance medal with an admirable relief of 
a helmeted Scipio, attributed by Bode to Leonardo. Chron. des Arts, 

1891, No. 5. 

French school of Painting. M. J. Maciet has given two interesting ex- 
amples of early French painting of which so few specimens exist in the 
Louvre. One is a large Calvary painted on wood and dating from the 
first years of the xv cent. It is closely related to the panel of the Martyr- 
dom of St. Denis already in the Museum and is full of a vigorous origi- 
nality. The second panel represents one of the allegories familiar to the 
school of Fontainebleau, the greater part of whose authentic works have 
disappeared. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 9. 

NATIONAL LIBRARY. A silver dish. At the Piot sale the Bibliotheque 
Nationale secured a large silver plate or missorium decorated with a leaf 
border and a basrelief of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion. It belongs 
to the early part of the fifth cent. A. D., and was illustrated in Gazette Arch., 
1886, pi. 21. 

A Manchu manuscript. The Berliner Tageblatt announces a recent dis- 
covery by Prof. Pozdneef, of St. Petersburg, at the National Library of 
Paris. This is a Manchu manuscript which may prove of the greatest interest 
to Orientalists, and which he declares to be of more ancient date than the 
recently discovered inscription at Corea. The manuscript, which numbers 
161 leaves, made of Chinese paper, all fully covered with writing, is said 
to have been acquired by the great French library, in some unknown way, 
towards the end of the last century. Athenaeum, Aug. 30. 

TROCADERO MUSEUM. New gallery of casts. The new gallery in the 
Musee du Trocadero, which has been for some time in course of arrange- 
ment, is open to the public. The casts from the antique lately in this 
museum are to be placed in one of the galleries of the Louvre, which was 
till now occupied by the Prefecture de la Seine. Athenceum, Dec. 6. 

PAU. AN EXHIBITION. In April there was to be opened in Pau a retro- 
spective exhibition which would include not only the works of art scattered 
through the Basses-Pyrenees, but those also of the Landes, Gers and Hautes- 
Pyre~n6es. Chron. des Arts, 1891, No. 2. 

PUPILLIN. A ROMAN VILLA. The Abbe Guichard, curate of Pupillin, 
has uncovered at this locality a richly decorated country villa, and has 
found in it many Roman antiquities. The villa dates from the beginning 
of Roman rule, was burned and then rebuilt, was destroyed at the period 
of the invasions, rebuilt a third time and again burned. A bronze statuette 


of good workmanship represents the god with the hammer, a type quite 
frequent in the Franche-Comte". Rev. Arch., 1891, 1, p. 121. 

RHEIMS. A GRXECO-GALLIC MOSAIC. In what used to be the suburb of 
the Gallo-Roman city of Rheims a remarkably fine mosaic, measuring five 
metres square, has been found, injured, however, by a clandestine burial. 
Beside the beauty of its composition, and the purity of design of its torsades 
and rosettes, its central picture is of especial interest. It represents two 
nude athletes, finely drawn, fighting with short swords. The energetic 
action is made the more accurate by the minute size of the cubes that 
form out the muscles, some of them in the legs being only 3 or 4 millimetres 
wide. This fineness of workmanship in the figures and that of several 
delicate flowers copied from the flora of the South, seem to indicate a 
Greek origin : its date is probably the first century. The mosaics are of 
colored terracottas. Ami des Mon., 1891, No. 24, p. 83. 

RENAISSANCE TAPESTRIES. The most important series of tapestries in the 
Cathedral of Rheims, the gift of the Cardinal de Lorraine, dating from late 
in the sixteenth century, and representing incidents in the life of the Virgin, 
are now being repaired and cleaned. It is not too soon these tasks are 
undertaken. The noble work on these and other tapestries in the same 
church, which we reviewed a few years ago, gives a complete account of 
them. Athenceum, Oct. 4. 

RENNES. ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS. In demolishing the ancient city-walls, 
the discovery was made of twelve Roman inscriptions, some of which are 
of especial interest as they are milestones with the names of Septimius 
Severus, Victorinus and Tetricus. Revue Grit., 1890, i, pp. 400, 440. 

SAINT-MARCEL. A GALLIC MONEY-BOX. Near Argenton (commune of 
St. Marcel, department Indre) a countryman came across a piece of iron ore 
which on being broken was found to contain 251 silver coins. The ore was 
hollow and its aperture had been closed with cement. The 251 coins, in per- 
fect preservation, are of the Gallic period, previous to the Roman invasion : 
they were coined by chiefs of the Bituriges and are of six or eight different 
types. This was evidently an early Gallic money-box with its contents. 
Ami des Mon., 1891, pp. 23-24. 

Duchesne undertook in September some excavations at Saint-Servan on 
the site of the ancient cathedral of Alet. He was able to reconstruct the 
plan of the building, which according to local traditions was built shortly 
before or after 1000 A. D. The details of the architecture confirm this 
early date by their extreme simplicity, not to say poverty. A peculiarity 
is the double semicircular apse, one at each end. Revue Orit., 1890, n, 
p. 296. 


SUIPPES. GALLO-ROMAN HOUSE. In exploring to the N. w. of Suippes 
in a place where some Merovingian tombs had been found, M. Counhaye 
came upon the substructures of a Gallo-Roman house whose destruction 
appears to date from the barbaric invasions. There were black and white 
mosaic floors; the walls were painted red, yellow, blue and green with 
elegant borders ; and one room at least was decorated with genre paintings, 
of which the figure of a bacchante was preserved. Two rings and a fibula 
were all the objects found. Bull. Soc. des Antiquaires, 1890, p. 146. 

TOURS. CHURCH OF ST. MARTIN. At a meeting of the Acad. des In- 
scriptions (Feb. 6) M. de Lasteyrie described the remains of the basilica 
of St. Martin of Tours, found during recent excavations. He showed that 
those who attributed them to the church built in the fifth century by 
Perpetuus and described by Gregory of Tours, founded themselves on a 
mistaken restoration of Quicherat. The ruins found in 1886 are not 
earlier than the Carlovingian period, and the primitive church was a 
basilica like those of Rome and Ravenna. The assumed deambulatory 
around the apse is an untenable hypothesis of M. Quicherat. Ami des 
Mon., 1891, p. 60. 

TROO (near). PAINTINGS AT ST. JACQUES. Some curious wall paint- 
ings have been uncovered from whitewash on the walls of the church of 
Saint Jacques des Guerets near Troo (Loir-et-Cher). The compositions 
are of large dimensions : among them are five knights separated by 
fantastic plants, scenes of heaven and hell, the martyrdom of the apostle 
St. James the Less, the resurrection of Lazarus, St. Peter and a legend of 
Saint Nicholas. Ami des Mon., 1891, p. 52. 


an interesting communication to the Acad. des Inscriptions (May 14) re- 
garding an illuminated manuscript in the Plantian Museum at Antwerp 
which gives new proof of the co-existence in the studios, at the end of the 
xiv century, of squads of artists of different nationalities. In this manu- 
script there are illuminations by the German, Franco-Flemish and Italian 
schools. It was never finished: several sheets bear only un-gouached 
sketches which show clearly the delicacy and grace of Gothic design. 
Revue Grit., 1891, i, p. 440. 

N. B. For lack of space the rest of the News is reserved for the next number. 




N. B. The editors hereby declare the discussion closed, in so far as the JOURNAL 
is concerned. 

To the Managing Editor of the American Journal of Archaeology. 

Sir: Your rejoinder (vol. vi. pp. 478-486) to my reply to your criticism 
of my book calls for some further remarks from me which I herewith submit. 

I. Quicherat's classification of Romanesque monuments, though it may, 
as I have said, have its value for some purposes, does not commend itself 
to me for the reason that it does not take note of the fact that an archi- 
tectural style is always developed in some particular locality where the 
conditions have conspired to produce it. These conditions have never 
been the same in different localities. There is nothing in architecture cor- 
responding to the apparently spontaneous development, in different places, 
of the same natural flora and fauna. In assuming that there is such a 
development Quicherat seems to me to make a fundamental mistake. A 
style may have offshoots : but in broad classification these offshoots properly 
belong to the regions where they originated. The exotic types of build- 
ing found in any given locality are, however, rarely pure in style. They 
are naturally more or less modified by the local conditions so as to become 
unfit for strict classification .with the styles from which they are sprung. 
Hence the geographical division, though it may not afford the means of 
marking the limitations of schools with absolute precision, seems to me the 
most natural and convenient. And I observe that you, as well as Quicherat 
himself, are unable to dispense with it : you speak, for instance, (p. 480) 
of the " schools of Burgundy, Poitou, Perigord, Auvergne, the Loire, etc" 

II. In this discussion (following the thesis advanced by Quicherat) you 
speak of Romanesque architecture as if it were a homogeneous style charac- 
terized by the use of vaulting. On page 480 you now qualify this by the 
admission that the early Norman Romanesque was, as I have said, gener- 
ally unvaulted. But with this exception you still assert that " Romanesque 
architecture is as essentially a vaulted style as is the Gothic." Now is 
this so ? How is it with the Tuscan Romanesque with buildings like San 
Miniato at Florence and the Cathedral of Pisa ? How is it with the Lom- 
bard Romanesque ? How is it with the large class of early Romanesque 



buildings in Germany numerous examples of which are figured in the 
work of Dehio and Bezold to which you refer ? And how is it with the 
large number of timber-roofed monuments of northern France exclusive 
of those of Normandy with buildings like St. Remi of Reims, Vignory, 
Montier en Der, Le Mans and many others ? With these large groups of 
unvaulted buildings before us, how can it be said that the Romanesque 
" is essentially a vaulted style from its very beginnings " ? 

The vaulted Romanesque is mainly limited to Southern France, with 
offshoots in Spain. It is of two principal varieties one in which the 
barrel- vault (of either round or pointed section) is used, and another which 
employs the dome. Neither of these varieties contained any principles of 
growth, and from them, therefore, there was no outcome. They are, struc- 
turally, survivals of ancient modes of building which assume, it is true, forms 
that differ in unessential ways from ancient forms ; but they all alike retain 
the ancient inert principle of construction. We do not get any distinctly 
new style until the inert principle is thrown aside in the Gothic of the Ile- 
de-France. But the northern varieties of Romanesque, which were, early 
in the twelfth century, sometimes covered with groined vaults, contained 
the germs of this new style. It is these northern (and largely, though not 
exclusively, northwestern) varieties, therefore, with which alone I am 
properly concerned in my book which is not a treatise on Romanesque, 
but on Gothic, architecture. Of these northern varieties I refer chiefly to 
those of Normandy and the Ile-de-France because they contain more organic 
and progressive systems than most others. In fact few others, I believe, 
except that of Burgundy, contributed much toward the formation of the 
Gothic style. In the passage (p. 7 of my book), which you think shows 
that I do not limit my remarks to the northern Romanesque, it should be 
noticed that I am concerned with a general statement, and I therefore, in 
that place, speak of the style in a comprehensive sense. But elsewhere, 
being concerned with the evolution of Gothic, I refer to those types of 
Romanesque only out of which it grew. 

III. Having now, as I hope you will see, justified my statements with 
regard to Romanesque, and my exclusive reference to that of the north as 
alone calling for treatment in connection with my subject, I pass over your 
third section relating to the use of the term Gothic (because I think that 
if my main proposition be apprehended my restriction of the term will be 
seen to be necessary) and take up the question relating to Italian architecture. 

You say (section iv), referring to Siena and Orvieto, that " in both these 
churches the structural arches are not pointed but round, only such secondary 
forms as windows being pointed ; and you yourself tell us (p. 7) that pointed 
arches in apertures do not much differ structurally from round ones : this 
shows the inconvenience of substituting the term pointed for Gothic. Orvieto 


has a wooden roof to its nave and structural round arches : there are not in 
it any structural pointed elements whatever. Siena is certainly vaulted, but 
the vaults differ from those usually found in Tuscan and northern churches 
in being flatter and more oblong. In both buildings the. effect is made quite 
different by the closeness, greater length, and slenderness of the piers and 
columns, a point in which they more nearly approach the basilical Roman- 
esque churches of Tuscany. There is more reason to call the churches of 
Sicily pointed than to give this name to the Cathedral of Orvieto. In fact 
these two churches, while having hardly anything in common, differ in 
almost every way from the pointed monastic churches with which you com- 
pare them, and these differences affect the vaulting, supports, forms and 
proportions." Now I think it is incorrect to speak of " structural " arches 
in the nave of Orvieto, because there is no vaulting in the aisles any more 
than over the nave. The form of an arch in a mere arcade has no more 
structural consequence than it has in a window. This part of the building 
would have no more structurally pointed character if its arcades were pointed 
instead of round as they are, for instance, in Santa Croce at Florence. The 
mere forms and proportions of this church and of Siena, to which you refer^ 
are of small structural importance, and, though in some respects (mainly 
in the rectangular plans of the bays) unusual, they are not, I believe, un- 
exampled in some other Italian edifices. You fail, therefore, to disprove 
my statement that these two buildings differ little structurally from other 
Italian pointed monuments. They are like the rest in exhibiting no Gothic 
principles. As to there being more reason to call the churches of Sicily 
pointed than to give this name to the Cathedral of Orvieto, you seem to 
forget that I have not given it this name. I merely use the name by which 
it is (interchangeably with the name Gothic) commonly designated ; and 
to which it is as much entitled as are most other Italian buildings of the 
period. For although the arcade of the nave has round arches, the most 
of the external openings are pointed ; while its vaulted choir and transept l 
approach more nearly to Gothic than is the case with Italian pointed build- 
ings generally. 

You say " the point of special importance, however, is the general state- 
ment (p. 181) which forms the starting-point of your study, namely, that 
the pointed church of S. Andrea at Vercelli built in 1219 is an exceptional 
instance, and that pointed design did not begin to spread in Italy until about 
1250." I do not regard this as a point of special importance : for, whatever 
a more thorough investigation of early monuments in Italy than I have yet 
had occasion to make might show, it would be a matter of small consequence 

1 The unqualified statement, in your review, that Orvieto is not vaulted is manifestly 
incorrect, and yet you make no acknowledgment of the error. 


in connection with my subject, because there was never, at any time, in a 
proper sense, any Gothic movement whatever in Italy. Having found this 
to be so, the beginnings of the use of the pointed arch in that country is a 
subject that has not especially interested me. In my book I have attempted 
no more than to show the comparative tardiness of any general native move- 
ment toward pointed forms, and to illustrate the absence of Gothic princi- 
ples in the characteristic buildings which were erected during the period of 
greatest activity in pointed design. So that even granting that there may 
have been an earlier use of the pointed arch than I have supposed, it does 
not materially affect my chief argument. How far the monuments enumer- 
ated in your list may tend to establish your position with regard to its early 
use I am not prepared positively to say. With many of these monuments 
I am unacquainted : but I will readily admit that in some cases they may 
show (I do not say that I think they do show) that the Italians occasionally 
made use of the pointed arch before 1250. I do not, however, believe it 
can be proved that there was any general movement in the direction of its 
use before that time. 

The buildings on your list of which I know anything are of a very 
mixed character. Their pointed features are sometimes, as in the Cathe- 
dral Asti, incongruous with their general design : and it is, I think, highly 
probable that these features were in many, if not in all, cases interpolations. 
However this may be, it is certain that neither the Cistercian nor the native 
buildings ever, as you affirm, " exactly followed French models " i.e. the 
models of the Ile-de-France. Take, for example, the church of Fossauova. 
With exception of its capitals and bases (which are indeed strikingly simi- 
lar to the corresponding members in the early French Gothic), it is simply 
a Burgundian Eomanesque structure with pointed arches substituted for 
round arches in the arcades, and in the ribs of the vaulting. If you will 
compare your photograph (vol. vi. pi. in) of its nave with a photograph 
of the nave of Vezelay, you can hardly fail to see that the two buildings 
are substantially identical. The rectangular plan of the vaulting com- 
partments, the heavy transverse rib, the absence of groin-ribs, the spring- 
ing of the longitudinal and transverse ribs from the same level (an arrange- 
ment which, as I endeavor to show in my book, is fundamentally opposed 
to the principle of Gothic), the composition of the piers including the 
vault supports, the massive walls, and the small round-arched external 
openings, are all so nearly the same that both buildings might almost have 
been erected from the same set of drawings. Even the banding of the 
vaulting shafts by the abacus mouldings, and the triforium-string, is the 
same in both instances. 2 Externally Fossanova is unmodified Roman- 

8 The interior of San Martino al Cimino, near Viterbo, is equally unlike Gothic in 
its structural forms and relations ; though it has some features, such as groin-ribs and 


esque. 3 The pointed arches of its west fayade seem to be alterations ; and 
the great wheel window, wholly unrelated in style, as it is, to the rest of 
the edifice, looks to me like an insertion. 

The use of the pointed arch in Fossanova is not a constructional use 
such as was made of it by the Gothic architects of France. The round 
arch might just as well have been used here, as it was used in Vezelay its 
prototype. Nobody thinks of calling the nave of Vezelay a Gothic struc- 
ture, and there is no more reason why Fossanova should be so called. It 
is not at all Gothic, and no amount of influence of such a building could be 
the means of introducing Gothic architecture into Italy. On this account, 
though I recognize the interest attaching on other grounds to such a group 
of buildings as you bring forward, and shall look with interest for the fuller 
accounts of them which you promise us, I cannot regard them as having 
any material bearing upon what I have said in my book. 

I have endeavored, my dear sir, to present these points in a true light, 
and I trust that in so far as I have done so I may win your assent. 

Cambridge, Mass., 
April 21, 1891. 

Mr. Charles H. Moore. 

Sir : It is with reluctance that I continue the discussion which you have 
reopened, as I think it has entered upon a phase where further elucidation 
may become wearisome to our readers. I shall therefore seek to be brief, 
and shall omit any reference to your criticism of Quicherat's classification 
as it would lead me too far. I have stated from the beginning that I believed 
the geographical additions should not be abolished but be used in subordi- 
nation to those that are structural. 

II. In regard to Romanesque style it is evident that you have failed to 
grasp my meaning. It is hardly necessary to remind anyone but a tyro of 
the classes of unvaulted buildings built between 1000 and 1200, during 

double arch orders, besides profiles and capitals, which resemble those of the early 
Gothic. But the essential features, namely, the forms of the vaulting in which there 
is no concentration of thrusts upon a narrow line, and the single shaft carrying all 
the vault-ribs, are opposed to Gothic as the work of the Cistercian monks generally 
was in all localities. The Cistercian builders rarely did more than to imitate certain 
unessential Gothic features. Of the principles of the Gothic style they can hardly 
be said ever to have shown understanding. 

3 1 have, in my book, called attention to the fact that some of the early Gothic 
buildings of the lle-de-France, such as the Cathedral of Senlis, retain the Roman- 
esque characteristics externally. But these are buildings of a developing style : Fossa- 
nova is not, in the same sense, a transitional building. 


what is broadly termed the Romanesque period : but I do not believe they 
prove what you imagine. They may be, in my opinion, divided into two 
classes: (1) those which are construction ally the survivals of the style of 
the Latin basilica ; and (2) those which, as I remarked on p. 480, vol. vi 
(following Quicherat), were influenced in their proportions and style by the 
introduction of vaulting. To the first class belongs, for example, the "Tuscan 
Romanesque." It is a misnomer to call such buildings as S. Miniato at 
Florence and the Cathedral of Pisa Romanesque because they happen to 
be built between 1000 and 1200. Except for their decoration, they are 
basilicas, of the same class as those of Rome, Ravenna and Salonica. We 
come next to Lombard Romanesque: here we find that the principal 
buildings erected or restored after 1000 have, not wooden roofs as you infer, 
but vaults : at Pavia, S. Michele, S. Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, S. Giovanni in 
Borgo, S. Teodoro, S. Lanfranco : at Milan, S. Ambrogio ; at Bologna, SS. 
Pietro e Paolo ; the Cathedrals of Parma, Modena, Novara, Piacenza, Fer- 
rara, etc. There are hardly any unvaulted Lombard structures of this date. 
In citing numerous unvaulted churches of Northern France and Germany 
as further invalidating the fundamental influence of the vault on Roman- 
esque, you seem to ignore a remark of mine which you must have over- 
looked, and which I will here quote (vol. vi, p. 480) : " The churches of 
the eleventh century which we find to have had a nave covered with a 
wooden roof are merely survivals or reversals due to two causes : conser- 
vatism and the ill-success, though imperfect knowledge of the laws of statics, 
of many of the earlier attempts at vaulting. But when, even in these early 
cases, the wooden roof is preserved, we find the new proportions and other 
elements brought in by the vaulting system to be present in them also." I 
believe this statement is as clear as any I can make. Let me illustrate. 
The Romanesque grouped pier, invented on account of the introduction of 
vaulting, the different members of which were created to support the span- 
ning arches of the nave, the sub-arches of its arcades and the ribbings of 
the vaults are found in unvaulted constructions of the xi century. The 
great church of St. Stephen at Caen, the most important perhaps of Norman 
churches, was built on this plan. Its vaults were added at some unknown 
period in the xn century : but as M. Ruprich-Robert emphatically states 
{Arch. Norm., pp. 63, 85), the supports of its interior consisted of grouped 
piers which had absolutely no meaning and no connection with the wooden 
roof, but were copied from some unknown (perhaps Lombard) building with 
cross-vaults. If then, the thickness of walls and supports, the relations of 
solids to voids, the proportions of the interior and exterior, the new decora- 
tion and mouldings brought about by the consequent depth of the openings 
to be cut in these walls if all this was radically changed even in unvaulted 
buildings, as it certainly was, does it not constitute a tremendous, a decisive 


group of results ? And if they all derive from one cause, who can doubt that 
this cause is the essential element in the style ? And who can deny that the 
vaulting is this cause ? So, in asserting that " Romanesque is essentially a 
vaulted style from its very beginnings," I use the term essentially in the 
meaning of internally, in principle, in essence ; and the bare fact that a 
church is unvaulted does not prevent the influence of the vault from being 
dominant even in this case. 

We now come to your positive statement in regard to the character and 
limits of vaulted Romanesque ; that it employs the barrel- vault and the 
dome ; that it retains the ancient inert principle of construction and that it 
is mainly limited to Southern France, with offshoots in Spain. I can hardly 
do anything more than deny these propositions in toto, as a full demonstra- 
tion would take a long article. I shall only make the following counter- 
assertions that can be easily verified by a consultation of authorities. (1) 
Vaulted Romanesque is as wide-spread as the boundaries of western archi- 
tectural activity. (2) It used the cross-vault as well as the dome and 
tunnel-vault. (3) All of its varieties do not retain but set aside the inert 
principle of construction for that of balanced construction. It is an error 
found also in your paper read lately before the Convention of the American 
Institute of Architects, to claim that the principle of balance was first 
introduced, in the history of architecture, by the Gothic architects. The 
principle of balance lies at the basis of Byzantine architecture, which is thus 
fundamentally distinguished from the Roman. The demonstration of this 
fact will be found, for example, in Choisy, L'Art de Batir chez les Byzantins, 
where the system of internal buttresses, of interacting domes and vaults, is 
illustrated in detail. More imperfectly is the same principle represented 
in the various forms of Romanesque architecture, but its existence alone 
ensured the stability of vaulted constructions. The buttress-strips, the 
abutting vaults over side-aisles and galleries in Romanesque are certainly 
the result of the application of a different law from that which governed the 
inert Roman concrete. While no one will deny that only in the Gothic is 
the principle fully carried out, it is easy to prove, that the principle was 
known and applied, and that there is therefore a far closer alliance between 
Romanesque and Gothic than between Romanesque and Roman, which you 
wish to classify under one head. 

III. In regard to Siena and Orvieto, after seeking to demonstrate that 
there is nothing structural at all about Orvieto you wish to fortify your 
contention that these two buildings differ little structurally from other 
Italian pointed buildings by the statement that it is so because " they are 
like the rest in exhibiting no Gothic principles " ! On the same principle 
I may be allowed to point out what astonishing similarity the temple of 
Luxor, the Taj Mahal, the mosque of Amru at Cairo all bear to Santa 


Croce at Florence because they are like it in exhibiting no Gothic prin- 
ciples. It is such a method of reasoning and the apparent unwillingness to 
investigate the proofs which I brought forward in regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture in Italy, that have shown me the uselessness of a controversy like this. 
I gave a list of over sixty monuments, embodying Gothic forms orprinciples, 
erected in Italy before 1250: such a list cannot, I believe, be surpassed if 
equalled for England or Germany. In each case I gave references, most 
of which could be easily verified. In a large number not only was the 
pointed arch used but the pointed ribbed cross-vault. To these facts were 
added the assurance, in more than half the cases, of my personal study 
backed by photographs. But though acknowledging a lack of acquaintance 
with these monuments, you appear to doubt my word and take no steps to 
verify my assertions and are willing merely to " admit that in some cases 
they may show that the Italians occasionally made use of the pointed 
arch before 1250," adding that you do not, however, believe it can be 
proved that there was any general movement in the direction of its use 
before that time. I can only express the desire that the opportunity may 
speedily arise for you to become acquainted with the facts of this movement. 
It is not always easy to determine how many monuments it takes to con- 
stitute a movement. Apparently two, when France is in question and 
you pass from Morienval to St. Denis in the history of the transition. 
I will not follow you in your discussion of Fossanova which, by the 
way, so thorough a scholar as Dehio has just placed in the front rank 
of early Gothic buildings, thus confirming my claims for it. In this dis- 
cussion you forget one essential thing. I am not claiming for Italy the 
general use of Gothic architecture but of pointed architecture, in the terms 
of your vocabulary. Therefore your arguments as to whether or not it 
conforms to true Gothic principles are quite beside the question, and would 
be in place only in case you were controverting my articles in the JOURNAL 
on Cistercian architecture in Italy. As to whether or no it is correct to say 
of the Cistercian builders that " of the principles of the Gothic style they 
can hardly be said ever to have shown understanding," I can only say that 
they would have come with more force from a man who had made some 
study of Cistercian architecture. It is most confusing to hear that Fossa- 
nova could not be the means of introducing Gothic architecture into Italy. 
If put to it, you would doubtless confess that it or some of its mates had 
as much Gothic as any building in Italy. Then Gothic architecture was 
never introduced ? Of course not, according to your contention. It was 
the pointed style that was introduced, on which even you would be obliged 
to grant that Fossanova could exercise an influence. I feel sure that as I 
continue the publication of Italian Cistercian monuments your opinion will 
be substantially modified. Why not get rid of this continual confusion 


between Gothic, and pointed : it is so artificial that you appear to lose the 
run of it yourself. 

As you have digressed to my Cistercian papers, I will close by a refer- 
ence to your paper read Oct. 24, 1891, before the Institute of Architects, 
on the Antecedents of Gothic Architecture, simply to take note of a few 
facts. The statement is made that only two writers Viollet-le-Duc and 
Quicherat have recognized that the Gothic style is essentially structural. 
To this list should be added Anthyme Saint Paul (Hist. Mon. de la France, 
1884), Gilbert Scott (Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture), Adamy (Archi- 
tektonik) and several other writers whom the latter cites. You assert that the 
first true instance of grouped supports destined to carry vaulting and em- 
brace several stories occur in the Lombard style of the xi century and that 
the fountain-head is S. Michele at Pavia. It is to be noted, however, (1) 
that S. Ambrogio at Milan (and not S. Michele) is generally regarded as the 
earliest church (Dartein, Viollet-le-Duc, Ruprich-Robert) ; (2) that the date 
of their piers is a matter of great dispute : they are placed as early as the ix and 
x centuries or as late as the xn and are consequently not very safe ; (3) 
that the vaults of S. Michele are often dated after the fire at the close of 
the xn century and that it is therefore impossible to state, as you do, that 
they show the earliest known use of groin and longitudinal ribs ; (4) the 
original vaulting compartments in S. Michele are not square, as you say, 
but oblong an important fact. 

In regard to the monuments of primeval Gothic in the Ile-de-France 
before S. Denis in 1140, in your book and in your paper, one only is men- 
tioned, Morienval, that earliest of Frankish works in which the pointed 
ribbed cross- vault appears in its most primitive form. But I would call 
your attention to the chapter on Le Gothique Rudimentaire in Gonse's 
volume L'Art Gothique. Here are mentioned and described some twenty- 
five buildings which illustrate every step of the gradual development of 
Gothic vaulting from Morienval to St. Denis. It is a most complete and 
charming piece of historical demonstration, and supplies the material so 
much desired and so long sought in vain by writers on the origins of Gothic 
architecture. Another paper, in which a few such buildings are mentioned, 
is that by Von Bezold in the Zeitschrift fur Bauwesen, 1891, p. 162, entitled 
Die Entstehung und Ausbildung der Gothischen Baukunst in Frankreieh. 

Princeton, October, 1891. 


Fefo. M. HOLLEAUX, Excavations at the temple of Apollon Ptoos. Inscrip- 
tions. Here are published eighteen inscriptions found in the vicinity of 
the temple of Apollon Ptoos. They comprise the inscriptions in Ionian 
characters, and therefore are later than 350 B. c. Several are of con- 
siderable length. A valuable summary is given of all the references, in 
these and other inscriptions, to the government of Akraiphiai, showing a 
constitution practically identical with that of other Boiotian towns, with 
officers consisting of the Archon, Polemarchoi, Katoptai and Tamias and 
two legislative bodies, the Synedrion or Council, and the Damos or Popular 
Assembly. Six inscriptions are decrees voted by Boiotian towns in response 
to the invitation to join in the Ptoian games. The references to the little- 
known Ptoian games are valuable. They show us, that the games were 
held every four years near the Sanctuary of Apollon and not in the town ; 
that sacrifices to Apollon and other divinities preceded the games ; that 
the Agonothetes gave banquets to the citizens and strangers assembled at 
the festival ; that the festival opened with processions and national dances, 
and consisted of musical and poetic contests. The following towns are men- 
tioned as having officially shared in the celebration of the contests : Kopai, 
Lebadeia, Orchomenos, Tanagra, Thebai, Thespiai, and Thisbai (to be con- 
tinued). G. You GERES, Excavations at Mantineia (1887-88). i. The enclo- 
sure and the surroundings (pi. i). Of modern travellers who have visited and 
described the ruins of Mantineia, only Gell was provided with instruments 
to make a plan of the enclosure. His plan, however, is circular, whereas 
the actual lines of the walls enclose an irregular oval space. The wall is 
built of hard trapezoidal stones laid in horizontal layers, which served as 
a base for a rampart of brick. It is divided into ten segments of unequal 
lengths and flanked with 122 towers of unequal heights. The ten gates 
are constructed on different models, all with a view to the most effective 
defence. The observations of M. Fougeres reveal no small amount of 
inaccuracy in the descriptions by previous explorers. G. COUSIN and 
CH. DIEHL, Inscriptions from Halikarnassos. Eighteen inscriptions from 
Halikarnassos and three from the peninsular of Myndos are here published 
with annotations. H. LECHAT, Archaic statues from Athens (pis. vi, vi 
bis~). Reproductions in heliogravure are here given of an unpublished 
statue found on the Akropolis in Oct. 1888. The body differs little from 
that of other Archaic statues of the Delian type found on the Akropolis, 



but the head exhibits, according to M. Lechat, a charm of expression and 
a delicacy of execution quite rare in Archaic sculpture. Two other Archaic 
Athenian statues are studied in this paper, one of which was published in 
the Musees d' Athene* (pi. ix), the other in the 'V<j>. 'A PX . (1888, pi. vi). 
A similarity of style and marble is recognized, and a close relationship to 
the statue of Hera found at Samos (Bull, de corr. hellen., 1880, pis. xiu, 
xiv). They are therefore considered to be Samian. The Egyptian influence 
which may be recognized in them is explained by the known intercourse 
of Samos with Egypt during the vi century. C. CARAPANOS, Inscriptions 
and statuettes from the oracle at Dodona (pis. iv, v ; 7 facsimiles). The inscrip- 
tions, engraved on small plaques of lead, are records of questions addressed 
to the oracle and of the responses. Preserved in the temple they probably 
formed a reference library for the priests. Eighty-four of these plaques 
were discovered by M. Carapanos in 1876-77 of which forty-two were 
published in his book, Dodone et ses mines, 1878. Six more have been 
deciphered and are here published. Six bronze statuettes are also illus- 
trated, representing three priestesses, two priests, and a Herakles. The 
objects held by the priestesses throw light upon the mode of obtaining a 
response from the oracle. One holds a dove (c/. Strabo, vn, 1), another a 
round object, perhaps for casting lots (cf. Cicero, De Div., I, 34), and the 
third a jug for drawing water from the fountain of Dodona (c/. Pliny, Hist. 
Nat. n, 103, 106). V. BERARD, Inscriptions from Telmessos. Twelve 
inscriptions discovered by M. Berard and M. Fougeres in May- June, 1889 , 
in and about the town of Makri. P. FOUCART, Athenian Decree of the fifth 
century. This decree, found in the church of St. Andrew, may be dated, 
from the forms of the letters, shortly after the middle of the fifth century. 
Its purpose was to exclude fugitive slaves and thieves from the Akropolis. 
March- April. M. HOLLEAUX, Excavations at the Temple ofApollon Ptoos. 
Inscriptions (contin.). Publication of fifteen inscriptions, which are of 
importance in showing that the oracle was longer-lived than is usually 
supposed. Most historians (following Pausanias, ix. 23. 6) assert that the 
destruction of Thebai by Alexander put an end to the oracle and sanctuary 
of Apollon Ptoos. In opposition to this four inscriptions show that the 
oracle was frequented at the end of the fourth century, and six that it was 
continued up to the end of the third century : others show that during the 
third and second century offerings were made to Apollon Ptoos by different 
Boiotian towns, that in the second century the Ptoian games were estab- 
lished, and that during the second and first century honorary decrees were 
placed in the temenos of the Ptoion. Under the early empire, there would 
appear to have been an interruption in the games and a decadence in the 
cult, but under Hadrian we find them again in operation. P. JAMOT, 
Archaic Terracottas from Tanagra (pis. xiu, xiv). One of these is a 


rude flat figure of an oriental goddess crowned with a high kalathos. The 
ornamentation of the flat stele-like body is in horizontal bands, which are 
an index of the structure as well as the decoration of the costume. Other 
variants of this type are here studied. The other figurine is that of a 
mounted horseman and is more advanced in its execution than other figures 
of the same class found at Tanagra. Figures of a similar kind have been 
found at Athens, Corinth, Tegea, Kypros, in Boiotia. They seem to repre- 
sent the military escort of departed souls. G. RADET, Inscriptions from 
the neighborhood of the Maiandros. One of these found near Nysa men- 
tions the right of asylum, which would seem to point to a temple in the 
neighborhood. Strabo (xiv. 1. 44) speaks of a Ploutonion, between Tralleis 
and Nysa on the hill Acharaka, consisting of a sacred wood, a temple of 
Plouton and Kore, and an adjoining cavern called the Charonion. A 
cavern and remains of the temple have been found at Salabakli, between 
Nysa and Tralleis, which seem to be the Ploutonion and Charonion men- 
tioned by Strabo. Sixteen inscriptions from this region are here pub- 
lished. N. I. GIANNOPOULOS, Inscriptions of the eparchy ofAlmyros: eight 
in number. G. FOUGERES, Excavations at Mantineia (1887-88). n. Topo- 
graphy within the enclosure (pis. xvn, xvm). A reply to Schliemann. 
Though not comparable to the excavations at Olympia, Delos, or Epidau- 
ros, the remains unearthed at Mantineia are of special interest and im- 
portance. The theatre situated in the centre of the town has several 
peculiarities. The wings are not symmetrical, probably because the site 
was partially occupied by temple structures. There were no seats of 
honor, as at Epidauros and Athens. The uppermost seats might be 
reached by a system of external stairways. These were of special use as 
exits. The orchestra seems to have been unpaved, and the stage was 
irregular in form. Adjoining the theatre are the foundations of two small 
structures, in the form of templa in antis, possibly the Heraion mentioned 
by Pausanias, and the temple of Zeus Soter mentioned by Thoukydides. A 
more ancient structure to the N. E. of the stage was possibly the Podareion, 
indicated by the inscriptions on two tile-fragments found in the immediate 
neighborhood. To the s. E. and E. of the theatre, we find the ruins of the 
Bouleuterion and of the Agora. The Bouleuterion is identified by the 
analogous structure at Olympia. The Agora is a rare if not the only 
example of the primitive Agora. Though constructed in Roman times, it 
is not surrounded by a continuous porch. An inscription found in the N. 
porch mentions the benefactions of Euphrosynos and his wife Epigone, 
consisting of temples, festival-halls, treasuries, a market-place with an 
exedra, a gallery, and a peristyle. Almost all of these may be identified. 
Besides the classic remains, mention is made of four Byzantine churches 
within the enclosure. In the reply to Schliemann, M. Fougeres defends 


himself against the attack made by Schliemann in the Berl. Zeitschr. f. 
Etlmol (Jan., 1890). W. K. PATON, Inscriptions from Rhodes. Two 
inscriptions are here published. One gives a new name of a sculptor, 
SIMOS of Olynthos ; the other, a long list of names of citizens who united 
in honoring one of their fellow-citizens who was victorious in the e Pco//,aia 
celebrated in honor of Rome (n cent. B. c.). S. K. PANTELIDES. The spring 
journey of Theokritos confirmed by inedited inscriptions. Several unpub- 
lished inscriptions from Kos, which establish local allusions to Kos in the 
Idylls of Theokritos. H. LECHAT, Observations on the Archaic Female Stat- 
ues in the Akropolis Museum. This is a very careful review of the details of 
costume, mode of covering the feet, dressing the hair, of the jewelry and 
other ornaments and of the technical construction of the statues. In respect 
to costume these statues may be classified by the presence or absence of the 
himation and of the eTu/^/m. The feet are usually uncovered, and are 
sculptured with great care ; when covered it is ordinarily with sandals, 
but one statue has boots with curved ends. The hair is usually arranged 
in the same way, with three or four long tresses falling in front and a mass 
of tresses behind ; that which appears between the stephane and the fore- 
head is treated with greater variety. The jewelry consists of the stephane, 
crowns of pearls or simple bands, earrings, necklace, and bracelet. The 
ju/j/vio-Kos, which stood upon the heads of many of the statues, appears to 
have been neither a parasol nor a lotos-flower, but a metallic crescent-shaped 
object to prevent the birds from resting on the heads of the statues. These 
statues were not constructed from single blocks of marble, but from several 
blocks cemented or clamped together. The eyes of some of the statues were 
not carved from the marble, but made of other material and inserted. 
P. FOUCAKT, Inscriptions from Karia. A publication of sixteen inscrip- 
tions from Karia. One records the name of an unknown Athenian sculptor 
PHILISTIDES. As the inscription was found near Halikarnassos it is 
possible that Philistides was one of a group of artists attracted there by 
Mausolos. E. POTTIER, Fragments of Terracotta Sarcophagi found at 
Klazomenai (pi. n). The principal fragment which is here reproduced 
represents a wild boar attacked by two lions. The animals are painted in 
black on a white ground. The sarcophagus might be assigned to the second 
half of the vn century ; P. places it near the close of the vi century (to be 
continued). V. BERARD, Archaic Statue from Tegea (pi. xi). Pausanias 
speaks of two temples on the road from Tegea to Argos, one of Demeter w 
KopvOeva-L, and one of Dionysos Mystes. These may be identified from their 
foundations which still exist at Hagiorgitika. At the largest of these, the 
temple of Demeter, was found an Archaic seated female statue. It seems 
to be a product of the ancient Argive school. H. LECHAT, Ancient bronze 
Bits. Two bronze bits are here figured. One of them was found in 1888 


on the Akropolis at Athens, the other, of uncertain provenance, is in pos- 
session of M. Carapanos. ALLAN MARQUAND. 

CAL SOCIETY IN ATHENS. 1890. Nog. 1, 2. K. D. MYLONAS, Votive 
Relief from Attika (pi. i, and supplementary pis.). The relief published 
represents two naiskoi, in each of which is a figure of Athena in a long 
garment, with helmet, spear, aegis, and shield. The two figures are almost 
identical, but the gorgoneion upon one shield is larger than that upon the 
other. Other examples of double representation of deities are compared, 
and the opinion is expressed that such reduplication is due to the wish to 
represent the deity under two aspects, while the identity in form of the two 
representations arises from the early confusion of the various qualities of the 
deity, and the fixity of the artistic type. W. KLEIN, On two vases of the 
JEpiktetic cycle found in Greece (pi. n; cut). A kylix by Pamphaios and 
a paropsis by one Hermokrates are published. The kylix, found in Boiotia, 
represents a youth crouching, with his hands in a large washbowl which 
rests upon his knees. Other vases of Pamphaios are mentioned. The cut 
represents the painting of the vase No. 22 (in Klein's Meistersignaturen) , 
showing a nude man leaping into or out of a great cask, with the aid of a 
ring by which he pulls himself up. The paropsis of the hitherto unknown 
artist Hermokrates, is fragmentary. It was found on the Akropolis. It 
represents a flute-player. These vases are red-figured. K. DAMIRALES, 
Relief of the Birth of Christ (pi. in). A marble relief from Naxos is pub- 
lished. In the centre is the child wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying 
in a manger between two trees. Behind the manger are an ox and an ass. 
Above this scene is the lower part of a relief representing a man followed 
by an ass ; probably the flight into Egypt was represented. The date 
assigned is " the first centuries after Christ." D. PHILIOS, Excavations 
near Megara (pis. iv, vi ; 3 cuts). The excavations described were under- 
taken as a result of Lolling's article ('E<. 'Apx-> 1887, p. 201 if.). See Paus. 
i. 44, 6-10. The route of Pausanias was the road of Hadrian (= the modern 
chaussee and raihvay), not the path called Toup/coSpoyaos. Remains of several 
buildings were uncovered, plans of which are given. One complex of build- 
ings is identified as the sanctuary of Zeus Aphesios, a small temple sur- 
rounded by larger buildings. Some utensils of metal, fragments of pottery 
and sculpture are published. H. G. LOLLING and D. PHILIOS, Megarica. 
Lolling combats some of the positions taken by Philios in his account of 
the excavations, and Philios replies. Lolling maintains that Pausanias 
follows the TovpKoSpofjios in his description and that his expression e?ri a/cpo, 
TOV 6'pous means " on a spur of the mountain," while Philios renders these 
words " on the top of the mountain," and regards the road of Hadrian as 


that followed by Pausanias. H. G. LOLLING, Inscriptions from the temple 
of Apollon Hyperteleates. Four inscriptions ; No. 1 (facsimile) is a rudely 
inscribed dedication 'AWAoi/t, of the fifth century B. c. No. 2 is a mere 
fragment ; Nos. 3 and 4 are fragmentary honorary decrees of the third 
century B. c. D. PHILIOS, Inscriptions from Eleusis (continued). Nos. 
48-57. No. 48 completes C. I. A., n, No. 314, the inscription in honor of 
the comic poet Philippides. The new fragment must have been carried at 
some time from Athens to Eleusis. The deme of Philippides was Kephale. 
No. 49 is a fragment of an honorary decree in the archonship of Thersilochos. 
No. 50 is the beginning of a decree of the second quarter of the third cen- 
tury B. c. The relief upon the stone may have represented Derneter and 
Kore. No. 51 is a fragmentary decree of Macedonian times, in honor of 
[Ia?]lemos for adorning the temple of Pluto, and for good conduct con- 
cerning the sacred things and the family of the Eumolpidai. No. 52 adds 
two new fragments to the decree in honor of the general Demainetos ('E<. 
'ApX-> 1887, p. 1). From these we learn that his father was Hermokles, 
not Hermodoros. No. 53 is a fragment of a decree honoring an Hylleian 
man. No. 54 is a fragment of a vote or decree of the soldiers of Eleusis, 
Panaktos, and Phyle in honor of a general. In date and character it is 
like the vote in honor of Demainetos. No. 55 is a fragmentary decree in 
honor of the epheboi of the tribe Hippothontis. The date is the archon- 
ship of Ktesikles, 334 / 3 B. c. No. 56 records the erection of a statue of 
Ekphantos son of Euphanes, a Thriasian, by the soldiers under his com- 
mand ; a list of the soldiers' names is appended. The date is late Macedonian 
or early Roman times. No. 57 is a fragmentary list of temple-treasures in 
letters of the time before Eukleides. D. PHILIOS, Archceological News. 

No. 3. ST. A. KOUMANOUDES, Inscriptions from Athens. Twelve in- 
scriptions, all fragmentary. Nos. 1, 8, 10 and 11 are lists of names, No. 
1 in letters of the time before Eukleides, the others of late date. The rest 
are honorary or dedicatory. D. PHILIOS, Inscriptions from Eleusis (con- 
tinued). Nos. 57a-60. No. 57a is a very small fragment of an account. 
No. 58 is a fragmentary account of expenses, in letters of the time before 
Eukleides. No. 59 is a fragmentary account of the size and number of 
stones brought to Eleusis for a Trpoo-rwov. The inscription resembles that 
published in 'E<. 'Ap^., 1883, p. 1, pi. I, and like that, is part of the account 
of the building of the stoa of Philon. No. 60 is a decree of the senate and 
people of Athens in honor of Pamphilos, son of Archon, ex-demarch of 
Eleusis, after which is a triple dedication by the people (of Athens), the 
people of Eleusis, and the senate (of Athens), followed in turn by a (frag- 
mentary) decree of the Eleusinians. The date is the archonship of Pelops, 
who is ascribed to the second century B. c. O. KERN, Gods of Healing on 
a Vase from Boiotia (pi. vii; 2 cuts). A red-figured krater in the Poly- 


techneion at Athens is published. On one side is a seated goddess to whom 
a girl is bringing a paropsis (salver) with fruits, cakes, and a lighted candle. 
On the wall hang garlands and models of human limbs. On the other side 
of the vase is a reclining bearded figure with a wreath about his head. In 
his left hand he holds an egg, in his right a cup from which a great serpent 
is about to drink. Similar representations are briefly discussed. The deities 
are Asklepios and Hygieia. The scene is familiar, belonging to the type 
represented by the Spartan reliefs and the " Nekrodeipna." ST. A. Kou- 
MANOUDES, Inscriptions from Athens. No. 1 opens with a Latin letter from 
Plotina to Hadrian asking that the succesion in the Epicurean sect be per- 
mitted to those who are not Roman citizens. Hadrian's reply, in Latin, 
grants this request. Plotina then publishes her success in Greek. Nos. 
28 are fragmentary, but are all parts of decrees, unless it be Nos. 3 and 4, 
which are too fragmentary to be determined. S. N. DRAGOUMES, Epi- 
graphical Suggestions. The suggestions refer to Bull, de eorr. hellen., xiv, 
p. 414 ; vi, p. 613 ; x, p. 178. I. N. SVORONOS, Archaic Greek Coins (pi. 
vni). i. Hebrytelmis, king of the Odrysai ; n. Aermenaos, king of the 
Macedonians. False coins; in. Kalchas and his son. Chronology of the 
earlier coins of the Kalchedonians ; iv. An uncertain coin of Krete (con- 
tribution to' the Cretan alphabet). Thirty-one coins are published and 
discussed. The coins of Aermenaos are declared to be false. D. PHILIOS, 
Additions and Corrections. HAROLD N. FOWLER. 

Vol. V. 1890. No. 3. F. WINTER, Silanion (pi. in ; 6 cuts). A head 
in the Villa Albani is shown, by comparison with coins and other works, 
to be (as was already seen by Visconti) a head of Sappho. It belongs to 
the Attic school of the fourth century B. c. Comparison with the busts of 
Plato shows that the Sappho belongs to the same time and school and per- 
haps to the same artist as the original of the busts of Plato. The only famous 
portraits of Plato and Sappho were by Silanion. The bust of Thoukydides 
(the one in Naples is declared to be the best copy) is also ascribed to Sila- 
nion on account of similarity of treatment with the Plato and Sappho. 
The heads of Sophokles in London, Paris, Rome, and Berlin are of two 
classes, one of which seems to be derived from a portrait of the fifth cen- 
tury B. c., while the other shows the furrowed brow and the treatment of 
the hair and mouth characteristic of Silaniou. Lysias in Naples, and the 
Aischylos of the Capitoline Museum (Friederichs-Wolters, 487), are derived 
from works of Silanion, but have passed through Hellenistic workshops. 
The original of the head of Homer (wrongly called Epimenides) in the 
Vatican, Museo Torlonia, and Capitoline Museum is also ascribed to Sila- 
nion. The strength of Silanion lies in reproduction of what is visible, and 


in the expression of real character. He is not an idealist. Silanion's treat- 
ment of the human form is illustrated by the Diomedes in Munich (Brunn, 
Besch. d. Glypt., No. 162). K. WERNICKE, Marble Head in Cambridge 
(2 cuts). A head in the Fitzwilliam Museum, hitherto called Her marches, 
is a portrait of Plato, probably after the original by Silanion. R. ENGEL- 
MANN, Tyro (3 cuts). The vessel (pail) in the Czartoryski collection in 
Paris was published by J. de Witte (Gazette arcMol., 1881-82, pi. 1, 2) 
and interpreted as the meeting of Poseidon and Amymone. The picture 
represents, however, two scenes. The first is the entrance of Herakles into 
Olympos ; the second is interpreted, with the aid of two Etruscan mirrors, 
as Tyro, her son Pelias, her father Salmoneus, and her future husband 
Kretheus. Sophokles wrote two tragedies called Tyro. One treated the 
fable (Hyginus, f. 60) of Tyro murdering her sons to save her father; the 
other (and better known) tragedy treated the story of Tyro as the beloved 
of Poseidon, suffering abuse from her stepmother Sidero. The fragments 
of this tragedy are discussed. It is to the fable as treated in this play 
that these drawings of the vase and the mirrors refer. F. GILLI, On the 
Ship-relief in Salerno (2 cuts). The vessel figured on the relief published 
by Assraann (Jahrb., 1889, p. 103) is a small freight vessel some 7 or 8 m. 
long by about 1.5 m. deep and 2 m. wide. The vessel had a hatchway 
reaching from side to side, which was covered so as to be strong and water- 
tight. The details of this arrangement are discussed. The place for the 
crew (3 men) was in the stern. The mast was in the stern, and could be 
let down, falling toward the bow. Various minor details are discussed. 
R. KEKULE, On the Representation of the Creation of Eve, a Study for the 
Parthenon Pediment (12 cuts). In the eastern pediment of the Parthenon 
was represented either the actual creation of Athena from the head of 
Zeus, as in vase paintings (Gerhard), or the moment after the creation 
(Welcker), or the moment before it (Brunn). In representing the creation 
of Eve Christian artists had to solve a problem similar to that attempted 
by the artist of the pediment. The earlier and smaller works represent 
the rib changing to a woman in the hand of God, or (and this is for a 
long time the regular type) Eve appearing from the side of Adam. This 
type corresponds to the type of Athena appearing from the head of Zeus. 
The later and more monumental works show Eve already created stand- 
ing beside Adam, but so that at least one foot is hidden by him as if to 
indicate that she was born out of him. Analogy would lead us to think 
that Athena in the Parthenon pediment must have stood in a similar way 
close to Zeus. A list of 74 representations of the creation of Eve is given. 
P. J. MEIER, On the Eubuleus bust of Praxiteles. This bust was intended 
to be placed upon a ' term (Herm) ' and the shoulders of the bust together 
with the upper part of the ' term ' were to be covered with real drapery. 


This would hide the comparatively careless treatment of the marble drapery. 
The head was intended to be seen not directly from in front, but in three- 
quarters front position. P. WOLTERS, On the Mosaic of Monnus (2 cuts) : 
published in the Antike Den km., i, 1889, pis. 47-49. The head of Ennius 
in the mosaic is to be identified with the heads usually called Scipio the 
Elder (Bernoulli, Rom. Ikonogr., I, p. 36 ff). The head of Esiodus is iden- 
tified with a series of heads formerly called Apollonios of Tyana, but called 
Homer by E. Q. Visconti (Iconogr. greca, I, p. 62). ARCHAOLOGISOHER 
ANZEIGER. Acquisitions of the Collections of Antiquities in Germany : i. 
Berlin, 1889. (15 cuts). Eight originals and seventeen casts of sculpture; 
ten separate vases besides a collection of 17 Greek vases with reliefs and 
inscriptions (Robert, Winckelmannsprog., 1890), several archaic vases from 
near Rome, and fragments of " Aretine" pottery (from the Dressel col- 
lection) ; 9 bronzes, besides a number of primitive bulls of bronze and 
lead ; a number of " Campana " reliefs, ornamented tiles, and terracotta 
statuettes (from the Dressel collection), a collection of Roman lamps, and 
six other terracottas, several ornaments of gold and engraved stones ; and 
a small number of unclassified objects; to which are added the duplicates 
received from the excavations at Olympia, and the objects from the graves 
of Paraskevi in Kypros. n. Munich. A bronze mirror from Hermione, 
and three ornamented strips of bronze from Rome. in. Dresden (19 cuts). 
Eight gold ornaments from Egypt, and a seal ring found in Saxony ; a 
number of terracotta statuettes (5 published); two Attic lekythoi; and a 
few miscellaneous objects from Egypt. iv. Stuttgart (K. Staatsarnmlung 
vaterlandischen Kunst- u. Altertumsdenkmaler) (3 cuts). A number of 
small objects found chiefly in Wiirtemburg. The most interesting is a 
small bronze representing a Nubian boy. V. Karlsruhe. No acquisitions. 
report is made up from A. S. Murray's report to Parliament (June 1890) 
and Cecil Smith's monthly reports in the Classical Review. REPORTS OF 
Winter on the 'E^^epts 'Apx<"oX. for 1889, especially the excavations at 
Vaphio near Amyklai (the two gold cups found there are published) ; 
Trendelenburg, on Pliny's description of the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos ; 
Gercke, on Corn. Nep. vita Attici 3, 2. JULY. Kekule, on the form and 
ornament of the earliest Greek and prae-Greek vases ; Treu, on a torso of 
Asklepios from Olympia (Ausgr. in, p. 176, 2), and on the eastern pediment 
of the temple of Zeus ; Pomtow, on an inscribed base from Delphi ; Winter, 
on the relations of Mykenaean monuments to Egyptian and Hittite art. 
TUTE. Puchstein adds a correction to his article on the Parthenon Sculp- 
tures (Jahrb., 1890, No. 2). BIBLIOGRAPHY. 


No. 4. C. ROBERT, The Mosaic of Portus Magnus (pis. iv-vi ; cut). 
This mosaic was discovered in 1862 and has been twice published (Bulletin 
trimestriel des Antiquites africaines= Revue de I' Afrique francaise, n, 1884, 
pi. 5, p. 117, and v, 1887, pi. 4, p. 395). It formed the decoration of a 
triclinium. Four mythological scenes are represented, framed in a border 
of various patterns with masks and Bacchic scenes. The chief scene is 
explained with the aid of Hyginus (fab. 140 and fab. 53). Poseidon is 
driving away the serpent Python, while a wind-god (Aquilo) is bearing 
Leto away upon his back. This takes place at the bottom of the sea in the 
presence of a nymph (Castalia), the genius of the harbor (Portus Magnus) 
and a sea-centaur. On the surface of the water are Nereids and sea-monsters. 
The other scenes are Apollon and Marsyas, Herakles in conflict with a 
centaur, and two youthful figures playing with a panther or lioness in the 
presence of several other persons. This last scene is explained as the Trais 
Kaftipov and Pratolaos, in the presence of their parents and three attendant 
women, before a statue of the Great Mother. In the previous scene, the 
Centaur is Cheiron, and his pupil, the boy Achilles, is coming to his assist- 
ance. The passages of Hyginus and other authors in support of these 
interpretations are discussed. A. E. J. HOLWERDA, Corinthian-Attic Vases 
(6 cuts). These vases, formerly called Etruscan Amphorae, are, in the early 
stages of their development, little more than close imitations of Corinthian 
work, but by the adoption of types and methods from lonic-nesiotic art 
pave the way for the development of the black-figured, and subsequently of 
the red-figured, style. Side by side with the monochromatic art of the 
Peloponnesos, there existed a polychromatic manner of painting, the legiti- 
mate descendant of the early art of Mykenai. The passages in Pliny 
relating to the early history of painting are discussed to prove the above 
statement. The Kardypa^a, or obliquae imaginis, of Pliny refer to figures 
so placed as to require a knowledge of perspective for their representation. 
The ornamentation and the scenic types of the paintings on vases of this 
class are discussed. The alternating palmette-lotos pattern is derived from 
metal work (in wire). Most of the types of scenes on these vases are derived 
from Peloponnesian art. Two lists of vases of earlier and later divisions of 
this class are given. F. KOEPP, The Restoration of the Temples after the 
Persian Wars. Plutarch (Pericl. 17) says that Pericles proposed a Pan- 
hellenic congress at Athens to consult for the restoration of the temples 
destroyed by the Persians. This proposal must have been made about 
460 B. c. The oath of the Greeks (Lycurg. in Leocr. 81 ; Diod. Sic. xi. 
29) not to restore the burnt temples is shown to be an invention of a time 
later than Isokrates (cf. Isocr. Paneg., 156). The ruined temples men- 
tioned by Pausanias were (at least in almost every case) destroyed by others 
than the Persians. The old temple of Athena on the Akropolis would 


% ' 

appear from this to have been restored even if its continued existence were 
not proved by the inscriptions. ARCHAOLOGISCHER ANZEIGER. F. KOEPP, 
Edward Schaubert 1 s manuscript remains (cut). The museum of the Uni- 
versity of Breslau possesses a great quantity of manuscript matter left by 
E. Schaubert, who was in Athens in the years immediately after the war 
for Greek independence. Schaubert and Chr. Hansen made a chart of 
Athens and its surroundings, and a plan for the new city of Athens, which 
was, however, not adopted without considerable changes. Schaubert's 
manuscripts contain plans and drawings of antiquities in and about Athens, 
and in other parts of Greece, as well as some few in Italy. His plan of the 
excavations of the grave of Koroibos on the borders of Elis and Arcadia 
(Dec. 1845, and Jan. 1846) is here published. While the value of some of his 
papers has been destroyed by subsequent publications of the objects depicted 
or described, not a few are unique and all are interesting. ACQUISI- 

West-German collections (April 18891890). Reports from Strassburg, 
Metz, Mannheim, Frankfort, Hamburg, Wiesbaden, Worms, Mainz, Trier, 
Bonn, Cologne, and Xanten announce few acquisitions, chiefly inscriptions 
and lesser objects found in the neighborhood of the respective cities. Exca- 
vations of Roman remains have been conducted near Trier and Bonn. vn. 
Mannheim, Grossherzogl. Hofantiquarium (8 cuts). This collection con- 
tained in 1880 14 Etruscan ash-chests, over 200 Greek, Etruscan and 
Roman small bronzes, a few Greek and Roman marble sculptures and 
lamps, about 1000 numbers of local (vaterlandische) antiquities and over 
300 mediseval and ethnographic objects. Since 1880 the following objects 
have been acquired : The contents of two graves (a tomba a fossa and a 
tomba a cassone) at Vulci, one (tomba a ziro) at Podere Dolciano near Chiusi, 
one (tomba a camera) at Petriguano near Castiglione del Lago, and one at 
Orvieto. These consist of vases, terracottas, ornaments, utensils, etc., further, 
2 Corinthian vases, 7 black-figured and 7 red-figured Attic vases, 11 Lower- 
Italian (Lucanian) vases, 2 Bucchero vases, and a number of small vases 
from Rhodes and Tarentum ; 7 terracottas including two ash-chests, besides 
about 300 pieces from those found at Tarentum (Bullettino, 1881, p. 196) : 
6 bronzes, a gold earring and a piece of gold filigree work : a block with 
a ram's head, a Mithras-relief, and a number of casts, vin. Private collec- 
tions. Antiquities in Leipsie (20 cuts): 5 terracottas and one bronze, 
belonging to Commerzienrath Julius Meissner, and 13 bronzes and one mar- 
ble head belonging to Theodor Graf, are published and described. Ancient 
vases in the Suermondt-Museum at Aix-la- Chapelle : 29 vases are described, 
and numerous vases and other remains of local antiques are mentioned. 
CASTS FOR SALE. Casts of the fragments of the ^Eginetan sculptures in 
Munich are to be obtained from Prof. Dr. H. v. Brunn. Casts of Nos. 59, 


61, 62, 88, and 90 (Michaelis, Anc. Marb. in Great Britain') of the Lands- 
downe-house collection have been made by Brucciani. REPORTS OF MEET- 
Puchstein, on two fragments of ancient marble roof-tiles from Ephesos ; 
JBorrmann, on ancient roofs ; Curtius, on the inscription relating to the old 
temple of Athena ; Furtwdngler, on the excavations at Polis-tis-Chrysokou 
in Kypros, and on some marbles of the Petworth collection ; Conze, on some 
unexplained objects in the akroteria of two Greek gravestones. NEWS 
Remarks (by Conze) on a new restoration of the Praying Boy in the Berlin 
Museum (3 cuts). Addenda to Conze' s article on ancient braziers (2 cuts). 

Vol. VI. 1891. Xo.l.O.Biv,TheHistoryoftheHouse-Peristyle. The 
Tirynthian house derives its plan from Egypt. The Trojan house and the 
Tirynthian are identical, at least in origin. In Tiryns the court is not 
surrounded by a peristyle, but the doors and gates opening into it have 
vestibules which taken together give nearly the effect of a peristyle. The 
houses of Sokrates and Kallias described by Plato are discussed. The 
/neyapov was the most important part of the Homeric house, but the court 
gained in importance, and, with its peristyle, became the distinguishing 
feature of the Hellenic and Grseco-Roman house. B. SAUER, The Eastern 
Pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (25 cuts). The figures and 
fragments of this pediment are subjected to minute examination. Treu 
(Jahrb. 1889, p. 266 ff.) and Six (Journ. of Hellen. Stud., 1889, p. 98 ff.) 
proved the existence of chariots, but neither of them placed the horses 
correctly. The outside horse should hide the next one only in part. In 
regard to the arrangement of the other figures some new results are obtained. 
Treu marked the figures by letters A- P, arrranged in alphabetical order from 
left to right. Retaining the same letters for the figures, the order now pro- 
posed isAELDBGFHKICMNOP. An altar stands between H 
(Zeus) and K, and a vase between H and F. These results are secured 
chiefly by technical considerations. Other monuments are compared, and 
the mythological interpretation of the scene is discussed. By the new 
arrangement symmetry in the masses and measure of the figures is obtained 
while symmetry in posture is disregarded. B. GRAEF, Fragments of a vase 
from the AJcropolis (pi. i ; cut). Fragments of a vase of the style of Hieron 
are published and discussed. There seem to have been two scenes, a sacri- 
fice at an altar, and an assembly of deities. Of the deities Hermes, Poseidon, 
Hera, Amphitrite, and Zeus, with the infant Dionysos in his hand, are 
recognized. Similar representations are discussed and one (Luynes, Descr., 
pi. 28, Nouvelles Annales, pi. ix) is published. M. FRANKEL, Collections 
of Paintings and the Study of Paintings in Pergamon. An inscription from 


Delphi (Bull, de corr. hellen. v, p. 388 ff.) is published with new restora- 
tions. Three artists were sent by a Pergamene king, probably Attalos II, 
to copy paintings in Delphi. The Delphians made them -n-po^voi. Although 
the canon of ten orators is due to Caecilius, and there never was a canon 
of painters or sculptors, paintings of former times were studied at Pergamon 
under Attalos II. Antigonos of Karystos, as well as Polemon, may have 
made use of the collections of Attalos II. ARCHAOLOGISCHER ANZEIGER. 
The Collection of Casts in the Albertinum in Dresden (2 cuts). The old Zeug- 
haus near the Briihl Terrace, behind the Belvedere, has been transformed 
into a museum of sculpture. The building itself, and the arrangement of 
casts, are carefully described by the director, Dr. G. Treu. Acquisitions of 
German University Collections : Bonn (120 cuts). A marble Seilenos from 
Rome (Jordan, Marsyas auf dem Forum in Horn, pi. m, c.), fragments of 
Egyptian vases, 25 Greek vases of styles from the " Mycenean " to Hellenistic 
and Roman, one lamp with relief, 4 terracottas, 3 bronzes, described by G. 
Loesch eke. Antiques in Private Possession in Dresden (22 cuts) . The collec- 
tions Fiedler, Meyer, Nofsky, Schubart and Woermann, consisting chiefly, 
though not exclusively of vases and terracottas, are described by G. Treu. 
Herfurth collection in Leipsic (4 cuts) ; ten terracottas from Myrina, 
described by Th. Schreiber. Rogers Collection. Talfourd Ely describes 
20 vases formerly belonging to the Rogers collection, now the property of 
Miss Emily Sharpe ; also 6 vases in the possession of the Misses Field, Hamp- 
stead, 4 of which belonged to Samuel Rogers. REPORTS OF MEETINGS OF 
mann's birthday. Curtius, on the history and progress of archaeology, 
especially of the German Institute ; Conze, on the Praying Boy in the 
Berlin Museum ; Mommsen, on the investigation of the Roman-German 
Limes ; Furtwangler, on the artist Kresilas and the works to be ascribed 
to him. 1891. JANUARY (cut). After a business meeting, a number 
of books and other publications were exhibited and discussed by various 
members, and Curtius spoke of the late Dr. Schliemann. FEBRUARY (cut). 
The society voted to take part in ceremonies in honor of Schliemann ; various 
publications were exhibited and discussed ; Immerwahr spoke on traces of 
the Lapithai in the Peloponnesos ; Puchstein, on a wooden disk with reliefs 
in " Mycenean " style bought in Cairo in 1842 ; also on the sarcophagus 
of Mykerinos ; also on the early Greek house. NEWS OF THE INSTITUTE. 



lasos (pi. in ; 7 cuts). The writer spent some days in company with Franz 
Winter at lasos in the spring of 1887. The ruins of Asin Kalessi are on an 
island which is now united with the mainland by the action of the water. 


On the highest point is a mediaeval castle, at the entrance to the harbor a 
mediaeval tower. The island is surrounded by well preserved ancient walls 
about 2800m. in circuit counting the projections of the twelve square towers ; 
about 2400 m. in simple circuit. The walls rest upon the rock or the natural 
soil, and are built of well joined square blocks. The thickness of the walls is 
2.50 m., consisting of two facings the space between which is filled with scraps 
of stone and mortar. In parts of the wall the facings are built with mortar, 
and the filling forms a conglomerate ; elsewhere there is no mortar between 
the blocks of the facing-walls. The wall on the N. side is ruined and shows 
traces of frequent changes. These walls belong to Hellenistic or not much 
earlier times. On the heights of the mainland west of the island are older 
fortifications of massive stone ; 3500 m. of these walls now remain. There 
are 18 towers, 68 gallery posts, and 117 windows but only one great gate. 
The forces of an attacking enemy would be necessarily much divided. This 
larger and older city on the mainland was doubtless the lasos which paid 
a talent as tribute to Athens, while the smaller town on the island was the 
less important lasos of the fourth century B. c. and later times. Four frag- 
mentary inscriptions are published, all of Roman date. J. H. MORDTMANN, 
Epigraphy of Asia Minor. 1. Inscription from Poemanenum. The inscrip- 
tion in honor of Herostatos son of Dorkalion, published by A. Sorlin Dorigny 
(Rev. archeoL, 1877, xxxiv, p. 106, No. 3) is republished from a copy by 
A. D. Mordtmann and discussed. 2. E to-ropy^ and kindred matters. 
Eio-Topy^s occurs in GIG, iv, 9266, to-ropy^s GIG, in, 3857 m (=Kaibel, 
Grceca Epigr. ex Lap., No. 367). The ei or t is merely an accretion before 
err to suit the convenience of Asiatic pronunciation. Other examples of 
the same phenomenon are given. P. J. MEIER, Gladiator-reliefs in the 
Museum at Trieste (cut). This relief, after having been for some years 
in private hands at Rhodes, was presented to the museum by the Austro- 
Hungarian Lloyd. A retiarius is represented standing upon a raised plat- 
form. A secutor is trying to mount upon the platform. The left end of the 
relief (which measures 0.59 m. by 0.58 m.) is -broken off, and the edges and 
front are somewhat injured. The inscriptions read Mapio-Kos, ['Ayop]a/cpiTo?, 
and aTreXvOrj eto XovSov. The Latin word Indus seems here to be used in the 
sense ofmunus or better pugna, and occurs here for the first time in a Greek 
inscription. W. DOERPFELD, Metrologieal Notes, v. The Aiginetan- 
Attic system of measures. A comparison of the dimensions given in the 
inscription recording the condition of the Erechtheion in 408/ 7 B. c. with 
the actual dimensions of the stones shows that the common Attic foot was 
at that time about 0.33 m. long. Further comparison of the dimensions 
of the Erechtheion, Parthenon, Theatre, Propylaia, Stoa of Eumenes, and 
the old temple of Athena show that this foot had a maximum length of 
0.328 m. This foot was the one in common use in Attika. From this the 


talent (the weight of a cubic foot of water) is found to be 35.3 kilog. The 
Solonic foot is found to have been 0.296 m. long, and the Solonic talent 
weighed 25.9 kilogr., but this system of weights and measures was not in 
use for ordinary purposes until the second or first century B. c. The foot 
of 0.328 m. is the Aiginetan foot as is shown by comparison of measurements 
from Mantineia, Phigaleia, and Olympia. The Aiginetan (or Pheidonian) 
system was then as follows : Linear measure, foot=0.328 m. ; ell=0.492 m. ; 
Square measure, plet hron, 100 feet square=32.8 m. square=1076 square m. ; 
Measure of contents, metretes=& cube of 0.328 m.=35.3 litr. ; Weight, 
talent = weight of this cube of water =35.3 kilogr. vi. The Greek stadion. 
A discussion of ancient authorities and comparison with measurements 
obtained from recent excavations, especially at Olympia, lead to the fol- 
lowing result. There were six different stadia : 1. The Aiginetan- Attic 
or common Greek stadion of 500 ft. at 0.328 m. = 164 m.; 2. The Olympic 
stadion of 600 ft. at 0.320 m. = 192 m. ; 3. The Grseco-Roman stadion of 
600 ft. at 0.296 m. = 178 m. ; 8i of these make a Roman mile; 4. The Roman 
stadium of 625 ft. at 0.296 m.=185 m. ; 8 of these make a Roman mile ; 
5. The stadion of Philetairos, of 600 ft. at 0.333 m.=200 m. ; 7J of these 
make a Roman mile ; 6. The Ptolemaic stadion, of 600 ft. at 0.35 m. = 210 
m. ; 7 of these make a Roman mile. P. WOLTERS, A /Statue of a Warrior 
from Delos (2 cuts). The statue represents a nude warrior who has sunk 
upon his right knee while his left leg is stretched out nearly straight behind. 
The head and left shoulder and left arm are gone, as are both feet, and the 
right arm from above the elbow. Beside the right knee lies a helmet. The 
statue is discussed Bull de corr. hellen., 1884, p. 178, 1889, p. 113 (photo- 
graph), and further published in Brunn's Denkmdler Gr. undRom. Sculptur, 
No. 9. It is here shown that a base found at the same time as the statue 
with inscriptions pointing to the year 97 B. c. does not belong to it. The 
position of the figure shows that the warrior was in conflict with some one 
above him, probably a horseman. An inscription was found at Delos 
(Monuments Grecs, i, 8, p. 44 ; Lowy, Inschriften, p. 110) belonging to a 
work by Sosikrates, son of Nikeratos, in honor of a victory of Philetairos 
over the Gauls. This Philetairos was probably the younger brother of 
Eumenes II of Pergamon, and the victory in question is assigned to the 
year B. c. 171 (Homolle) or 183 (Thramer). The statue here discussed 
may well have belonged to this work. The differences between this figure 
and the Borghese Warrior are discussed. The treatment of the Borghese 
Warrior is much drier and harder, though both figures show the same mas- 
tery of anatomy in similar postures. R. HEBERDEY, Reliefs from Thessaly 
(pis. iv-vn ; 3 cuts). Nine reliefs are published, two of which have been pre- 
viously known from squeezes. Two of the nine are in Larissa ; one which 
has only an inscription ( Mitlh. A then., xi, p. 50, No. 15), two rosettes and 


a taenia painted red and white, is in Volo, the rest in Tyrnavo, a village 
about 3 hours from Larissa. All are sepulchral reliefs : one represents a 
spinner (only the head and the distaff are preserved) ; one a seated female 
figure with a dog ; one a youthful male head ; two a youth standing beside 
a horse (in both only the lower part is preserved) ; one a bearded man in a 
chiton ; one a man holding a bird in his hand, which a child standing before 
him is trying to reach, and one a woman holding a child in her lap while 
a man in a broad hat and chiton holds out a bird to the child. These reliefs 
all belong to one school of archaic sculpture, though not to the same stage 
of development. All the faces are strong in their lower parts ; the figures 
sta'nd with the whole sole of the foot on the ground ; the hair is smooth, and 
the treatment of the drapery is peculiar. There is but little plastic model- 
ling, and color is freely used, the chief weight being laid upon drawing, 
not upon modelling. These Thessalian works belong to a school of their 
own. The relief in Venice, Antike Denkmdler, i, pi. 33, 2, is cited as an 
example of a more developed work of their school. MISCELLANIES. H. 
SCHLIEMANN, Inscriptions from Ilion. Two inscriptions for statues of 
Tiberius. In one he is said to have the tribunician power (Si^apx^o) 
eoWa) for the twelfth time, in the other for the thirteenth time and the 
consulship for the fifth. Three other fragmentary inscriptions are of 
Hellenistic times, and a few letters on a fragment of black varnished 
pottery are assigned to the sixth century B. c. at latest. A. WILHELM, 
Psephism for the Comic Poet Amphis. The psephism ('A^vcuov, n, p. 
131 f.) of the year 332 / 1 B. c., published by Kumanudis, is supplemented 
by another fragment now in the Varvakeion. The psephism was passed in 
the cKK\7]o-ia cv AtovuVou, and Amphis is to be crowned with a wreath of 
ivy. These are two additional reasons for believing that this Amphis is 
the comic poet. A. THUMB, Inscription from Megaris. A fragmentary 
inscription (apparently dedicatory) of imperial times. P. WOLTERS, Old- 
Attic gravestone. Two fragmentary inscriptions in early Attic charac- 
ters, on the opposite sides of a block of Pentelic marble found in Athens, 
are read : (a), ^rrjXr) [ei/xt $]avo[/xa^ov 'A]prTo[/xa^ou] ; (5), [^T^A]?; elfju 
[. . . . <W]VTOS ['Apio-rjo/xaxou. The inscriptions were probably read verti- 

No, 3. E. SZANTO, Contributions to the History of the Greek Alphabet. 
The sign X or + =x occurs in the Eastern group of alphabets, while 
Y = i/r. In the Western group X - and Y = x- The earliest alphabet 
possesses neither of these signs : KH = x KM=, P H = <, and P M = i/r. 
Then, upon the introduction of new characters, X H = ^, X^ > ^ ^ =: <, and 
4>$ = \lr. Here are four double signs for sounds that were conceived as single. 
The next step was to make the signs single or simple. In the East the H 
of XH and <t>H was dropped, giving X = x and $ = <. Then for <J>^ the 


new sign Y was made from $, and for X^ samech was introduced. In the 
West the ^ of X^ was dropped, giving X = , while the H of <t> H was dropped 
in the East, giving 4> = <. Then, when a single letter for the sound x was 
wanted, the sign Y was borrowed. E. BETHE, Aktaion (pi. vm). A black- 
figured Boiotian pyxis in Athens is published. The painting is careless, 
though white and red colors are used. The central scene is the washing 
of the body of a dead man by two women, while a third and fourth hold 
a taenia and an alabastrum. At the left are seen three dogs upon a 
hill, beyond which is Artemis going away and looking back. From the 
right come two old men. The presence of Artemis and the dogs indicates 
that the dead man is Aktaion, though he shows no trace of metamorphosis. 
E. BETHE, On Alabastra with Representations of Negroes (cut). A 
plate from Tarentum is published. The ground is white with a dark border. 
On the white ground is represented a negro walking toward the left, though 
his body is drawn as if from the front. He wears trousers striped and 
spotted, and a sleeved tunic with a belt and broad stripes across the breast 
and down the sleeves. At each side of this figure stands /caXos in Attic 
letters. The plate belongs to the fifth century B. c. and is in every way 
similar to the alabastra discussed by Winnefeld (Mitth. Ath., xiv, p. 41 ff). 
The representations of negroes on alabastra cannot, then, have served as 
trade marks for Egyptian oil, but they show the interest of the Athenians 
of the fifth century in the inhabitants of Egypt. P. WOLTERS, Melian 
Cultus-statues (2 cuts). Two late and rude reliefs cut upon drums of 
columns and found in Melos in 1861. The first represents the Tyche of 
Melos standing under an arch supported by two Ionic columns. She 
wears a long chiton and cloak, has a low polos on her head, and carries a 
child (Ploutos) upon her left arm, while her right elbow rests upon a low 
column. In the arch is the inscription 'Aya0r/ Tir^ MiyAou e?Ae<os 'AAeavSpa> 
KTccrrr) eiepwv /jwarfiv. The second relief, already published by Jahn (de 
antiquissimis Minervae simulacris Atticis, pi. 3, 7), and in Roscher's Lexicon 
der MythoL, i, p. 690, is here given more accurately. Athena is repre- 
sented holding shield and spear and wearing a helmet. A large serpent 
is by her feet at the right, an owl at the left. Serpents project from her 
skirt. The inscription reads etcreco 'AAecu/Spov on the base of the figure, 
and the puzzling word ao-e<o occurs also on the front of Athena's robe. The 
two reliefs were evidently intended to match, and represent the two chief 
deities of the island. Since Melos was a colony of Sparta, this Athena 
relief, as well as Melian coins, can be used for a reconstruction of the Athena 
Chalkioikos at Sparta by Gitiadas. W. JUDEICH, Inscriptions from Caria. 
Thirty-three inscriptions from Bargylia, Halikarnassos, Herakleia on the 
Latmos, Laodikeia on the Lykos, Mylasa and Nysa, copied by W. Judeich, 
F. Winter, and E. Fabricius. They are chiefly sepulchral or dedicatory 


and of late date. No. 7 is a new publication of GIG 11. 3800 ( Annali, 
1852, p. 138 f. ; Hicks, Manual, No. 193, and elsewhere). No. 16 is a frag- 
ment of a treaty between Mylasa and Knosos in Crete, and belongs with 
the fragments" LeBas-Wadd., Asie Mineure, 380-384, Bull, de corr. hellen., 
xii, 8 ff., Baunack, Studien, i, 1, p. 7. No. 18 is a record of a survey of 
some land. No. 20 contains a decree of the phyle of c Yap^o-vrai at My- 
lasa requiring that everyone who is honored by the phyle make an offer- 
ing to the god of the phyle, Zeus, of one silver cup if he be himself a 
member of the phyle, of three if he be not. The officers of the phyle are 
ra/Aiat, OIKOVO/XOI, SiKcurrai, vo/Ao<vAa, and ap^wv. This inscription appears 
to belong to the first century B. c. No. 21 is a record of lease or purchase 
of temple lands. A. WILHELM, Inscriptions from Thessaly. Forty-seven 
inscriptions, nearly all from Volo. The first seven are honorary decrees, 
No. 4 of Demetrias, the rest of the league of the Magnetes. Nos. 8-16 are 
dedicatory inscriptions. Nos. 1720 are records of emancipation. Nos. 
21-45 are sepulchral, No. 46 is dedicatory, No. 47 a list of names in Tyr- 
navo. B. STAES, The Tomb in Vourva (pis. IX-XIH ; 4 cuts). This tomb 
or mound held seven graves. Some of these existed before the erection of 
the mound, while some were afterwards dug in the mound. Beside one of 
the* earliest tombs a trench lined with brick was found, and iii it a shallow 
dish and an oinochoe. A similar trench was found on the outside of the 
mound, also containing fragments of vases. These trenches were for the 
reception of sacrificial offerings. Seven vases are published. All belong 
to early Attic art, between the " Dipylon vases " and the black-figured 
vases. The influence of the Corinthian style is very marked. The adorn- 
ment consists of animals (birds, lions, boars, deer, sphinxes, and sirens), lotos 
pattern, rosettes, and rays. The front of one vase has a representation 
of a man and woman reclining on a couch, attended by slaves, two bearing 
cups and one with a double flute. On a chair at one side sits a female 
figure, and before her on a stool a small boy. Under the chair is an 
animal. The back of this vase has four forms in rapid motion, but these 
are much defaced. This vase brings us into the class of black-figured vases. 
It was found in the trench on the outside of the tomb. The earlier vases 
found within the tomb belong apparently to the seventh century B. c., so 
that the erection of the tomb took place at some time between the seventh 
century and the time of Solon. A. E. KONTOLEON, Epigraphica. Seven 
numbers. No. 1 from Magnesia on the Maiandros. The Magnesians sent 
to ask the god for advice because a plane-tree had been blown down and 
had fallen in the precinct of Dionysos. The oracle (in hexameters) com- 
manded them to bring three Mainades from Thebes : Kosmo, Baubo, and 
Thettale were brought and instituted three thiasoi. They afterwards died 
and were buried by the Maguesians. A second inscription on the base of 


the slab containing the oracle informs us that Apolloneios Mokalles wrote 
and dedicated (to Dionysos) the inscription. No. 2, from Philadelphia, 
is dedicatory. No. 3, from Kedreai, gives three inscriptions, an honorary 
decree of the Kedreatai (Bull de corr. hellen., x, p. 426, with an addi- 
tion) and two sepulchral inscriptions. No. 4 from KtA,/?xvov ircStbv reads 
KoXorjvw. No. 5, from Omourlo beyond Aidin, reads 

No. 6, from Mt. Sipylus, reads opos 2iKa//,u/oO. No. 7, from Tralleis, con- 
tains letters of an alphabet not Greek. MISCELLANIES. W. JUDEICH, Two 
Early Ionic grave-stelai. No. 1 is a facsimile of the inscription of Hekataie, 

wife of Aristokles, published Movo-etov /cat (3L/3XioOyK-r) T^S evayyeXi/c^s (rxoXys, 

m, 1880, p. 148, and Rohl, I. G. Ant., No. 494. No. 2 is a facsimile of 
the inscription of Tychie, wife of Kleon, published Arch. Anz., 1889, p. 

No. 4. P. WOLTERS, B. GRAEF, and E. SZANTO, The Sanctuary 
of the Kabeiroi near Thebes (pp. 355-419 ; pis. i-xiv ; 9 cuts, con- 
tinued from vol. xin, p. 427). iv. The Terracottas (Wolters). Thou- 
sands of terracottas were found without special local characteristics, and 
mostly of early, not fine work, only a few being of the Tanagraean 
sort. The most numerous are figures of animals, chiefly of the fifth cen- 
tury B. c. Only a few are formed entirely by hand, the vast majority 
being pressed in a mould. Bulls are the most numerous (about 600 of 
the smallest sort) ; next came sheep (about 250) ; then swine (over 200) ; 
then goats, lions, dogs, birds and hares, a fox and a fish. Some of these 
figures belonged to groups. Monster horsemen also occur. About 50 
specimens of the well-known type of a man reclining at a banquet were 
found. Sometimes the man is bearded, sometimes youthful. About 70 
Seilenoi, some 25 Pans with goat's legs, about 20 ithyphallic bearded Her- 
mai, and many figures of standing youths are mentioned, besides one 
Herakles, one Hermes Kriophoros, a variety of athlete and similar figures, 
some representations of children, a few heads and masks, parts of about 
30 women, a few caricatures, several jointed dolls, and a few fruits. Nearly 
all these are of careless workmanship and adorned with color, v. Objects 
of Bronze and Lead (Graef ). A bronze statuette (0.19 m. high) of a diskos- 
thrower, of careful workmanship in the Aiginetan style, heads the list. The 
rest are chiefly animals (201 of bronze, 331 of lead). By far the greatest 
number are bulls. There are three bronze goats, seven lead goats and 
eight lead rams. These are of coarse workmanship, most of them cast in 
a mould, though some (especially of lead) are made by hammering the 
solid metal. Though all are coarsely made, development is distinctly 
traceable. Three bronze bulls bear the inscription Aatroi/Sas <W0e/ce (one 
adds TOI Kafiipoi). One hollow recumbent goat, the base of which is lost, 


shows traces of gilding. These objects have no characteristics from which 
their date can be determined. To these figures a number of utensils must 
be added, vi. Various objects (Wolters). Iron objects are knife-blades, 
nails, fragments of plates, etc., a hook for a shepherd's staff, and a small 
double axe. The fragments of marble sculpture are unimportant ; the 
only large piece is a headless Roman draped figure. A number of stone 
whorls and astragaloi (one of amber) are mentioned. Bone objects are 
astragaloi, knuckle bones, and stili for writing. Glass beads of various 
colors and small glass heads, etc., are described, vn. Inscriptions (Szanto). 
1. Inscriptions upon stone. These are 12 in number. No. 1, under the 
heading Kt^Sipiapx^, gives four names ; under that of napaytoyeTes, twelve 
names (published AeA/r. 'Ap^aicX, 1888, p. 16; Berliner philol. Wochen- 
schr., 1888, p. 579), and is assigned to the third century B. c. No. 2 
(about 200 B. c.) gives a list of anathemata for three years. The archon, 
Kabiriarchs, and clerk change every year, but the priests remain the same. 
One priest, the Theban 5a/xias 'I0-/mvi/cTao, occurs in the Orchomenian 
inscription (Larfeld, 15) and in the Plataian inscription (ibid., 273). No. 3 
records that in a certain year (part of the date is gone, but 5a//,ias 'lay^- 
viKtrov occurs as priest though with a new colleague) the Thebans dedi- 
cated the Sim/, though what that is remains unexplained. This inscription 
is not like Nos. 1 and 2 in Boiotian dialect. The remaining nine inscrip- 
tions are mere dedications, except Nos. 4 and 5 which are fragments of 
accounts. 2. Bronze inscriptions. Of these there are 23, all mere dedi- 
cations (usually 6 Setvos Ka/3ipo>). Most of these belong to the first half 
of the fifth century B. c., while a few are later. 3. Inscriptions on vases. 
Of these 110 facsimiles are given. The inscriptions are almost without 
exceptions simple dedications to the Kabeiros or the Ileus (26 to the latter). 
A very small number are in the Ionic alphabet, the rest in Boiotian char- 
acters. Theta occurs with a cross and with a dot in the middle. The lat- 
ter form cannot be considered earlier than the middle of the fifth century 
B. c. Two inscriptions read from right to left, and two are povorrpo^rjSov. 
In general, the date of these (mostly carelessly written) inscriptions is 
from the end of the sixth to the first quarter of the fourth century B. c. 
W. DORPFELD, The old Athena-temple on the AJcropolis. H. G. Lolling 
published (AeXrtov, 1890, p. 29, and 'A/VS, 1890, p. 627) an inscription 
of the sixth century B. c. found in fragments on the Akropolis. This in- 
scription, part of which is here republished, gives rules for the conduct of 
ra/uai, priests, etc., and mentions the eKoro/xTreSov, the TrpoveW, the i/eos, 
the oiKe/i,a ra/uetov and TO, ot/ce/xara. The e/caTo/rrreSov is evidently the old 
temple of Athena, and the apartments mentioned are parts of that tem- 
ple. After the Persian wars the old temple was restored and is called by 
the name of dp^atos vews and TraAatos vews, at least in some inscriptions. 


The writer maintains against Lolling that both the names e/ 
and eKo/ro/ATreSos vecos do not mean the old temple after the erection of the 
Parthenon, but that the Trpoi/ecos, the eKaro/^TreSo? veais and the TrapOevwv 
denote the parts of the Parthenon. The eKaro/xjreSos vews is the great 
cella of the Parthenon. The opisthodomos mentioned in inscriptions is 
the opisthodomos of the old temple, not (as Lolling maintains) that of the 
Parthenon, for the opisthodomos of the Parthenon was the irapOewav. Lol- 
ling thinks the old temple was removed in the fourth century B. c. or soon 
after. The writer, on the contrary, maintains that it remained standing 
and that Pausanias (i. 24, 3) mentions it as the temple of Athena Ergane, 
but that his description of it is lost. MISCELLANIES. W. R. PATON, JVbte 
on Vol. XV, p. 335. A more correct copy of an inscription from Ked- 
reai published by Kontoleon is given, and an inscription from the same ' 
place in honor of Vespasian is added, together with corrections of the 
inscriptions published by Diehl and Cousin, Bull, de Corr. hellen., x, p. 
424, No. 2, and p. 430, No. 7. LITERATURE. DISCOVERIES. 

Yol. XVI. 1891. No. 1. O. KERN, Eubuleus and Triptolemos (pis. i, 
II ; 4 cuts). Eubuleus is shown, by investigation of Orphic fragments and 
other literary remains, to be an epithet of Zeus. A youthful Eubuleus is 
therefore impossible. The so-called Eubuleus head found at Eleusis repre- 
sents Triptolemos, as comparison with other works of art shows. The head 
may belong to the time of Praxiteles, but can hardly be by him, and is proba- 
bly not an original. Fragments of two similar heads have been found at 
Eleusis, one of which is published. E. SZANTO, The system of Courts of the 
Athenian Allies. A discussion of the avppoXa of the Athenian allies, with 
restorations of the Amorgos inscription, Bull, de Corr. hellen., xn, p. 230, and 
the Naxos inscription, 'AO-qvatov, vn, p. 95. All suits involving 100 drach- 
mas or more were to be tried in Athenian courts, and others might be. The 
second Athenian empire was built up in great part by means of these 
courts. P. WOLTERS, Marble Head from Amorgos (25 cuts). A rude 
stone head from Amorgos, with traces of color, is published. Some of 
the color represents tattooing or face -painting. Other primitive objects 
from graves at Amorgos are compared with similar ones found near Sparta, 
in Kythera, Euboia, and Attika. This early crude art was, then, not 
confined to the Cyclades. B. SAUER, Investigations concerning the Pedi- 
ment Groups of the Parthenon (pi. in ; 5 cuts). The present condition of 
the pediments is described, and the position of the figures is determined 
by the marks of their bases, the holes for clamps and supports, the marks 
of weathering and similar indications. In the western pediment Athena 
and Poseidon occupied the centre, with the olive tree of modest size 
between them. At each side was a two-horse chariot. Under the horses 


of Athena's chariot was probably a serpent. The figure S (Michaelis) 
was masculine, and therefore not Aphrodite. The Venice fragment 
(Waldstein, Arch. Ztg., 1880, pi. vii; Essays on the Art of Pheidias, pi. v) 
cannot belong to either pediment. In the eastern pediment the central 
group consisted of Zeus seated in profile, Athena standing, Hephaistos, and 
a fourth figure. At each side were seated deities. The chariot of Selene 
had four horses. The symmetry, and at the same time the variety, of the 
arrangement of the figures is remarked upon. F. HILLER VON GAER- 
TRINGEN and TH. MOMMSEN, The Monument of Chair emon of Nysa. An 
inscription from Nysa, now in Aktsche, a village on the railway from 
Smyrna to Aidin is published. The first part of the inscription is muti- 
lated, but the name of Taios Kao-ios can be made out. Then follow two 
letters from King Mithradates to his satrap Leonippos, setting a price upon 
the heads of Chairemon, son of Pythodoros, of Nysa, and his sons Pytho- 
doros and Pythion, because of aid and comfort furnished by them to the 
Romans. This must have been in the beginning of the war of 88 B. c. 
Other members of the family of Chairemon were well known in later 
times. S. SELIVANOV, Inedited Rhodian Inscriptions (cut ; 4 facsimiles). 
Six inscriptions. No. f , in archaic Ionic letters, ascribed to the early 
fifth century B. c., is a sepulchral inscription, containing the new names 
3atoAas and 'A7roAAco//,i8as. No. 2, a sepulchral inscription, in letters of the 
western class ascribed to the sixth century B. c., contains the new names 
EvOvriBa, "Y<ayos, and 'Y^uAtSas. No. 3, in archaic Ionic letters, is as- 
cribed to the seventh century B. c. The words 'iSa/m/ev's and cv have 
initial digamma, in form like a zeta (I). The inscription consists of two 
hexameters in a mixture of Doric and Ionic dialect. Remarks on the 
alphabets of Rhodes are added. Nos. 4-6 are later fragmentary inscrip- 
tions ; No. 4 contains the signature of an artist Epicharmos, No. 5 that 
of Pythokritos. In No. 6 the word OvyaTpowoLa is commented upon. F. 
DQMMLER, Inscription from Itanos (facsimile). The inscription Museo 
italiano di antichita classica, n, p. 671 f., is discussed and restored. It is a 
prayer to Zeus and Athena for the welfare of Itanos. A. WILHELM, In- 
scriptions from Lesbos. Five late inscriptions. Two are honorary, one ded- 
icatory, one on a boundary stone, and one a mere fragment. A. E. KONTO- 
LEON, Aphrodite Stratonikis. Two inscriptions found near Smyrna. They 
were intended to mark the re^evos of Aphrodite Stratonikis. By their 
aid C. I. G. 3156 (here republished) is properly restored. LITERATURE, in- 
cluding the publication of an inscription from near Kula in Asia Minor 
(*ApA0eia, 1890, No. 4622 [Smyrna 5/24, July, 1890]). DISCOVERIES. 
A general account of discoveries (W. D[6rpfeld]) is followed by the pub- 
lication of a fragmentary dedication to Poseidon from Laconia, three in- 


scriptions from Kyzikos, one of which is a decree in honor of Queen 
Antonia Tryphaina of Pontos, two inscriptions from Laodikeia ad Lycum, 
four from Apameia in Phrygia, one from Omarbeili, between Magnesia 
and Tralleis, and one from Kalarnaki, near Patara in Lykia. These are 
all of Roman times and written in Greek. They are chiefly honorary 

on some seals and rings of the Merovingian period (contin.). Eight rings 
are described, one engraved with a fantastic animal, two with reptiles, two 
with crosses, one with indefinite signs and two with points enclosed in cir- 
cles. M. DE VOGUE and A. L. DELATTRE, The Carthaginian Nekropolis 
of Byrsa (pi. i). See News, AJA, v, 481. CARTON, The Pagan Ne- 
kropoleis of Bulla Regia (pi. ir). The excavations begun in 1888 were 
continued in 1889. Two necropoleis were investigated : one, the larger, 
west of the city, the other, a smaller one, to the east. The sepulchral 
monuments consisted of (1) blocks of stone in the form of a quadrilateral 
prism surmounted by a hemicylinder, (2) stelai, (3) cippi. The orna- 
mental emblems show certain peculiarities not found in other parts of 
Africa. The sarcophagi either were constructed of tiles, or consisted of 
large amphorae. Some of the mausolea were columbaria with niches, others 
contained true sarcophagi. No Christian emblems, but a large number of 
pagan funerary objects, were discovered. A. CASTAN, Two Roman Epi- 
taphs of women, which belonged in the sepulchral avenue of Vesontio. One, 
dating from the time of the Antonines, celebrates the conjugal fidelity of 
Virginia, and is found on a sarcophagus erected by her husband and son ; 
the other is on a sarcophagus to Caesonia Donata, erected by her husband. 
J. CHAMONARD and L. COUVE, Catalogue of painted vases in the Bellon 
collection (conclusion). Three vases of the type of Lokroi, five lekythoi 
with white ground, six red-figured fifth-century vases, four small fourth- 
century Attic vases, five vases of the decadence, twelve vases of the type 
of Southern Italy, five vases with figured reliefs, and nine others, are here 
described. C. LORET, Researches on the Hydraulic Organ. The studies 
of M. A. Terquern on Vitruvius (La science romaine a I'epoque d'Auguste, 
Paris, 1885) corroborate the views of Loret published in the Gazette 
Musicale in 1878. The descriptions of the hydraulic organ given by Heron 
of Alexandria and by Vitruvius are here carefully compared, and various 
documents are presented showing that it continued to be used as late as 
the xn century. F. DE MELY, The relics of the milk of the Virgin and 
Galactite. G. BAPST, The tomb of Saint Piat. Saint Eloi erected a tomb 
to St. Piat in the church at Seclin. In the Norman invasion of 881, the 
body of St. Piat was transported to Chartres. Here its history may be traced 


until transported to Paris in 1793. MISCELLANIES. Monthly Bulletin of 
the Academy of Inscriptions. Archaeological News and Correspondence. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. R. CAGNAT, Review of Epigraphic Publications relating 
to Roman Antiquity. 

March- April. L. HEUZEY, An Asiatic tribe on the war-path (pis. iv, v). 
See News, AJA, vi, 324. ED. FLOUEST, The Gallic god with the Mallet 
(pis. vi, vn). On an altar-pier figured on four faces (discovered at Mainz) 
are represented four divine couples. One seems to be Mars and Victoria, 
another Mercury and Rosmerta, and a third Diana accompanied by the 
god with a mallet. The latter seems to have been, amongst the Gauls, a 
divinity of the highest rank, the Dis Pater. Diana here preserves the 
Asiatic character of Magna Mater. ST. GAIDOZ, The Gallic god with the 
Mallet. The altars of Stuttgart. The publication of the Mainz altar by 
M. Flouest has led M. Gaidoz to publish other similar monuments, two of 
which are in the Museum of Stuttgart. Gaidoz interprets the god with 
the mallet as Vulcan, Taranis, Thor or Donar : other similar monuments 
are found in the museums of Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Alsace and Treves. 
M. DELOCHE, Studies on some Seals and Rings of the Merovingian period 
(contin.). Rings of Janus, Theganus, Runa, two rings with the chrism, 
one with the barred S and one marked with the letters T and D, are here 
described. C. HENRY, Application of new instruments of precision to arch- 
ceology, especially to the morphology of three types of amphorae in antiquity. 
A description of the author's Cercle chromatique, an instrument to assist in 
the analysis and measurement of color sensations and of his Rapporteur 
esthetique, an instrument to do the same for the sensations of form. An 
application of the latter to amphorae from Knidos, Rhodes and Thasos is 
here given. V. WAILLE, Note on a Christian JBasrelief found at Cherchell. 
This relief is a rather rude example of fifth century A. D. work, represent- 
ing the Adoration of the Magi, and the Children in the Fiery Furnace. 
C. MAUSS, Note on an Ancient Chapel in Jerusalem. A careful study with 
plans indicating the history of the chapel of the Patriarchs, which adjoins 
the Hall of the Patriarchs and the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jeru- 
salem. L. MOREL, Tumulus of Diarville and Ambacourt. Here were 
found bronze tongues, bracelets, anklets, an iron sword of the Hallstatt 
type and fragments of pottery. F. DE VILLENOISY, An archaeological error 
in regard to ancient bronzes. The idea that ancient bronze was produced 
by a mixture of nine parts copper to one of tin is an error of modern times, 
found first in the articles of Morlot which appeared from 1859 to 1863. 
An analysis of more than 400 bronze objects from various parts of Europe 
exhibits considerable variation in composition, and especially the usual 
presence of lead. Copper in its pure state seems to have been unknown 
until comparatively recent times. S. REINACH, Chronique d' Orient. A 


comprehensive resume of Greek and Oriental news. MONTHLY BULLE- 
Epigraphic Publications relating to Roman Antiquity. 

May- June. M. DELOCHE, Studies on some seals and rings of the Mero- 
vingian period (contin.). Descriptions of rings of Nennius and Vadena, 
Eva, Elisa, Dana, and of rings inscribed with a helmet, forked cross, in- 
terlaced C's, serpent-heads, and unexplained monograms. L. HEUZEY, 
An Asiatic Tribe on the war-path (second article). See News, AJA, vi, 324. 
T. REINACH, A Portrait of Pompey (pi. vm). A front view of the bust 
of Pompey, owned by M. Jacobson, of Copenhagen, the profile and three- 
quarters view of which were published by Helbig in the Mittheilungen, 
Rom. Abth., i, pp. 37-41, pi. I. J. A. BLANCHET, A bronze representing 
a nation and conquered warriors (pi. ix). This is a vase-handle on which is 
represented a seated woman (possibly a Gaul) and captives who cannot be 
defined more accurately than as barbarians. J. DE BAYE, The Necropolis 
ofMouranka (Russia). See News, A. J. A., vi, 396-97. E. TOULONZE, A 
witness of antiquity at Lutetia. A Roman Rubbish-heap. See News, AJA, 
vi, 391-92. E. MUNTZ, Pope Urban V. Essay on the History of the Arts of 
Avignon in the XIV Century (contin.). From documents in the Archives of 
the Vatican an account is given of the constructions of Urban V at Mont- 
pellier, of the various expenditures in this connection, and of the relative 
share of the various artists employed. A specially valuable document is 
the Inventory of the Pontifical Treasures made in 1369, which M.Miintz 
will publish separately. They formed a magnificent collection of the rarest 
works of art: jewelry, embroidery, ivory-sculpture, armor, candelabra, 
reliquaries, cups, plates, pitchers, crosses, rings, mitres, and all the access- 
ories of ecclesiastical furniture. R. Mow AT, Inscriptions from the territory 
of the Lingones preserved at Dijon and at Langres. Of the inscriptions 
from monuments of a public character, one contains the name of Vespa- 
sian : IMP| CAESAI RVESP| ASIAN. Three are mile-stones and a fifth 
contains the name of the town Vertilius, which still survives in the modern 
form Vertault. Twenty-six are funerary inscriptions and one is from an 





Vol. VII. SEPTEMBER, 1891. No. 3. 





A preliminary and summary account of the results of the excava- 
tions at Eretria in Euboia, carried on during the spring of 1891 by 
the American School of Classical Studies at Athens under my direc- 
tion, was sent for publication to the Committee of the School, at the 
close of the excavations, embodied in my Report to the Committee 
for 1890-1891. The complete and authoritative account of our work 
at Eretria will contain several articles corresponding to the distri- 
bution of the work among the members of the expedition which I 
made at the beginning of excavation, and will probably be terminated 
in the course of the coming year. According to this organization, 
my colleague, Professor Richardson, of Dartmouth College, the Annual 
Director for the past year, undertook the department of epigraphy, 
together with a historical account of Eretria ; Mr. Fossum, late of Johns 
Hopkins University, remained at Eretria during the whole period of 
excavation, displaying most intelligent perseverance in his work, and 
had charge of the excavation of the skene of the theatre ; Mr. Brown- 
son, of Yale University, had charge of the cavea of the theatre ; Mr. 
Pickard of Dartmouth College, and Mr. Gilbert, of Brown Univer- 
sity, were in charge of the survey of all the walls of the ancient city 
with a view to produce a topographical map of the district ; Mr. Pick- 



ard also made a careful topographical study of the locality, and, as- 
sisted by Messrs. Brownson and Fossum, did most of the levelling 
of the theatre. I undertook the excavation of graves in the neighbor- 
hood of Eretria, including that which has been called the Tomb 
of Aristotle, in addition to the general supervision of the work. 

Besides the general advisability of delaying the publication of re- 
sults until all the material has been collected and sifted, another cogent 
reason lies in the fact that the work at the theatre is not yet completed, 
and must be continued in the coming season. Even as regards the 
skene, some digging will still have to be done in the region of the 
parodoi and the walls marked PZ and OZ on the PLAN (PLATE xi). 

However, the important bearings of the theatre we have excavated 
upon fundamental questions of the Greek stage, and thus upon the 
nature of the performance of ancient Greek plays, are such that our 
work has already been introduced by both contending parties into the 
controversy now in progress. Dr. Dorpfeld (in the Berliner Philo- 
logische Wochenschrifi), Messrs. E. A. Gardner and Loring, and Miss 
Sellers (in the Athenceum), have quoted the theatre of Eretria in sup- 
port of their respective views. In a letter to the A thenceum (in July last) 
I pointed to the prematureness of any introduction of the theatre of 
Eretria for evidence on either side, and asked that we should be allowed 
to make an accurate publication of the facts we had established, be- 
fore they were made the subject of inference and controversy. But, 
considering the exceptional importance of the skene of Eretria, to- 
gether with the impatience manifested by the scientific world for the 
publication of our work, I have deemed it right to issue at once the 
papers of Professor Richardson and those of Messrs. Fossum and 
Brownson, together with the plan of the theatre so far as excavated. 

In the publication of the ancient remains of the theatre it was my 
intention to avoid, as far as possible, for the present, the drawing of 
conclusions directly implying acceptance of the main views of either 
of the parties which now stand opposed in the hypothetical reconstruc- 
tion of the Greek stage, and to limit our publication to the simple and 
exact statement of the facts we had brought to light. This reticence 
I thought called for, because, though what may be called the " ortho- 
dox " view of the Greek stage has had adequate exposition, the new 
views of Dr. Dorpfeld have not yet been supported by a full and 
systematic account of the numerous data collected by that eminent 


archaeologist in support of his theories. Pending this publication it 
did not appear to me wise for archaeologists who had not access to all 
the material at the disposal of Dr. Dorpfeld either to accept his views 
unconditionally, or to oppose them. 

Now, in Mr. Fossum's account it will readily be perceived that he 
leans strongly toward the support of Dr. Dorpfeld's views. But, I 
must state that, in the attribution of the very imperfect and confus- 
ing traces of walls and architectural members as they appeared during 
the excavation, as well as in the reconstruction of the theatre, both 
Mr. Fossum and I came to our opinions independently of Dr. Dorp- 
feld's theories. Considering the eager perseverance, however, with 
which Mr. Fossum has worked, as well as the maturity of observation 
and inference which he has acquired by study, I have decided to allow 
his paper, on the whole, to remain as he has written it. The definitive 
publication will have to stand over until the excavation is completed, so 
far as we propose to carry it. Meanwhile, the plan, as here published, 
is quite official. It is also our view that the theatre, as it now appears, 
represents probably three, and certainly two, successive stages in the 
history of the ancient structure. 

Finally, I have much pleasure in adding that we already have, as 
an immediate consequence of the Eretrian excavations, another favor- 
able result of excavation carried on by our School in this year. 
At the instigation of my predecessor, Professor Merriam, the excava- 
tion of the theatre of Sikyon, undertaken by the School during his term 
of office, w T as resumed, with particular reference to the underground 
passage leading to the centre of the orchestra. Mr. Kabbadias, the 
Ephor-General of Antiquities in Greece, having, with his usual readi- 
ness, granted the required permission, Dr. M. L. Earle, formerly a 
student of our School, and now instructor in Barnard College, New 
York, went to Greece during the summer, and, in spite of the heat and 
difficulty of digging in the hot season, continued the excavations in 
the theatre of Sikyon, with the important results contained in the 
paper which is appended to this report. When, in addition to the 
work at Eretria, we consider Mr. Washington's successful digging at 
Plataia, and add this latest achievement of Mr. Earle, we have every 
reason to call the last a very fruitful year of School work. 


August 26, 1891. 



The recent excavations at Eretria justify an attempt to make a pic- 
ture as full as possible of the rise, the continuance, and the decay of that 
important city, with the help of scattered literary notices and of infer- 
ences from the somewhat impressive remains. 

We find Eretria 1 existing at the time of the composition of the Cata- 
logue of the Ships, the Domesday Book of Greece. It appears with- 
out epithet or description in Iliad, ii. 537. Perhaps not without some 
significance is it named second among the Euboean cities, Chalkis being 
mentioned first. When it emerges into the light or rather into the twi- 
light of history (Thouk. I. 15), it is engaged in disputing with Chalkis 
the right to the first place. The boldness with which it reached out and 
laid claim to the Lelantine Plain, which lay so much nearer to Chal- 
kis, argues a long period of prosperity in which it had developed opu- 
lence and power. But it is idle to hope for more than here and there a 
suggestion, throwing a little light on that period. One such sugges- 
tion is found in Herod., v. 57, where it is said that the ancestors of 
Harmodios and Aristogeiton claimed to have come from Eretria origi- 
nally, but that closer investigation led to the belief that they were Phoe- 
nicians, who, coming to Boiotia with Kadmos, settled at Tanagra. Any- 
one who sails up the Euripos on a clear day will be impressed with the 
nearness of the plain around Tanagra to the shore of Euboia. Con- 
sidering that waterways are bonds and not divisions, one may say that 
Tanagra and Eretria belong to the same great natural amphitheatre 
surrounded by mountains. 2 This close connection being realized, it 
seems probable in advance that any Phoenician immigration which 
reached Boiotia (and this is the only side of Boiotia open to Phoenician 
immigration) would have included also the Euboean shore. The passage 
in Herodotos comes in to give almost a certainty to a reasonable con- 
jecture. Both reports between which Herodotos felt bound to choose 
were very likely correct. We may put the Gephyrseans down as Phoe- 
nicians from the region of Eretria and Tanagra. 

1 In spite of its maritime associations, the name, in view of other inland Eretrias 
and the variant 'Aporpta (STRABO, p. 447 ), means probably not " oar-town," but " plow- 
town." TOZER, Geogr. of Greece, p. 250. 

* It is in fact one of the most striking signs of the humiliation of Boiotia that Athens 
reached across or around these mountain barriers and exercised a controlling influ- 
ence in the affairs of Chalkis and Eretria. 


If one seeks for corroborations of Phoenician occupation of Eretria, 
he finds among the several stories that Strabo has to tell of the origin 
of the city, one which is to the point. He says (p. 447) that the Ara- 
bians who came over with Kadmos ("Apafie? ol KaS/xo) a-vvLa(3dvres) 
stayed behind in Chalkis and Eretria. But perhaps it is an imperti- 
nence to hunt after scattered literary notices, when we have the facts of 
the presence of the murex along the Euripos (Arist., Hist. An., v. 15) 
and the copper-industry of Chalkis. Wherever there were purple and 
copper, there were Phoenicians. We can hardly think of the Phoeni- 
cians as occupying Chalkis without including Eretria also. Here were 
harbor, plain, and acropolis, as at Corinth and Nauplia. We may, 
then, think of Phoenicians awakening here, as they did everywhere 
along the coasts that they touched, the ruder Hellenes to a new life. 3 
Accordingly Chalkis and Eretria developed early. While Athens and 
Sparta are still slumbering, these cities are founding colonies from Chal- 
kidike to Cumse. In the eighth century B. c. they had their blooming 
period. Miletos and Samos did not develop until a century later, and 
when they came to the front the Eubcean cities were already on the 
decline. 4 

It is impossible to trace with certainty anything of the Phoenician 
settlement at Eretria. Perhaps it was on the peninsula forming the 
east side of the present harbor. This peninsula was once longer and 
wider than at present. It is still about 600 ft. long and about 300 ft. 
wide at its widest part. The action of wind and wave both up and 
down the Euripos seems destined to wear it away entirely. Even now 
it is an island at some hours of the day. It contains numerous remains 
of walls of the Macedonian or the Roman period. What at first appeared 
to be traces of very old walls much disintegrated proved to be an illusion. 

Strabo gives traditions of early settlements in Eretria from Attika 
and the Peloponnesos, which it is difficult to prove. The immigration 
from Elis, which is probably separate from that from Triphylia, he 
attempts to substantiate by appealing to the prevalence of the Elean 
rhotacism in Eretria. 5 Perhaps the mixture of many races, Abantes, 

3 DONDORFF, Die loner auf Eubcea, p. 29. 

4 HOLM, Lange Fehde, in Abhandlungen zu Ernst Curtius' 7Qtem Geburtstag. 

5 It is interesting that a Euboean inscription, published in the 'EQripfpls 'Apx"- 
\oyLK-f), for 1872, containing the text of a treaty between Eretria and Histiaia, shows 
several instances of rhotacism. e. g., 6ir6pai, [px] ou P / J irapa.&a(v<apiv . Others in ' 

-, 1887, p. 82, seq., and 1890, p. 195, seg. 


Phoenicians, lonians, and ^Eolians, gave to Eretria that alertness which 
marked it in a peculiar degree. 

In the long period of prosperity before the Lelantine War, which 
made Chalkis and Eretria famous, a sad emerging into history, the two 
cities went hand in hand. This Curtius^finds indicated by the name 
" Euboaic talent," supposing that had the cities been antagonistic the 
talent would have been named after one or the other of them. 6 Perhaps 
they made a mistake in founding colonies conjointly or near together, 
as in Chalkidike. 7 When the war broke out it is supposed to have 
been conducted with a bitterness 8 which seems to have been born years 
before. It is not unlikely that colonial troubles had as much to do 
with the break as the rich plain between the two cities. 9 The quarrel 
was fought out with the help of many allies on each side. 10 The Greek 
world was divided into two hostile camps, a division which showed 
itself for centuries. Eretria was vanquished without losing her inde- 
pendence or her honorable standing. The two neighbor cities never 
tried conclusions again, and lived amicably, except when the questions 
connected with Athenian or Macedonian rule in later times threw them 
temporarily into hostile camps. Eretria, however, appears to have had 
a good understanding with Athens in the very period when, shortly 
before the Persian Wars, Chalkis was conquered by Athens and made 
an Athenian possession. 

The date of the Lelantine War is shown by Curtius u to have been 
the middle of the eighth century B. c. Eretria had still nearly three 
centuries of history before its first destruction. It now abandoned 
that extensive scheme of colonization which, with its rivalries, must 
have been quite a drain upon its population, and now probably reached 
its maximum. To this time we may refer the stele in the temple of 
Artemis Amarysia, 12 the principal sanctuary of Eretria, standing about 

6 Hermes, x, p. 223. 7 Eretria took as its field Athos and Pallene ; STRABO, 447. 

8 The curious compact mentioned in the corrupt passage in STRABO, p. 448, not to 
use weapons thrown from a distance (^ xp^ ff ^ ai ri)\f06\ois}, may refer to the heat 
of the struggle in which both parties wished to kill at close quarters, or to a desire to 
rule out what seemed to them contrary to proper procedure on the part of scientific 
warriors. PLUTARCH, Thes., 5, and the passage there quoted from ARCHLLOCHOS 
would favor the latter view. 

9 E. CURTIUS, in Hermes, x, p. 219. 10 HoLM, Lange Fehde; Thouk., i. 15. 
11 Hermes, x, p. 220. 

18 This title, which survives in the name of the Attic village Marousi (LEAKE, Demi 
of Attica, p. 41), was one under which the goddess was worshipped in Attika with no 
less zeal than at Eretria. PAUS., i. 31. 4. 


a mile outside the walls, on which stele, according to Strabo, p. 448, 
was inscribed a record showing that the Eretrians used to make their 
great procession out to the temple with three thousand hoplites, six 
hundred cavalry and sixty chariots. To the same time also we may 
refer the Eretrian control over Andros, Tenos, Keos, and other is- 
lands. 13 Then probably the Eretrians set up at Olympia the big 
bronze bull, the companion piece to the one dedicated by their friends 
the Kerkyrseans. 14 

At the time of the famous wooing of Agariste, in the first half of the 
sixth century B. c., Eretria was, according to Herod., VI. 127, in its 
bloom (avOevcrr)s rovrov rov ^povov). That Eretria alone of all Greece 
shared with Athens the attempt to aid the lonians in their revolt against 
Darius (Herod., v. 99), speaks well for its prosperity and its spirit. Two 
things we must not forget in connection with this expedition : first, that 
it was on Eretria's part the payment of a debt to Miletos for services 
rendered in the Lelantine War; 15 secondly, that Eretria was in such 
intimate relations with Athens as to give some color to the story 
mentioned by Strabo, that Eretria was colonized from an Attic 

We are not likely to forget the consequences to Eretria of this as- 
sistance rendered to the lonians. In the year 490 B. c., when the oppor- 
tunity at last came for fulfilling his vow against the Athenians, Da- 
rius was not in such haste to take vengeance on these principal abet- 
tors of the revolted lonians, now subdued, that he could forget the 
Eretrians. On them first fell the blow. The story is told briefly and 
graphically by Herodotos (vi. 100). In her hour of need Eretria stood 
alone, with divided counsels and traitors in her walls besides. She 
did ask Athens for help, and, if we may believe Herodotos, Athens acted 
not ungenerously. It could hardly be expected that the main body 
of Athenian troops should go over to Euboia to meet the Persians. 
That would have been to give Athens to the Persians on the chance 
of saving Eretria. But Athens assigned to Eretria the four thousand 
Athenian kleruchs of Chalkis. These, however, did not stay. Before 
it came to an actual conflict they were off to Oropos, which is the last 

13 STRABO, p. 448. U PAUS., v. 27. 9. 

15 This Ionian revolt was Miletos' affair. It is noteworthy that the Samians, the 
enemies of Miletos and Eretria in the Lelantine War, ruined the Ionian cause by de- 
serting almost in a body to the Persians in the naval battle on which all was staked. 
HEROD., vi. 14. 


we hear of them. They do not appear to have done service either at 
Marathon or before Athens. 16 

Left alone, the Eretrians voted down the suggestion of retiring to 
the mountains, and, deciding not to risk an engagement in the open, 
retired within their walls and defended themselves for six days, incur- 
ring and inflicting great losses. On the seventh day, two traitors, 
Euphorbos and Philagros, betrayed the city to the Persians, who de- 
stroyed the temples and enslaved all the inhabitants, who, after wit- 
nessing the discomfiture of the Persians at Marathon from an island 
near by, were taken away on the Persian fleet and settled in the heart 
of the Persian dominion. 

Yet Eretria did not lose its corporate existence, for ten years later 
its seven ships appear in the lists of the Greeks who fought at Arte- 
mision and Salamis. 17 At Plataia also it furnished with Styra (which 
was probably an insignificant appendage, as it sent only two ships to 
the Greek fleet ; Herod., vn. 1) a contingent of six hundred men drawn 
up in line next to the four hundred Chalkidians. 18 Its name was carved 
on the tripod-standard of serpents, set up at Delphi, that roll of honor 
of the victorious Greeks. It is still "plain for all folks to see/ 7 on 
the fourth inscribed coil, reckoning from the bottom. Probably 
there were refugees enough to form a nucleus of a city immedi- 
ately after the withdrawal of the Persians from Marathon. 19 Hero- 
dotos does not say that anything was destroyed except its temples. Greek 
dwellings, for that matter, if destroyed, were soon replaced. Whatever 
walls then existed could not easily have been overthrown. A gate or 
two might have been broken down, but the Persians surely had no 
time and probably no tools to wreck such walls as those the remains 
of which are now to be seen on the acropolis of Eretria. They waited 
only oXiya? rj/jiepas, and then went on to Marathon. 

16 WECKL.EIN, Tradition der Perserkriege, p. 39, supposes that Herodotos has here, 
as usual, colored his narrative in the interest of the Athenians, in inserting the story 
of an Eretrian, Aischines, sending word to the Athenian allies that traitors were go- 
ing to give Eretria to the Persians, and that it was time to act on the principle sauve 
qui pent. The fear of "the men clad in the Persian garb" was probably still strong 
enough to induce these allies to get across to Oropos as soon as possible without being 
sent away. 

"HEROD., vm. 1 and 46. 18 HEROD., ix. 28, 31. 

19 Considering the great talk of taking refuge in the mountains and of the likelihood 
that the city was to be betrayed, it would be very strange if many at least of the non- 
combatants had not taken refuge individually according to the suggestion. 


The great question in regard to the topography of Eretria is whether 
or not the present acropolis walls are those of the pre-Persian city. I 
believe that they are pre-Persian, and the very walls to which the 
scattered Eretrians who were not carried off to Asia returned. But 
for a single passage in Strabo, no one would ever have supposed 
that a city like the pre-Persian Eretria could have been established 
anywhere along this coast except on this very hill. Settlers who left 
this out, and chose another spot near by, would have become more 
proverbial in Greece than the " blind men " who chose Chalkedon and 
left Byzantion to later arrivals. But Strabo (p. 403), in reckoning 
distances from the Boaotian side to the Euboean side of the gulf, makes 
a distinction between Old Eretria and New Eretria, which would seem 
to locate the pre-Persian city a little over a mile to the east of the later 
one. In spite of the doubt whether Strabo ever visited this region, and 
in spite of his colossal errors in regard to places which he has not vis- 
ited, 20 geographers have generally sought to identify some of the foun- 
dations of walls to the east of the acropolis with old Eretria. It is re- 
freshing to find recently a spirit of revolt against this slavery to a pass- 
age of Strabo. Lolling, in Iwan Miiller's Handbuch der klassischen 
AlfertumswitssenscJuift (ur, p. 192), says simply: Eine Stette weiter 
ostlich wurde als Alt- Eretria bezeichnet. The same author in the 
Mitthdlungen d. deutschen archdolog. Institutes in Athen, vol. x, p. 
353, says : Das Schweigen der Historiker und oiler anderen Schrifi- 
steller berechtigt uns zu der Annahme, das die Bezeiehnuny der Funda- 
mente unweit der Stadt als Alt-Eretria auf eine Linie zu stelien ist mit 
der jetzigen Bczeichnung Paldochora, fur eine Ortschaft der en Name 
verschollen ist. 21 Strabo being treated as a reporter of traditions, we 
may make Lol ling's words (1. c.) our own : An eine wirkliche Verle- 
gung der Stadt, und noch dazu an eine so nahe liegende andere Stelle, 
wird Niemand glaufren, denn so gewiss die Stadtgrundung Athens sich 
an die AJcropolis ansehloss, so deutlieh ist auch die vortretende Hdhe des 
eretrischen Olympos von Natur zur Akropolis einer grosseren Stadtgrun- 
dung des Nord-Attika gegenuber liegenden Kustenstrichs prddestinirt. 

But, besides the impression which one gets from sojourning in Ere- 
tria that here and here only must the city have found its acropolis, 

20 For the confusion between Kirrha and Krissa cf. STRABO, p. 416. 

21 In addition to the several cases of " Alt-Theben," which Lolling adduces, the 
striking case of Palaia Larissa might be adduced, the name under which Krannon was 
hidden until it was brought forth by Leake. 


the remaining walls make upon any one first and last an impression 
of great antiquity. If it is not absolutely certain that they are pre- 
Persian, it is certain that they cannot be much later than the Persian 
War. 22 But for a mere remnant of returning fugitives, who would lay 
out a new acropolis of such large proportions ? It is clear that the 
existing acropolis belonged originally to a large and prosperous city. 
Here is a homogeneous system of polygonal wall more than a mile in 
extent, with towers of polygonal masonry at irregular intervals, enclos- 
ing the whole area of the acropolis hill, which slopes to the south and the 
harbor, but falls off abruptly on its other sides. One may suppose 
New Eretria in these old walls to have regained gradually new life 
and strength, leaning perhaps on the arm of Athens. 23 In the time 
of Perikles, 446 B. c., it seems to have been recalcitrant with the rest of 
Euboia, and to have required the controlling influence of some Athe- 
nian kleruchs. 24 At last, in 411 B. c., it threw off the Athenian yoke in 
a rather treasonable manner. The Athenian fleet being beaten by the 
Spartans in a naval engagement off the harbor, a disaster brought 
about largely by the Eretriaus having refused to furnish supplies, 
many Athenians escaped to Eretria as to a friendly city, and were 
immediately put to death by the Eretrians. 25 

Something of the history of the period subsequent to the Persian 
War we may trace in the walls. The first use of returning prosper- 
ity would naturally be the repair and strengthening of these walls. 
At the northeast angle was always one principal entrance, the approach 
to which was flanked by a wall over 100 feet long, departing from the 
main wall at a very acute angle, and so forcing an enemy to approach 
the entrance between two nearly parallel walls. The entrance, at the 
junction of the two walls, was protected by one of the polygonal towers 
mentioned above. 26 This may have been the very entrance through 

22 These walls are not unlike the earlier walls of the acropolis of the Boeotian 
Orchomenos, or those of Kastriza, near Joannina, which was supposed by Leake to 
be ancient Dodona. 

23 It is a question what Xerxes' fleet would have done to a restored Eretria as it 
passed along down the Euripos in plain sight of it. 

24 Cf. CIA, i, 339 ; THOUK., i. 114. 25 THOUK., vm. 95. 

26 See the plan accompanying Mr. PICKARD'S article on the Topography of Eretria. 
There is a similar arrangement on the west side, where remains of two outlying 
towers are found, and a line of wall from one of these to a gate in the main enclos- 
ing-wall. From the other tower to the main wall we must assume also a line of wall, 
though it is now impossible to trace it. 


which the Persians passed. Whether they broke it down or not, it has 
evidently been remodelled on a large scale, and made the one principal 
entrance. Two large towers, one at the corner of the main wall, and 
another at a lower level at the end of the projecting wall, make a strong 
defense of the approach to the long lane through which the enemy must 
still pass after having forced this approach. These towers are built 
much more in regular courses than the older towers, but even they 
could hardly be later than the Peloponnesian War. On the east side 
and also on the north side, a massive tower has been added at places 
where the wall seemed to need strengthening. Though all these 
added towers display the same general plan, the north tower is the 
most regular in construction, and so probably the last one built. It 
has no organic connection with the old wall, but is built up against 
it, while the east tower is built right across the wall. All this work 
seems to have been completed before the Macedonian period. 

At the time of the formation of the Second Athenian Confederacy, 
378 B. c., Eretria cheerfully joined it. 27 At this time Eretria had 
probably become, if not relatively as large as before its destruc- 
tion, because the other cities of Greece had grown rapidly since the 
Persian Wars, yet absolutely as large. This may be inferred from 
the extent of the walls of the lower town. Along the bay, on which 
the modern village stands, and at some distance to the east of it, run 
these walls, with finely laid foundations, joining the acropolis to the 
harbor and enclosing a space large enough for a city of 40,000 inhab- 
itants, as the old Greeks used to quarter themselves. We cannot sup- 
pose these walls to be a huge shell created for a population about to 
come, by a visionary like Otho, who laid out the modern village. 
Their structure would admit of referring them to the third 
century, but it is more likely that they belong to the fourth. To 
this same period we may assign the theatre, which was remodelled 
from time to time. After Leuktra and the breaking up of the Athe- 
nian Confederacy, the period of prosperity for Eretria was doubtless 
seriously impeded by the rapid changes in its foreign relations, which 
were always accompanied by factions at home. 28 In 366, a certain 
Themison, who was in control of Eretria, wrested Oropos from the 

87 DIODOR., xv. 30 ; CIA, n, 1, 17. 

* 8 For a vivid picture of the unhappy condition of Euboea at this time, see CUR- 
TIUS, Gesch. GriecL, in, p. 589. 


Athenians and turned it over to the Thebans. 29 When Philip began 
to play a controlling part in Greek affairs, it is certain that the Eu- 
boaans did not view his encroachments with that deathly anxiety with 
which Demosthenes watched them. They had already become some- 
what accustomed to being a football between larger powers. There 
was always a large party in the different cities inclined to seek salva- 
tion through Philip. Perhaps it required as much fomenting on the 
part of Athens to keep the anti-Macedonian spirit alive as it cost Philip 
to lay it. From Philip's occupation of Amphipolis and his first seri- 
ous break with the Athenians to his victory at Chaironeia, a period of 
nearly twenty years, Eretria can have had little settled quiet. It emer- 
ges into the light, but into the distorted light of the orations of De- 
mosthenes and Aischines. Men, called by Demosthenes tyrants, 
followed one another in quick succession. These were, doubtless, men 
who obtained influence with their fellow citizens much in the same 
way that Perikles and Demosthenes obtained it at Athens. Some- 
times* however, they may have owed their elevation to their influence 
with the foreign power. Of these so called tyrants, Themison and 
Kleitarchos 30 were Philip's men ; Menestratos 31 guided affairs for a 
while in the interest of Athens. Ploutarchos, on whom the Athenians 
counted, proved to be their worst enemy, abandoning them almost to 
their ruin in the battle of Tamynai, 350 B. c., to which he had in- 
vited them as allies to dispossess his rival Kleitarchos and win the 
city for themselves. 32 This second treachery of Eretria, from which 
the Athenians escaped only by the presence of mind and the masterly 
generalship of Phokion, must have given the Eretrians a bad name 
at Athens. Yet in 340 B. c. we find Athens, in a magnificent burst 
of enthusiasm evoked by Demosthenes, driving out the last and worst 
of the tyrants, Kleitarchos, and freeing Eretria for the last time. 33 

In Demosthenes' reference to Eretrian affairs, frequent mention is 
made of Porthmos. 34 This seems to have been some harbor of Ere- 
trian territory, perhaps identical with the present port of Aliveri, the 

29 Cf. DEM., xvm. 99, AISCHIN., nr. 85. In 357 B. c. the Athenians "freed" Euboia, 
as they called it; i. e., they once more obtained a controlling influence, by breaking 
down the power of Thebes in the island by an expedition suggested by Timotheos 
and participated in by Demosthenes : DEM., xvm. 99. Probably Eretria shared in 
the benefits of this deliverance, whatever they were. 

30 DEM., ix. 57 f. 31 DEM., xxm. 124. 

32 AISCHIN., in. 86 ff ; PLUTARCH, Phok., 12 f. 

33 DEM., xvm. 87 ; DIODOR., xvi. 74. 34 DEM., ix. 33, 58; xvin. 71 ; xix. 87. 


town of Aliveri corresponding to Tamynai. 35 But what we read in 
some commentaries : " Porthmos was the harbor of Eretria," is cer- 
tainly nonsense. Eretria had a good harbor of its own immediately 
under its own walls. So complete was its identity with the city that 
it could hardly be possible that it should bear a separate name. 

It must have been almost a comfort to Eretria and the rest of 
Euboia when they were at last landed in the Macedonian camp, and 
knew where they were. So well content were the Eretrians, that 
when the Macedonians showed signs of falling before the Romans, 
they were in no haste to change masters. The report which Livy 
(xxn. 16) gives of the stubborn resistance here offered to the com- 
bined fleets of Attalos, the Romans, and the Rhodians, indicates no 
falling off in valor since the days when the Persians were before the 
gates ; while the great number of statues and paintings (plura quam 
pro urbis magnitudine), taken by the conquerors, speaks well for the 
refinement of the city under Macedonian rule. It had not, even in 
former days, been wholly neglected by the Muses and Graces. The 
poet Achaios was a native of Eretria, 36 even if greater Athens claimed 
him as hers in his later years. Here also was a school of philosophy, 
founded by Menedemos, a disciple of Plato. 37 The Macedonian 
period was a good time for the philosophers to sit and think. 

At about the beginning of the Macedonian period we find Eretria be- 
ginning to wrestle with its hydra, the great swamp on the east side of 
the town. In an inscription discovered at Chalkis and published in 
the 'Ec^/xepl? 'Ap%aio\o>yi,Krj, 1869, p. 1 if., it is recorded that a certain 
Chairephanes agrees to drain the marsh (klfjuvrf) in at most four years. 
For this he was to have the use of the recovered land for ten years at 
an annual rent of thirty talents. The editor of the inscription, Eus- 
tratiades, puts its date at 340-278 B. c. At any rate, it was of a time 
when the city was still independent. The (3ov\r) and the 8^09 
appear as in possession of authority. 

Under Roman dominion Eretria continued to flourish. At the time 
of Augustus it was still the second city of Euboia. 38 It was nominally 
free, too, after the battle of Kynoskephalai. 39 If actually under the Ro- 
man rule, it at least enjoyed the privilege of being freed from that of 
Athens. There is one wall on the acropolis which, by the presence of 
mortar, is distinctly marked as Roman. This is the cross-wall high 

35 STRABO, p. 448. 36 ATHENAIOS, x, p. 251, c. 

37 ATHEIST AIOS, n, p. 55, D. 38 STBABO, p. 446. 39 PoLYB., xvm. 30. 


up on the hill. 40 There are also several repaired places of uncertain 
date in the main wall, some of them most likely of the Byzantine time. 

In the Byzantine period Eretria may be said to have no history. It 
is with a real sense of loss that we find the half dozen lines devoted to 
Eretria in Stephanos of Byzantion largely taken up in telling how to 
form and decline the gentile nouns. It may have been prosperous for 
a long time after its records cease for us. Indeed, the numerous By- 
zantine graves, found often in layers above earlier ones, would seem to 
indicate that a great many people died in Eretria during that time. 
Whether at last the city perished by the breath of its own pestilential 
bogs or by some unnamed incursion of barbarians, we cannot tell. At 
any rate, it seems not to have played any role beside Chalkis in the wars 
of the Turks and Venetians. 

The attempt of King Otho to revive an ancient city on the site of the 
lower town was a fight against nature. The brave Psariots could fight 
the Turks, but fever-bogs conquered them ; and now the wide streets 
are given up to grass, and the empty houses stand deep in water in win- 
ter and spring. The Naval School, looming up above the other houses, 
looks mournful with its windowless and roofless walls. In spite of the 
visionary scheme of the king, in another century the site will prob- 
ably be again as desolate as that of Eretria's ancient ally, Miletos. 



1. m I T H 

On a fragment of a marble stele 55 X 42 centimetres, broken at 
the bottom. The letters, 2 centimetres high, are neatly cut with 
almost imperceptible apices. The distinctive letters for forming an 
accurate judgment as to the date of the inscription are wanting, but 
neither the form of the genitive in ov nor the slight curve in the 
horizontal lines of the letters necessitates putting it later than the 
third century B. c. This inscription gains an importance hardly to 
be ascribed to any of the other thirty epitaphs discovered, owing to 
the possibility (one can hardly claim more than that) of some con- 
nection with the great Aristotle, who died at Chalkis. The elegance 
of the marble tomb in which it was found, apparently the finest in 

40 See plan with Mr. Pickard's article. 


Eretria, the city of tombs, indicates a person of distinction. Some 
signs in the objects found in one of the graves might even be thought 
to point to the philosopher. The inscription falls in well enough 
with this hypothesis, which does not imply that the Aristotle of this 
inscription was the philosopher himself. No tradition brings Aris- 
totle nearer to Eretria than that which pats his death at Chalkis ; 
but the miles and miles of graves, in many places arranged in strata 
three deep, suggest, even if they do not prove, that Eretria was a 
favorite burial-place for non-residents. Eour of the inscriptions 
discovered by the American School are for natives of other towns : 
of. Nos. 11, 13, 18, 31. 

The name Eiorrf occurs in CIG, n, 3143 and 3227. 

The following four inscriptions were also found at the same place, 
within and without the marble mausoleum. The slabs on which they 
are cut are plain gravestones requiring no minute description. 


A E P Tl N^Y Ae7TTiV[o> 

The ends of the letters are generally crossed. The Ionic 77 appears 
also in No. 20. 

ATOAAOAQPOY ' A.7ro\\oSa>pov 

4. A fragment found near the east wall of the mausoleum. 

A P X I f 'Ap^h'M 

A N T I A P 'Ai&|>ov] 

5. E P T A Z I CO N 'E/oyao-iW 

This is perhaps the latest of all the inscriptions discovered. Of. 
No. 31. The letters have apices, and the co is much smaller than 
the adjacent letters. The name Btorrou recalls Btor?? of No. 1. 
The double T can hardly be distinctively Boeotian, as the name has 
the same form in CIG y I, 223 and 621, and the former of these at 
least is Athenian. BLOTTO? occurs several times in the Eretrian in- 
scriptions of 'E<?7yu,. 'A/3%., 1869 and 1887. 


This and the following numbers were found about one-third of a mile 
east of the city-wall in a nest of graves on the property of Belisarios. 


This inscription is on a fine stele terminating in a beautifully carved 
anthemion, and bearing a large rosette under the inscription and on 
each of the sides of the stele, which is about 6 inches thick and of 
pure white marble. The part remaining of the stele, the lower part 
being now broken away, is about five feet long. Its width is about 
0.76 rn. The letters, apart from 0, which is smaller, are 4 centime- 
tres' high, and are free from apices. This is probably the oldest of 
all the sepulchral inscriptions discovered, and is at least as early as 
the fourth century B. c. The stone when found formed the side of a 
grave of a somewhat late period. It may have belonged originally 
to a grave near by, in which were found several white lekythoi. The 
I is the letter which most distinctly bears witness to an early date. 
The same form is found on a stone now lying in the museum at Ere- 
tria inscribed IENAPET. The name KXeo(o>tf appears to be new. 
The other stones discovered at the same place are plain, most of 
them of marble, some more or less broken, and none deserving a 
minute description as to form. 

7. KTHPIAAA Krjpi\\a 

This is mainly interesting as showing perhaps in Krrjpi,\\a for 
K.Tij(Ti\\a an example of the rhotacism for which Strabo (p. 448) says 
the Eretrians were noted, and which betrayed their connection with 
Elis. This rhotacism at Eretria is now fully assured by the inscrip- 
tions in 'Ec^yu,. 'A/o^., 1890, pp. 200 seq. 

8. . E A I T H [M]eXn-7? 
.EPKYAIAOY [&]eprcv\iSov 

The father's name is of course the same as in the preceding number. 

9. N H 2 Q 

10. riZTH 

11. . . . I M N H 

For Tlapdpovos cf. No. 29. TLapa/juovrj occurs on a stone in the 
museum at Eretria. The name was a favorite in Boiotia, and occurs on 
the dedication-stele found by the. American School in 1890 at Plataia. 


12. K A E I T M A X H 
21 M Y A Y 

Letters with apices, 2 somewhat divergent and curved. The second 
M is nearly upright. These names occur in the same order on a stele 
in the museum, with an anthemion above and two rosettes below the 
inscription, which stele has a form very similar to that containing 
No. 6, by which, however, it is surpassed somewhat in elegance. 

13. . . A E M Q N [Uo]\e/jL(ov 

. . , PTAT Y Tire]pTdrov 


Kacra-dvSpeia was the city founded on the site of old Poteidaia. 

14. 2YP02 SiSpo? 

Cf. 2YPA on the Plataian stele alluded to above (under No. 11). 

15. MEANT. 2 M^rfo]? 

I I A I N . Y [&]i\iv[o]v. 

The as well as the round part of the $ were never cut. The 
stone is perfectly smooth where the incisions would come. Perhaps 
the workman deferred his round work on account of its greater diffi- 
culty, and then forgot it, or possibly used paint. 

16. AAA 


On a small fragment broken at both sides. 

17. A I ft N 

18. A I T E I M A 
MHNOTENOY Myvoytvov 

H B A I A 
X P H . . . 
X A I P E 

19. 2 Q 2 I B I 2 

20. I Q B I H 

Note the form I (J) and the lonism in the termination, for which 
of. No. 2. 




22. N! I K 


The stone is an irregular piece, and the restoration uncertain. The 
same may be said of (No. 23) : 

23. \ A A 


24. ATTOAAftNIOZ *A.iro\\G>vio<: 

25. A Q P I E Y . 

A I T E N . &ioyevo[vi\ 



28. AHMAPETH Ay papery 

This is on a marble larger and finer than most of the others, with elab- 
orate mouldings at the top. The letters are large, 4 centimetres high. 

29. TTAPAMON02 Hapdpovo? 
KEPAQN02 KepSawo? 

Of. No. 11. 

30. . Y'PPIAS 

Note smaller than the other letters ; ^ divergent. Letters hand 
some and somewhat enlarged at ends of lines. 

31. K A P TT 2 

BAPNANAIOY Kapvavalov 


This inscription, though more rudely cut, shares with No. 5 the 
broken-barred A and the extravagant apices, and apparently belongs to 
the Roman period. The greater part of the other inscriptions proba- 
bly fall in the second century, E. c. 

The name ^apvavalos occurs in a Delian (Rheneian) inscription^ 
CIG, n, Add. 2322, b. 58., and is explained by Boeckh as Semitic 
" Bar," compounded with some other word. He compares 


CIG, ii, 2319, who is there called TU/HO?. For Tyrians at Delos, 
of. CIG, n, 2271 and 2290. 

Besides these inscriptions there is one, probably to be included in a 
collection about to be published by a member of the German Archaeo- 
logical Institute, to which a passing word may be given. This is on 
a piece of marble walled into a church just built, still lacking the roof, 
on the site of an older one at the south foot of the hill Kotroni, about 
a mile east of the acropolis of Eretria. Just about on this spot proba- 
bly stood the most sacred temple of the Eretrian territory that of 
Artemis Amarysia. 

The inscription reads : 

. . Y . . . X 3 [TL\]ov[rap]xo^ 


It will be remembered that there is a Ploutarchos of Eretria who 
plays in Demosthenes an unenviable role in betraying his city into the 
hands of Philip. Cf. Dem., ix. 57. In Aischines in. 86, the same 
personage appears as a traitor to the Athenians in the battle of 
Tamynai. He was probably the most prominent citizen of Eretria at 
this time, in point of wealth and influence. His espousal of the cause 
of Macedonia gave him a bad name with the Athenians. 

The unlikelihood that there should be in a small city like Eretria 
more than one family in which Ploutarchos would be used as a name, 
encourages the supposition that this tombstone belonged to this Plou- 
tarchos or to some member of his family. 

Another grave-inscription, found about 7 kilometres east of the city, 
and about 1J kilometre back from the shore, has an interest beyond 
any other of its kind discovered in Eretria. It is on a slab of bluish 
marble 0.75 X 0.35, and 0.17 thick, with a slightly raised border at the 
top. A peasant, who showed it to me with an air of great mystery, 
after leading me through the bushes for more than an hour, allowed 
me to copy it, as it lay on edge up against a hovel occupied by another 
peasant. At the time (February 27, 1891) I was told that it had been 
taken one month before from a tomb which bore marks of having re- 
cently been opened, about 300 feet from the house. I could, however, 
ascertain nothing as to the contents of the tomb, which was a large 
one, 8 feet square, nor as to the excavators of it. Subsequently I visited 
the place again, finding it with great difficulty, and took three squeezes ; 


but, as the occupant of the house was absent, I could elicit no further 

The inscription reads as follows : 


............... AIOTENHS ........... 

, AioScopov Ai^oye^ves, (frvs $Ltcaio<; KOL evcreftrjs. 

#' rj <yr) Kaja) #eo? ei/ju, StAmo)?' 
etc 77)9 yap fiXa&Tcov ^evo^v vetcpos e<y Se vetcpov yfj. 

In the first line the dead is addressed with the usual fond farewell. 
In the last two lines he is made to give his reply, which is a curious 
argument. " If earth is a goddess, I surely am a god, for I sprung 
from earth, and became a corpse, and from a corpse earth again." 
This is cold comfort. Bryant's 

" Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim 
Thy growth to be resolved to earth again," 41 

is serious and plain, but the sentiment of our inscription seems much 
like a jest on a serious subject. Inscriptions could hardly have taken 
this tone before the Hellenistic period. The play is an approach to 
the Anacreontic drinking song, beginning, 'H 777 /jieXaiva Trivet. 
Though Ge was a rather transparent personification among the gods, and 
liberties might be taken with her which one did not feel authorized to 
take with other divinities, this trivial vein is rather characteristic of an 
age that had lost its faith. Of course, apart from the epigraphic evi- 
dence, the lack of any expression of hope would forbid making it a 
Christian epitaph. 

Since the last two lines are hexameters, it would seem likely that the 
first was also intended to be such. The first foot, Xalpe At, might pass, 
but in that case the next foot would be impossible. If we take the 
well-nigh impossible foot, Xaipe Ato, to start with, we can then run 
through four good feet, but we come next to St'/eato?, which refuses to 
conform to the exigencies of the verse, and besides we have more than 
six feet. The last three syllables refuse to make a hexameter ending. 
In spite of all the liberties taken with hexameters in epitaphs (see Al- 

41 Of. KAIBEL, Epigrammata Greece, No. 606. 


len in Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 
vol. IV, p. 45 seq.), it is venturesome to try to make anything more 
than plain prose out of this first line. 

There was once a fourth line of the inscription, but it was subse- 
quently entirely erased, except the name, AtoyeiM??. The cutting may 
have been done by more unskilful hands than some others of the same 
age ; but even with this allowance the stone seemed to bear upon its 
face marks of antiquity. 3 and M are very much spread out ; and 
are smaller than the other letters. 

Besides the grave-inscriptions, three small fragments apparently of 
a psephisma were found in the excavations about the stage in the theatre. 
The forms of the letters seem to make the inscription as early as the 
fourth century. The following is a copy : 


AMAE . . . H 
TQHA . . ^ I 
5. iMHr 4 ! Al T 
' I ME.'TOO 

10. OYr^T 

01 E 

Between N and A, line 5, if the first letter is iota, there is room for one 
more letter in the break. 

Very little can be made out of this inscription, 
line 4, TO Oearpov line 6, perhaps [7r]a)Xetv w<7r[e] line 7, 
e[fc?] TO 6[eaTpov\ line 8, [7r]oXe/x[ap%09] line 9. 

Possibly the inscription has reference to the sale of some property 
by an officer called polemarch in the theatre, or for some use connected 
with the theatre. 



At the end of January, 1891, Dr. Waldstein and I went to Eretria, 
and, as soon as the weather permitted, the excavation of the theatre 
there being placed in my charge by Dr. Waldstein, work was begun. 


The foundations of the stage-building that Ludwig Ross had traced 
in 1833 disappeared after the settlement of the Psariani in 1836. Here 
and there single stones appeared above the ground, but the position 
of no walls could be located with certainty. The fact, however, that 
the ground level on the site of the stage-building was between three 
and four metres above that of the orchestra, supplied a hopeful sign 
that, at least in some parts, walls of importance would be found. 

When the campaign closed on March 18, we had worked 27} days, 
with an average of 19 men, including two cart-drivers. For removing 
the earth we relied especially on carts and wheel-barrows, as baskets 
proved less suitable for our purpose. 

The eastern wall was cleared first, and it was a great disappoint- 
ment to find that the foundation was the only course remaining ; but 
it was reassuring soon to discover that at least the front wall went 
deep. When the work had reached this point it was found practi- 
cable to divide the men into two bodies. One party removed the 
earth from the front of the orchestra, and as far back as the middle 
of the stage-building. The other set cleared the southern half of the 
stage-building. In this way, the two parties keeping nearly the same 
pace, the entire structure was laid bare, proceeding from east to west. 
The exact correspondence between the two sides was striking, when, 
after weeks of labor and study, the second half was found minutely 
to reproduce the first, and we could hence estimate with certainty the 
location of the different walls (see PLAN of theatre, PLATE xi). 

On February 14, while cutting a broad trench along the double front 
wall (00 and HH), which we shall call the scencefrons, the workmen 
came upon an opening (Q) in the wall about two metres wide. On 
following this up, it proved to have a vaulted roof in good preservation. 
Soon the workmen on the other side, more than fourteen metres away, 
struck an opening into the ground. Here the keystone and a few of 
the upper voussoirs were gone. Grave-searchers, with whom this 
region abounds, imagining that there was a grave below, had broken 
through the vault. The clearing of this large passage, which was 
entirely filled with earth and 2.95 m. deep, occupied a great deal of 
time. Owing to the limited space, only two men could be employed, 
and, from the construction, it had to be cleared almost entirely from 
the north end. At length, on the afternoon of March 12, the way 
was open from one end to the other. The earth, from the position 
of the strata, had evidently sifted in from the two ends. Heaps of 


marble drippings lay at the northern end of the vault. But these 
were only the refuse of the great mass of marble that had found its 
way to the lime-kilns, of which there are two in the immediate 
neighborhood. Among these chippings were several fragments of 
statues and countless pieces from the marble proscenium. Immediately 
in front of the opening to this vaulted passage were found fragments 
of a balustrade in poros. 

On March 5 and 6, when it became evident that no stoa was imme- 
diately connected with the theatre, on the suggestion of Dr. Waldstein 
I sank a trench from chamber iv in the direction of some ruins toward 
the southwest. Nothing was found in the trench, but upon clearing 
the ruins they were seen to be singularly solid foundations, 7.50 m. X 
5.40 m., possibly having connection with other foundations. In the 
first place the ground had been prepared, then large blocks, carefully 
fitted, had been laid to form a double floor. No indication was found 
of the purpose of these foundations, but the solidity of the work sug- 
gests that a temple stood here perhaps that of Dionysos. Along the 
walls were found fragments of marble including a lion's paw. 

To examine the character of the retaining-wall H H on the inside, a 
big hole was cut along the wall down to the foundation. Along the 
upper part of the wall lay miscellaneous rubbish and architectural mem- 
bers in poros. Below, the foundation broadened to a width of 1.62 m. 
The retaining-wall exhibits the same roughness and irregularity on 
both sides, from which the conclusion is drawn that neither side was 
ever visible. 

On March 13, while clearing between the proscenium stylobate and 
the seence frons, I came upon the opening to the underground passage 
of the orchestra. The descent into this lies a little to the east of the 
mouth of the vaulted passage. Over the opening were found two frag- 
ments of a marble Ionic architrave. 

On March 14, two interesting discoveries were made. Resting on 
the scencefrons, but not in situ, I found a poros block with a metope 
in the middle and a triglyph on either side. It appears to belong to 
a double-triglyph system, and is important for determining the interco- 
lumniation of a row of columns that may have surmounted the scence 
from. Whether this wall bore a range of columns or was continued 
up as a plain wall, the frieze block, both from its material and from 
the position in which it was found must have belonged to it. The 
width of the metope is 0.48 m. and that of the triglyphs 0.33 m., 



while the height is 0.44 m. The second discovery was a drain found 
between the oblique walls on the east side. 

The digging on the skene varied in depth from 0.80 m. to 1.10 m., 
while immediately in front of the scence Jrons it reached the depth of 
2.50 m., and even more at the east and west ends, the depth gradually 
diminishing toward the orchestra. The mass of accumulated earth in 
front of the seence from was no doubt due to the fact that when the 
facing-wall had been taken away in a large measure, the weight of the 

earth behind precipitated the up- 
per part of the retaiuing-wall and 
lodged in front. There is reason 
to believe that the ground on the 
site of the present orchestra as 
well as behind the retaining- wall 
had originally the level of the five 
chambers, that of the surrounding 
ground. On the surface we found 
the usual black earth, under it a 
soft clay, and lastly we came up- 
on the hard virgin soil. About 
the older foundations the soft 
clay reached deeper, showing that 
trenches had been cut before the 

FIG. 2. Cornice. 

foundation was laid. 

We found architectural frag- 
ments both of poros and of mar- 
ble. Of poros in the Doric order 
were found several drums, a capi- 
tal, triglyphs, and a cornice; also 

FIG. S.-Anthemion. of poros^ in the Ionic order, an en- 

tire semi-column, and four capi- 
tals almost completely preserved, but of a late style. This semi- 
column now serves as a sill in the entrance to chamber n ; it has 
eight flutes and is 2.36 m. long, 0.34 m. wide and 0.47 thick. The 
volutes of the capital belonging to it spring out of an acanthus the 
sprays of which join in front under an egg-and-dart moulding. The 
marble fragments were found especially in the neighborhood of the 
proscenium, and evidently belong to it. Of marble in the Doric order 
we found a part of a channeled semi-column and corresponding tri- 


glyphs and cornice. In the Ionic order we found a part of a fluted 
semi-column, an architrave and cornices of two types, with dentils 
(Fig. 2), and without them. Two anthemia of marble (Fig. 3} and 
several of terracotta were discovered, besides Roman lamps, weights, 
a discus, and some corroded coins. 


In dealing with masonry at Eretria there are peculiar difficulties in 
the way. Little is known about its monuments and style of art, and, 
being difficult of access it has seldom been visited by archaeologists. 
On account of its out-of-the-way position, rules of construction which 
have been established as archaeological landmarks at Athens and else- 
where, fail utterly when applied here. Certain forms of masonry, for 
example, seem to have obtained at Eretria long after they had died out 
in many other places. Not only the same kind of stone, but even blocks" 
cut to the same size, appear in buildings of diiferent epochs. At the 
same time when clamps and other usual criteria of age are found in 
those parts only which on their face bear the stamp of a later age, one is 
entirely thrown back upon the position of the walls to solve their 
purpose and place in point of date. 

The cavea of the theatre faces the south, and the stage-buildings 
stand east and west, deviating only six degrees from that line, the west 
end being six degrees north of west, and the east end the same number 
of degrees south of east. The situation of the theatre to the southwest of 
the acropolis, on a spot where no benefit could be derived from a slope to 
support the rising tiers of seats, is likely to be connected with the fact 
that there was a sanctuary of Dionysos in the neighborhood. The solid 
foundations in the vicinity, mentioned above, may prove to be those of 
a temple of the wine-god. If in choosing the sites for their theatres 
the ancients had an eye to the beauty of scenery, it may be noticed 
that sitting in the theatre you are facing the Euripos, while beyond 
are the hills of Attika and Boiotia with Parnes and Helikon in the dis- 
tance. The original surface of the ground appears to have been 
almost level, rising a little toward the northwest and falling into a 
slight depression toward the southeast. 

From the sectional plan (PL. xi) giving the elevation of the different 
parts, we see how the two front walls 1 1 and 00 H H have their foundations 
a little under the level of the orchestra, while the bases and the two 
remoter walls BB and A A lie fully three metres higher. In explain- 


ing the walls I shall follow the historical development as being at the 
same time the true order and in this case the simplest. 

Turning to the PLAN, it appears at a glance that there exists a close 
resemblance in plan between the two parts of the stage-building divided 
by the great central passage QQ. This vaulted passage, the bottom 
of which is on a level with the orchestra, lies under the floor-surface 
of the stage-building. Over the vault and within the south wall we 
have a chamber (in) 6.33 m. by 3.90 m. This is flanked on either 
side by chambers (n and iv) of the same size, and those again by long 
and narrow chambers (i and v) extending five metres and a half 
beyond the others toward the front. The outline (AAFABBEZ) is a 
long and narrow building with wings projecting forward. The founda- 
tion of this building consists of coarse poros blocks averaging 1.30 m. 
in length, 0.68 m. in width and 0.46 m. in height. The blocks are 
laid lengthwise except in the south wall of chambers I and n. At 
this point, the ground being lower, the foundation consists of two 
courses, and, to obtain greater solidity, the blocks in one lie crosswise 
and are moreover supported by buttresses where the partition-walls 
meet the south wall. As the ground gradually rises toward the west, the 
foundations go deeper. The stones are well cut and fitted, though no 
great pains were taken to form an even surface in foundations intended 
to be hidden underground. The break in the middle of the walls is 
of a later date, when the vaulted passage was constructed. There are 
openings (77) into the flank chambers on each side. Here the founda- 
tion is interrupted for a distance of 1.30 m. The ends of the adjoining 
blocks are cut down as if to receive a sill. At the corner beyond the 
door, and also between the door and the north wall of the three 
chambers, are signs of piers and antse, S8SS. Where the wall B B ends 
in the chambers on the flanks, the terminal blocks are placed at right 
angles. In line with these in the north wall of the same chambers, 
corresponding blocks eeee are similarly placed. These blocks may 
have been parts of cross-walls in these positions. 

On the greater part of these foundations there remains a course of 
fine polygonal masonry 0.48 m. wide. The jointings are good and 
the work is done with a great deal of care. Wherever it is still 
standing it is 0.50m. high. The material is a white, hard limestone. 
If there were faults in the stones or pieces roughly broken off, the 
edges were made regular and other stones fitted in. The polygonal 
wall indicated in black is still standing on all the partition walls, on 


the north wall, at the southwest corner, and there are traces of it on 
the south and east walls. The restored portions of it are indicated 
in a lighter shade, with single-hatched lines. No trace appears on the 
foundations of the projecting chambers. No doubt it stood here also, 
but was removed during the reconstruction. 

I have mentioned the doors into the flank chambers. There are 
also entrances into the three middle chambers from the front. The 
entrance to chamber in is in the middle of the wall, while in II and 
IV it is thrown to one side. The side openings are 3.33 m. and 3.38 
m. wide. The middle opening is somewhat less, but here the stones 
have now fallen forward : we may be justified in assuming the same 
width for this also. On both sides of the openings lie quadrangular 
blocks of bluish marble. On the outer side of the side doors these 
blocks are 0.41 m. long and 0.20 m. high. The adjacent blocks of 
the wall are cut in such a way as partly to overlap the marble blocks 
and hold them firm. On these blocks stood the Trapao-raSe? or door- 
jambs. In the west door the lower part of one is still standing. It 
is an upright poros block broken off at the present height of the wall. 
The existing sills, which lie at about the height of the six bases in front 
and are moulded, are later. At the ends of the sills, holes are cut in 
to receive the wooden doorposts, and a groove runs along the upper 
side. The inside edge, remaining at the middle for the distance of 
nearly one metre and a half, is cut away at the ends. 

Such are the remains of what I consider the oldest stage-building of 
which there is any trace in the Eretrian theatre. In its main lines it has 
the same arrangement as the stage-building of Lykourgos at Athens : 
two parallel walls behind and towerlike structures on the flanks. The 
front wall has three doors and the paraskenia have one each. The present 
orchestra lies too far away and too deep to have been that of this stage- 
building. The orchestra corresponding to this structure must have 
been on a level with the doors and must have extended close up to 
the building. The supposed position of this orchestra is indicated on 
the plan by a dotted circle. As no vestiges remain, both the orchestra 
and the seats were presumably of primitive construction. Near one 
of the stage-walls were found a few words of a fourth-century inscrip- 
tion referring to a theatre. This building being the oldest on the site, 
and answering also in plan to a theatre of the fourth century, we 
identify it with that of the inscription. There appears to be little 
doubt that the remains we have just described existed long before the 


other parts were added. For, taken separately, the old stage-building 
has a clear purpose, but considered in connection with the buildings 
in front, it loses its meaning. The new buildings in part destroyed 
the old and in part left its foundations undisturbed, as they lay deeper 
than the later walls. 

Whatever the causes or the motives, a new and more elaborate 
theatre was erected, taking the old building partly into account and 
retaining its orientation. The new theatre might have been built 
against the acropolis hill, but the same reasons that placed the old 
below in the plain, kept the new one there now. When it was once 
decided that the theatre should remain on the same site, there were 
evident advantages in sinking the orchestra lower than the stage-build- 
ing. It would simplify the substructure of the cavea, and would give 
an elevated seencefrons with less labor and expense. So the orchestra 
was lowered about 3.50 m. and the earth removed was used to build 
up the cavea. Against the bank of earth toward the skene a strong 
retaining-wall H H was built. The floor of the new building lies a 
little higher than that of the old one. The old floor-level of the cham- 
bers is given by the sills, the cuts for which still appear in the founda- 
tion-walls. The new sills are several centimetres higher, and these 
indicate the level of the new floor. The six column-bases supply cor- 
responding evidence. The wide intercolumniation, and the fact that 
they are equally distant from BB and 00, show that they form an 
inner order and that we can assume the same level on both sides. 
These bases bore the columns that upheld the roof. That they belong 
to the second structure is shown by the fact that they in a measure 
obstruct the passages 77, from which it also appears that they were 
placed in position at a time when those passages were no longer used. 
It is important to fix the level of the pavement, as this will help us 
to arrive at the height of the front wall. But having the height of 
the bases, 3.83 m., we have also that of the front wall, which must 
necessarily be the same. Whether the front wall was continued as a 
solid wall or whether it supported a series of columns, we have so far 
not been able to determine, as the architectural members found could 
be fitted to either theory. 

Communication with the orchestra being difficult over a wall 3.83 
m. high, access was afforded by an underground vault (QQ) passing 
under the skene from behind the building. At the southern or ex- 


terior end, steps lead down to the level of the orchestra. Fig. 4- shows 
a section through the vaulted passage in the line of the column- 
bases. On the inside the passage is 1.98 m. wide and 2.95 m. high, and 
its length is the depth of the stage-building, 14.55 m. It is built of 
large poros blocks which were originally smooth-dressed on the ex- 
posed face, but now the surface is broken and has crumbled from damp- 
ness and exposure. The blocks have an average length of 1 .86 m., 
and the three lower courses a height of 0.64 m., while the three up- 
per courses average 0.46 m., and the keystone 0.44 m. Though the 
three lower courses have an inward inclination of 0.08 m. the arch 
proper begins with the fourth course. Allowing the slight inclination 

FIG. 4. Vaulted Passage. 

to be due to pressure exerted in the lapse of time, the upper courses 
and the keystone w r ould form a semi-circle with a radius of about 1 .00 
m. The joints are exact, though they do not correspond in alternate 
courses. The vault is entire for a distance of 7.40 m., having fallen 
in at both ends. That the vault is contemporaneous with the front 
wall or scencefrons, is shown by the fact that the courses of the two 
are bonded together. 

That this vaulted passage was a public entrance into the theatre is 
improbable, both because it is too narrow and because no necessity ap- 
pears for an entrance in such a situation. Though the passage itself 
is 1.98 m. wide, the door opening into it from the orchestra is only 


0.99 m. wide. Moreover the steps are steep and narrow not such as 
we should expect where crowds were to ascend and descend. On the 
east side a parodos about 5 m. wide has been partly cleared, and on 
the other side will no doubt be found its counterpart. With ample paro- 
doi on both sides of the skene, no reason is obvious for constructing a 
third access only 0.99 m. wide. In many theatres entrances are found 
from the level of the orchestra to the stage-building, and here, doubt- 
less we have something of the same kind, only the passage lies under 
the surface owing to the elevated structure of the stage-building. Two 
solutions were open to the architect : the one a permanent stairway over 
the front wall, the other an opening through the wall and an under- 
ground passage; the latter solution was chosen perhaps because a 
stairway from the height of the front wall would necessarily project 
far into the orchestra. 

The front wall consists in fact of two walls, the retaining-wall H H 
and the facing-wall 00. The retaining-wall, not intended to be seen, 
is built of rough poros blocks of about the same dimensions as those in 
the foundations of the skene. Its present height is 2.39 m., or 2.335 m. 
above the level of the circle of the orchestra. That it was originally 
higher appears from the fact that a great number of similar blocks were 
found lying in a line along the wall. It may have been as high as the 
bases, or, being merely a retaining-wall, it could have ended when it 
reached the surface of the ground. The roughness of the work is suffici- 
ent proof that this wall was never visible. There still remain in places 
as many as three courses of a facing- wall. The lowest course, which 
juts out 0.19 m. beyond the upper courses, is 0.64 m. high, and where 
the vaulted passage begins, the blocks are turned in at right angles in 
such a way that the blocks of the second course of the vault overlap them 
by one half. This shows that the two were constructed at the same time. 
The blocks of this course, too, are of the same size as those in the three 
lower courses of the vaulted passage. At the joints and along the upper 
edge are bevelled drafts. While the upper courses continue 0.59 m. 
beyond the retaining-wall and then at 00 make a turn to the south at 
a slight angle, the lower course turns to the north (A I and Kl) 8.885 m. 
from the vault and is then merged in other walls (IM and I N), which, 
at the same distance, make a similar turn toward the south. The second 
course of 00 is of a finer poros, and is worked with extreme care. The 
joints are made with such exactness that they are not easily perceived. 
The course is 0.43 m. high and the blocks are as long as 2.42 m. and 2.62 


m. Parts of a third course remain at the ends. The length of the wall 
00 is 26.20 m. Though the upper part of this wall has perished, it 
must have reached at least the level of the six bases. It is to be noticed 
that the second course of the wall 00 is continued without foundation 
between K and 0. At the other end, between A and 0, the foundation 
is irregular and does not come out flush with the upper portions of 
the wall. Before reaching the oblique angles at 00, the wall extends 
for 0.59 m. unsmoothed, and there, probably, were the outer walls, ON 
and OM, of the paraskenia. 

In the old paraskenia there remain angles of walls forming right 
angles, which in one limb, TH and FIH, advance toward the front 
wall, and in the other, TZ and Fl 0, extend beyond the stage-building 
proper. On the -west side, the wall TZ appears to have extended at 
least 9.50 m. from the angle in the old paraskenion. It is not un- 
likely that the wall turned toward the north at about this point and 
joined the oblique wall PO, forming thus an irregular chamber simi- 
lar to one in the same position in the theatre at Epidauros. On the 
east side only two stones were found of this extension beyond the old 
wall, but these were enough to show that it had once gone further. 
These walls are laid on the ground without foundations, and are a 
patchwork of all kinds of material, especially of stones from the poly- 
gonal wall. The inner surface is faced with fragments of marble, and 
a bit of stucco was found in one place. That this wall is later than 
the old skene appears, apart from its bad construction and lack of foun- 
dation, most clearly in that it cuts away a corner of the old flank cham- 
ber, too small for a separate room. What remains of the wall between 
the old paraskenia and the front wall is built of the usual poros blocks. 
On the east side these blocks are laid one upon another endwise, while 
on the west side the position of the blocks in adjacent courses alternates ; 
but on both east and west sides the walls are built with an irregularity 
which shows that they were hidden underground. This is important, 
as it enables us to establish that the surface of the soil was approxi- 
mately on a level with the bases, and we gain another argument for 
restoring the front wall 00 to the same height. On the elevated part 
of the skene and in line with the cross-walls A I and K I stand two bases. 

Within the irregular rooms at the sides, and parallel to the oblique 
walls, are two little structures the significance of which is not yet clear. 
Their parallel side walls are 0.46 m. apart, and there extended a mar- 
ble slab from the outside upper edge to the inside bottom level, broad 


enough to touch the two walls. The lower end of the slab rested on 
another marble block. Beneath the structure on the east side we found 
the drain ; if there is a similar drain on the west side it has not yet 
been recognized. Our excavations closed before these structures could 
be fully examined. They seem however to be connected with the 
drainage-system. It may possibly be that the water from the roof of 
the stage-building was conducted to these points and hence escaped 
into the drains below. What may have existed between the oblique 
walls is not yet known, as our work has gone only a little beyond the 
oblique angles OM and ON. Here may have been ramps ascending 
to the proscenium, side by side with the parodoi into the orchestra, 
as at Sikyon and Epidauros. 

The work of the second period, then, consisted in erecting a new 
scence frons with projecting structures or paraskenia at the ends. 
Instead of a series of chambers, we have in this new stage-building a 
wide hall divided by a longitudinal range of columns. Owing to the 
height of the front wall and the disposition of the skene and orchestra, 
access to the latter was gained under the floor of the stage-structure. 

Finally we come to the last change, a change similar to that found 
in many other theatres the erection of a columned front (II) between 
the two paraskenia. At the Amphiareion of Oropos this feature bears 
inscribed on the architrave the designation TrpoorKrjviov. To arrive 
at the date of this construction at Eretria is not easy. At Athens the 
corresponding feature is known to have been built between Lykourgos 
and Nero, as it was torn down to be replaced by another dedicated to 
Dionysos Eleuthereus and the emperor Claudius Nero (?). Hence 
there it dates from the first century B. c., and the stage-building of 
Lykourgos must have stood for a considerable time unchanged. This 
date suits reasonably well in the other instances also. On a poros 
foundation lies a marble stylobate 19.77m. long. At the ends are 
places for two antse, and between are dowel-holes for twelve semi- 
columns. The total number fourteen recurs in several theatres, as at 
Assos and Delos. Across some of the dowel-holes can still be traced 
the small line marking the axis of the columns. The intercolumnia- 
tion varies between 1.50 m. and 1.52 m. The square dowel-holes 
have the usual channels through which the lead was run in. A 
fragment of one of the columns, Doric and channeled, was found, but 
unfortunately very incomplete. The general design, however, can be 
determined from the examples in other theatres. Deep rebates were 


cut behind to receive slabs or TrtW/ce?, and the stylobate in some 
places was cut down so that the Trivaices should fit closely. The width 
of the stylobate is about 0.45 m., the inner side being rough. In the 
middle are traces of a double folding-door with oblong holes for the 
door-posts and circular ones for the pivots. Two smaller pivot-holes 
further back point to a wider door of some other period. Now in 
estimating the height of this proscenium we must remember that there 
was a door in the wall, which indicates sufficiently that the columns 
were at least upward of two metres high. Calculating the height of 
the columns and entablature from the few fragments found, it appears 
that the proscenium without the stylobate would reach a height of about 
3.40 m., or the level of the bases on the skene. This height coincides 
with the rule of Vitruvius that the proscenium should not be less than 
ten and not more than twelve feet high. Vitruvius is evidently speaking 
of such proscenia as ours, and it is interesting to find this agreement. 
Among various pieces of an Ionic cornice, we found one with an angle 
corresponding to the angles M and N beyond the proscenium. So we 
have, apparently, a Doric proscenium continued on the sides in the 
Ionic order. 

The fact that the stylobate was left rough on the inside shows that 
the ground or floor between it and the scence frons was of the same 
height. But the opening into the underground passage here lies much 
lower, and it appears to have been made with a lower level in view. 
The basement-course of the scence frons consisted, as has been said, of 
blocks 0.64 m. high, carefully worked and fitted, showing that it was 
exposed to view. But, if the floor reached the level of the proscenium 
stylobate, it must have covered 0.44 m., or more than two thirds, of 
this basement-course. In excavating we found near the lower edge 
of this basement a layer of gravel. This, as it corresponds with the 
level of the orchestra-circle and with the opening into the underground 
passage, I'take to show the original level of the orchestra. With the 
building of the proscenium the level of the entire orchestra appears 
to have been raised. The stylobate is 0.20 m. high, the lower half of 
which was left rough and unfinished because it lay under the level of 
the orchestra and was not seen. 

Where definite indications were lacking, the upper part of the skene is 
restored, on the plan, according to the proportions of similar structures. 

Just beyond the eastern paraskenion the drain is found. Starting 
from the semicircular conduit on the east side and passing under the 



parodos, it turns by the corner of the stage-building at an oblique 
angle to the southeast, in the direction where the ground is lowest. It 
is formed of rectangular pieces of red tile open above (Fig. 5), not 
fitted into one another, but set close end to end and bedded in the 
ground. The tiles are 0.63 m. long, 0.24 m. broad, and 0.265 high. 
The drain was covered with separate flat pieces a little wider than 

itself. The tiles are 0.03 m. 

In closing, I would observe 
that I came independently to 
the results set forth while di- 
recting the excavation of the 
theatre. It was no small de- 
light to find, on my return to 
Athens, that Dr. Dorpfeld ap- 
FIG. 5. Drain. proved of the plans which I 

had drawn, and later, when he 

visited the theatre, that he corroborated my views, making changes 
only in minor details. At the same time I must not omit to mention 
the kindly assistance Dr. Dorpfeld has rendered me in several instances, 
and the friendly interest he has taken in the work. 



In the work of the School at Athens at Eretria, Dr. Waldstein 
assigned to me the clearing of the cavea, orchestra, and parodoi of the 
theatre. This was pursued so far as to determine the level and extent 
of the orchestra, to follow the lowest row of seats and the bounding- 
curb of the orchestra from the middle to the eastern analemma, and 
to define, rather imperfectly, the eastern parodos. To this must be 
added the discovery of a most interesting underground passage, extend- 
ing from about the centre of the orchestra to a point just within the 
later proscenium-wall. At Dr. Waldstein's suggestion, excavation was 
carried on also through the debris surrounding a lime-kiln near the 
theatre, but without result. 

Work in the orchestra was begun on Feb. 24, with a trench a little 
more than 1 m. wide, perpendicular to the proscenium at its middle 
point. Very few fragments were found either in marble or in poros, 
until, on the second day, at a depth of about 0.70 m., two large poros 


blocks came to light lying side by side at a slight angle in the direc- 
tion of the trench. On digging further toward the stage, it was found 
that these two blocks made part of an unbroken line of poros, the 
covering, as it seemed, of a drain or passage of some kind. These 
stones were carefully laid and the whole structure was very well 
preserved. ' Only the corners were sometimes broken away, so that, 
at one point, the workmen could thrust their pick-handles through 
and down to the full length. Almost covering the open end of this 
passage was found a cornice-slab of marble ; close by, fragments of 
marble triglyphs and dentils. When all these were cleared away the 
existence of a subterranean structure was made certain. 

The work at the upper end of this main trench was carried consider- 
ably further before anything of importance was discovered. Only one 
or two blocks of poros and some small pieces of marble came to light. 
At length the workmen uncovered, at a depth of 1.05 m., what proved 
to be one of the seats of the lowest tier of the eavea. Very soon the 
line of poros curb bounding the arc of the orchestra was found, 0.20 m. 
further below the surface. Immediately below the first tier of seats 
was a broad step serving as a foot-rest for those who sat above, and 
between this and the curb was a sunken drain paved with poros. Just 
behind the first seat discovered was a flat, irregular marble slab of con- 
siderable size. Toward the west the line of seats was broken, and in 
digging further up the hill nothing more was found in situ. The cavea, 
here at least, was in an altogether ruinous condition, so that the main 
trench at this end was abandoned. At Dr. Waldstein's suggestion, the 
digging was now carried along the line of the first row of seats toward 
the east. A trench was sunk broad enough to include also the curb 
of the orchestra. All was in a fairly good state of preservation, only 
a block from the line of seats being missing now and then. A number 
of marble fragments were found, evidently belonging to thrones. The 
sunken drain proved to be divided at intervals by very ill-made and 
irregular cross-walls, resting on the poros bottom, and not quite reach- 
ing the level of the curb and the lowest step on either side. The end 
of the curb was reached some 5 m. before coming to the analemma 
of the eavea. At this point the curb was connected with the lowest step 
by a very good cross-wall of the same pattern and period with itself. 
Digging was carried for a short distance along the analemma ; this was 
very much broken away, and the blocks which made it were heaped 
together with seats that had fallen from above. The wall of the pa- 
rodos, so far as it was found extant at all, was yet more ruinous. I had 


hoped to carry a trench from the orchestra to the uppermost rows of 
seats, but lack of time prevented this. 

Meanwhile, the subterranean passage mentioned had been entirely 
cleared. The work had been necessarily slow, since in so confined a 
space only one man could dig at a time, and very awkwardly. Besides, 
the interior was a closely packed mass of architectural fragments, as 
drums of columns, with pottery, Roman lamps and other objects. A 
discovery of importance was made near the north end of this passage. 
Here the digging was carried more than 1 m. below the ancient level 
of the orchestra. At this depth part of a marble chair was found, 
imbedded among loose stones and smaller bits of marble ; there was 
found also a rounded fragment of poros, belonging to the base either of 
a column or of a statue. 


In 1833, according to Ross, 1 some of the stone seats of the cavea 
were still to be seen. He seems to imply that when he visited Eretria 
eight years later these had disappeared, appropriated by the new set- 
tlers as building-material. When our work began, at least two or three 
seats of the ordinary pattern lay above ground on the upper part of 
the slope. Nothing whatever was visible besides these, though the 
general form of the cavea was still very clearly marked. The seats 
were not laid on a natural slope, as is generally the case, but were 
supported by an artificial mound of earth as noted by Ross (op. cit.) 
This method of construction was rare in Greece proper, but ob- 
tained in the theatre at Mantineia, lately excavated by the French 
School. 2 Durm 3 mentions only the theatres at Alabanda (Asia Minor) 
and Mantineia as so constructed. More are enumerated by Miiller, 4 
but only in Macedonia and Asia Minor. Recently it has been found 
that the theatre at Megalopolis rested in part upon an artificial em- 
bankment. 5 The embankment at Mantineia was supported by a poly- 
gonal wall, and the theatre was made accessible from the rear by a 
system of external flights of steps ; but no attempt could be made to 
ascertain whether this was also true at Eretria. The cavea opens to- 
ward the south in direct violation of Vitruvius' injunction; 6 but this 
is the case also at Athens and Syracuse. 7 

1 Wanderungen in Griechenland, n, 117. * Bull, de corr. hetlen., xiv, 248. 

3 Baukunst der Griechen, 211. * Buhnenalterthiimer, 30, n. 2. 

5 Journal of Hellenic Studies, xi, 294. e De Architectures, v. 3. 2. 
7 GEPPERT, Altgriechische Bilhne, 94. 


At present the greatest height of the cave a above the orchestra-curb 
is 9.07 m. ; 8 its diameter measured from the highest point of the mound 
on either side is 81 m. ; measured from the lowest step on either side, 
24.88 m. The structure forms an arc of 186, or somewhat more than 
a half-circle, and is thus less by 24 than Vitruvius' fanciful model for 
Greek theatres. The curve seems a perfect one through an arc of 159, 
i. e., to the point where the curb terminates. It is then continued on a 
straight line, tangent to the arc at that point. This was a device often 
employed in Greek theatres 9 for the sake of the view of those who 
occupied the end seats. At Epidauros 10 the same purpose was accom- 
plished by the use of a different centre and radius, thus making the 
inward, curve at the wings less abrupt. The analemma uncovered is 
of the same poros stone used for the seats and throughout in the whole 
structure. The wall follows the upward inclination of the cavea and is 
0.62 m. thick at the bottom, narrowing to 0.57 m. at the highest point 
reached in the digging. At its lower end the base of a stele was dis- 
covered, lying in a line with the lowest step of the cavea and so at an 
obtuse angle to the analemma. It is rectangular, 1.14 m. in length 
and 0.62 m. in width. The hole sunk in the upper face to receive the 
stele is 0.79 m. long, 0.135 m. wide, and 0.12 m. deep. Doubtless 
the stele bore an inscription relating to the building or rebuilding of 
the theatre. The lines of the analemmata, if prolonged, would meet in 
an obtuse angle at a point between the centre of the orchestra and the 
proscenium another characteristic of the normal Greek theatre. The 
width of the east parodos is about 5 m. The proscenium in its pro- 
longation toward the east bends away slightly, as at Epidauros and 
Oropos. But we could not make sure whether this prolonged line 
was parallel with the analemma, or whether, as is most frequently the 
case, the inclination was such that the parodos became wider as it 
approached the orchestra. Neither was it possible to determine whether 
the parodos was closed by a door or doors, sudi as were found at 
Oropos, Sikyon and Epidauros. 11 

The cavea is divided into eleven cunei (" wedges ") by twelve 
flights of steps. This statement is founded on computation, for only 

8 1 am glad to acknowledge my indebtedness, for many of these measurements and 
for helpful suggestions, to Mr. John Pickard of the American School. 

9 Of. the theatre at Athens ; for that at Peiraieus, see CURTIUS and KAUPERT, Karten 
von Attika, text, I, p. 67. 

10 n paK T lK d for 1883, 47. 1J TlpaKrwd for 1883, 48 ; for 1886, 53. 


three of these flights of steps were definitely located. According to 
Vitruvius, 12 the cunei should be seven and the stairways eight in 
number. But in Greece proper this rule is observed only at Mantineia. 
At Argos and Thorikos we find only three cunei. The number is 
generally greater than that given by Vitruvius. 13 The eastern ana- 
lemma is immediately adjoined by steps ; this must have been the case 
at the other extremity of the eavea also. Such an arrangement is 
indeed almost universal. The cavea was not divided through the 
middle line by a line of steps, nor is it at Athens and at Sikyon. 
This division, despite Vitruvius, was, of course, a quite accidental 
matter, depending upon the number of cunei, whether even or odd. 
The stairway next the analemma is 0.72 m. in breadth at the bottom, 
narrowing with the second step to 0.68 m. Beyond this no exact 
measurement could be taken on account of the ruinous condition of 
the remains. The breadth corresponded approximately to that found 
in the theatres at Athens (0.70 m.), Epidauros (0.74 m.) and Thorikos 
(0.62 m.). It is considerably exceeded, however, in the steps of the 
the following flight, which measure 0.94 m., corresponding nearly 
to the 0.90 m. of the Peiraieus theatre. This increased breadth is 
natural for the interior, where every stairway gave access to two cunei 
instead of one. The height of the steps varied between 0.145 m. and 
0.16 m. ; to this must be added a decided upward slope from front to 
back. So far as could be seen, the level of seats and that of adjoining 
steps correspond only occasionally, the added height of four steps 
amounting to that of three rows of seats. This, I think, is quite 
exceptional. It is an almost invariable rule that every second step 
reaches the level of the adjoining seat. Only in the theatre at Athens 
does a single step, inclining upward from front to back, suffice for 
every row of seats. 

The seats themselves vary greatly in dimensions. Those above 
ground on the upper part of the slope are 0.39 m. in breadth and 
0.54 m. in height; those in the lowest row have, as a rule, the same 
breadth sometimes 0.05 m. to 0.08 m. greater, but are only 0.32 m. 
in height. In profile, there are only slight differences in measure- 
ment, not affecting the general pattern. This is a usual one for theatre- 
seats, and consists of a plane vertical surface reaching 1.05 m. below 
the upper surface and continued down to the bottom of the seat 

18 V. 6.2. 13 Of. Athens, Epidauros, Sikyon, Peiraieus. 


in a cyma reversa curve forming a hollow. The concave surface 
at its deepest point is distant 0.105 m. from a vertical line let fall 
from the upper outer edge of the seat. The seats are set level, 
and have a slightly raised band, 0.09 m. to 0.13 m. wide, running 
along the outer edge. The small breadth of the seats is, so far 
as I can find, quite unprecedented. Vitruvius' maximum and mini- 
mum are 0.7392 m. and 0.5914 m., 14 and his maximum is most 
often exceeded. In the theatre of Thorikos, which is very irregular, 
the average breadth is 0.60 m. ; 15 at Athens, it is 0.782 m., at Epi- 
dauros 0.78 m., at Sikyon 0.75 m. to 0.85 m., at Peiraieus 0.91 m. But 
it is to be noted that in all these theatres, except at Thorikos, only a 
small part of the breadth served as the actual seat ; behind, the stone 
was hollowed to receive the feet of those on the next step above. The 
front part or seat proper is 0.332 m. wide at Athens, 0.35 m. at Epi- 
dauros, Sikyon and Peiraieus. These latter measurements harmonized 
better with the seat-breadth in the Eretrian theatre, and appeared to 
suggest that here the whole surface of the seat was given up to the 
actual occupant. Such was proved to be the case by further excava- 
tion. The seats are not so placed that one rests upon or touches the 
next, but are distant from one another radially 0.35 m. The inter- 
vening space, left for the feet of those who occupied the higher seat, is 
simply earth. Doubtless its level was below that of the seat in front, 
just as in theatres where one stone served as both seat and foot-rest. 
A cavea so constructed would be much less secure than if every row 
were supported immediately by the one below it ; so that this detail of 
construction may account in a measure for the very imperfect pre- 
servation of the whole. 

As to the difference in height (0.22 m.) of the upper and the lower 
seats, it may be remarked that, as the former were entirely above 
ground, a more exact measurement was possible. When the stone was 
set, some part of this excess of height would disappear, but surely not 
the whole. In fact, the entire height of one seat in the second row, 
whose lower edge seemed to have been reached, was only 0.42 m.; this 
would mean that the stone was sunk to a depth of 0.10 m. below the 
surface. In comparing the 0.32 m. of the lower rows with the seats of 
other theatres, we find : at Athens, 0.32 m. ; at Epidauros, 0.34 m. ; at 
Sikyon, 0.35 m.; at Peiraieus, 0.32 m.; at Thorikos, 0.35 m. Here, then, 

I4 MuL,L,ER, Biihnenallerthiimer, 31. 15 Papers of American School, IV, 9. 


is a comparatively exact correspondence, all the figures being below 
Vitruvius' minimum of 0.3696 m. Seats so low could hardly have 
been very comfortable ; and, for the theatre at Athens, Dorpfeld assumes 
that the height was increased by the use of cushions. The same opinion 
is expressed by Kabbadias in his report of the excavations at Epidau- 
ros. 16 But it is interesting to find that at Epidauros the seats above the 
diazoma reach a height of 0.43 m. If at Eretria the upper seats also 
were set down in the earth to a depth of 0.10 m., the actual height 
remaining would be 0.44 m., or almost exactly the same as that in the 
great theatre of Polykleitos. The inference would seem to be that 
the theatre at Eretria was divided by a diazoma, as would be expected 
a priori. The marble slab before referred to, discovered just behind 
the first row of seats, may have made part of the back revetment of 
the diazoma. It is 1.62 m. long, 0.795 m. wide, and 0.185 m. thick ; 
near one corner on the short side is a hole for the insertion of a clamp 
that joined it to its neighbor. The diazoma was not infrequently 
revetted at the back with such plates of marble. 17 Only further ex- 
cavation, however, can make this point certain. Finally, beneath the 
lowest tier of seats was a single step, 0.77 m. wide, and rising gradu- 
ally from front to back ; immediately adjoining, 0.38 m. lower, is the 
broad drain skirting the orchestra. 


The diameter of the orchestra, measured to the poros curb which 
skirts it, is 20.28 m.; to the lowest step of the cavea, 24.88 m. It is 
larger than that of the theatres at Peiraieus (16.50 m.), Sikyon (about 
20 m.), and Mantineia (21.70 m.) ; larger even than that of those at 
Athens (22.50 m.) and Epidauros (24.50 m.), though in the last two 
theatres the size of the cavea is very much greater than at Eretria. The 
ratio of orchestra diameter to cavea diameter in the Eretrian theatre 
is an unusually large one. The orchestra was certainly unpaved. As 
late as 1886, Miiller 18 writes of the orchestra surface as Fast ohne Aus- 
nahme gepflastert ; he cites as exceptions only the odeum at Knidos 
and the theatre at Epidauros. But in the theatres at Peiraieus, Oropos, 
Sikyon, Thorikos, Mantineia and Megalopolis, the orchestra surface 
has been found to consist merely of beaten earth. Kabbadias 19 in his 

16 UpaKTiKo. for 1881, napdpT7jfj.a, 17. 

17 Cf. the theatre at Sikyon, in Papers of American School, v, p. 11 (JOURNAL, v, p. 277). 

18 Buhnenalterthumer, 37. 19 npaxTiitd for 1881, Uapdpr'rjfj.a, 19. 


report of the work at Epidauros concludes that paving was not in use 
in the best times. The pavement of the orchestra at Athens, for ex- 
ample, is certainly of Roman date. Perhaps the converse of Kab- 
badias' proposition will not hold : that the lack of paving implies an 
early time; but it may at least be regarded as an indication. The 
orchestra was in part bounded by the line of curb already often referred 
to. This consists of large blocks of poros, bearing a slight projecting 
moulding on the outer (next the cavea) side. It is'0.42 m. in breadth 
and rises 0.395 m. from the drain or gutter outside it ; thus it is nearly 
on a level with the lowest step on the other side of the drain. It rises 
very slightly from the middle toward the extremities, the resulting 
difference of level amounting to 0.067 m. On the outer side the curve 
is perfect ; inside the blocks are not cut to the curve but are left straight. 
This makes it certain that the orchestra surface was at least as high as 
the level of the curb. The upper surface of the stylobate of the pro- 
scenium-wall is 0.38 m. above the curb, and it is this stylobate which we 
might expect to determine approximately the level of the orchestra, 
which, if just high enough to conceal the lower edge of the stylobate, 
.would be about 0.25 m. above the surrounding curb. The joinings of 
the curb are everywhere perfect, and the workmanship good. It ex- 
tends through an arc of 159, thus falling short of the angular meas- 
urement of the cavea by 27. Therefore, for a distance of 5.35 m. at 
each end, the lowest step of the cavea immediately adjoins the earthen 
surface of the orchestra. At a distance of 1.62 m. from its extremities 
the curb narrows abruptly (at the jointing of two stones) to a breadth 
of 0.25 m. The narrowing is all on the inner side ; the moulding and 
the curve on the outside continue unbroken. Finally, it is joined with 
the lowest step of the cavea by a radial cross-wall of the same pattern, 
0.29 m. in width. 

The sunken drain or passage left between the curb and the lowest 
step is 1.88 m. wide at the middle, increasing very gradually to 1.90- 
1.91 m. at the eastern extremity; it is well paved throughout with 
poros. That it served as a drain was made sure by the discovery, 
outside the cross-wall, of a conduit of pottery. This was very small 
(0.235 m. wide, 0.15 m. deep), and consisted of a flat plate bent to form 
a rectangular prism ; it was open above and lay somewhat below the level 
of the cavea-dram. A hole was discovered piercing the cross-wall at 
the bottom, through which water might pass into the outer conduit. 
This conduit extended toward and under the stage-structure, bending 


gradually toward the east. This whole plan and arrangement is closely 
similar to what was found at Epidauros. At Athens the orchestra is sur- 
rounded by a drain, which is, however, much narrower (0.90 m.) and 
deeper ; so that bridges were necessary in the line of every stairway. 
The same narrow and deep canal with a succession of bridges, is found at 
Sikyon and at Peiraieus ; at Megalopolis its dimensions are about the 
same, but the bridges, if there ever were any, have disappeared. In 
every case the drain is carried on in some way under the stage-structure. 
At Epidauros, the narrow gutter is replaced by a broad and shallow 
paved passage, very nearly corresponding in its measurements to that 
at Eretria. A curb with similar moulding bounds it on the inside, 
and at about the extremities of a diameter parallel to the proscenium 
are cross-blocks uniting the curb with the lowest step of the cavea. 
These are pierced each by two apertures affording an outlet into a 
subterranean drain which runs away under the stage-structure. At 
Epidauros, however, the circle of the curb is made complete instead 
of being interrupted at the cross-walls. As Kabbadias suggests, 20 
Polykleitos' great work might well have served as a model to later 
designers. The theatre at Aigina, according to Pausanias, 21 resembled 
it in size and structure. 

I have already noted the existence of three ill-made and ruinous 
cross- walls in this drain. The first lies about 0.50 m. to the east of 
the middle point of the curb, is 1.60 m. long, 0.37 .40 m. wide, and 
0.35 m. high. Space enough is left between each end and the adjoin- 
ing side-wall of the drain, for water to pass freely. The second, 5 m. 
further toward the east, is of about the same length and height, but 
slightly wider. The third, lying 3.65 m. from the second and 3.90 m. 
from the cross-curb at the end, extends but half-way across the drain, 
and is very much wider (0.85 m.) than the other two. My first thought 
was that the cross- walls had served to support bridges corresponding to 
the stairways. But they lie at such irregular intervals that this could 
hardly have been the case (the distance between adjacent stairways along 
the lowest tier of seats is 3.29 m.) ; and in any event bridges so short 
would not have needed a continuous support. It seems most reasona- 
ble to suppose that the drain was in later times completely covered, 
and that the cross-walls made the foundation for such covering. They 
appear to be late, and from their height would be very well suited to 

50 UpaKTiKd for 1881, UapdpT-wa, 29. 81 II. 29, 11. 


the object suggested. The reason of this covering may have been to 
obtain space for a row of marble chairs or thrones. If the chairs were 
not here, they could have had no other place except within the orchestra 
itself, where they are found at Oropos, just across the Euripos from 
Eretria, but, I think, nowhere else in Greece. The two theatres might 
very well have been similar in this respect. The fragments Of thrones 
which were found seem to shed light on the matter. All along the course 
of the drain were unearthed large and small pieces of marble which cer- 
tainly belonged to thrones. Finally, at the east end, the back of a throne 
was found entire, lying on the poros pavement of the drain. It cor- 
responded in style and measurement to the smaller fragments. In 
addition, we discovered, as already noted, near the centre of the orches- 
tra, at the north end of the subterranean passage, the arm of a mar- 
ble chair, lying about 1 m. below the ancient level of the orchestra. 
It differed entirely from all the rest in dimensions and pattern. Mr. 
Leonardos, the superintending Ephor at Eretria, judged it of earlier 
and better work than the more numerous fragments. It may have 
belonged to a period earlier than the construction of the underground 
passage, and at this earlier time the thrones may have stood within 
the orchestra, as at Oropos. In the construction of the passage a 
deep trench must have been sunk and naturally prolonged somewhat 
beyond its northern extremity ; in the hole thus left this fragment of 
a throne might well have been buried together with other debris from 
the old structure. I should ascribe the later thrones to the period 
of rebuilding thus indicated ; these might then have been placed over 
the drain which was covered to receive them. But all this is a matter 
of conjecture from very incomplete data. 

The arc of the orchestra, if taken at the poros curb inside the drain, 
just cuts the line of the later proscenium, but falls short of the heavy 
front- wall of the older stage-structure. The curve of the lowest step, 
if prolonged, cuts the earlier wall as well. This latter circle is the 
basis of Vitruvius' plan ; and in this respect the theatre at Eretria, 
like most others, chances to accord with the Roman architect's theory. 


The position and direction of the underground passage have already 
been described. Its total length is 13.09 m.; breadth at the bottom 
(a-e in section) 0.89 m. ; height (o-f) exactly 2. m. It is formed 
of two tiers of very large blocks carefully fitted together, no one of 



them varying in length so much as 0.05 m. from 1 m. The stones 
of the lower course are set vertically and are 1.10 m. high (a-b, ed). 
With the second course (b c, d-c), the two side walls come together, 
making an angle at the top of 60. There is no cap-stone, and nothing 
of the arch-construction ; the stones rest against each other merely by 
the contact of their inner uppermost edges, and the outer edges, which 
might otherwise project above the level of the orchestra, are cut away 
so as to lie just beneath the old surface. The passage is covered in 
this way along 11.03 m. of its entire length. At both ends the last 
stone of the upper course on each side rises vertically, instead of slop- 
ing to meet its fellow. These stones vary slightly in dimensions. All 
are 0.85 m. in height; but, at the north end of the passage, the block 
on the east side is 1.07 long, its opposite 0.99 m., and at the stage end, 
the one to the east is 1.03 m., that to the west 
1.08 m. long. These differences are scarcely 
noticeable except on actual measurement. At 
the north end every stone is 0.15 m. wide at the 
top ; at the stage end the total width is 0.33 m., 
but on the inside there is a sunken ledge 0.05 m. 
deep and 0.15 m. wide. This disposition was 
evidently planned to receive a trap-door which 
should cover the opening. At the north end there 
is a suggestion of an intended covering in two 
small cavities corresponding to each other in the 
last two stones that are joined to roof the passage ; 
but it is difficult to see just how these cavities could 
have contributed to the purpose in question. 
Thus was 'afforded entrance to the passage at the centre of the or- 
chestra and just behind the proscenium. It was facilitated by steps 
constructed in a noteworthy and unusual manner. At either end a 
huge block of poros was set in, resting on the same level as the side 
stones of the lower course, and corresponding to them in height. It 
was so wide that its middle portion could be cut into steps equal in 
breadth to the passage, while the side portions thus left standing free 
bounded the continuation of the passage in the line of the regular 
blocks of the lower course. This block furnished three steps. Upon 
it and between the vertical side stones of the upper course, which 
form the opening, was placed another huge block, which was cut out 
in three more steps in the same way. Thus a stairway was formed 

Section of Subterranean 


extending from the upper outer corner of the vertical side stones to 
the bottom of the passage. At the stage end all these six steps are 
perfectly preserved; at the north end only the lower block, with its 
three steps, remains. The missing portion, however, may easily be 
restored. The line of inclination of the lower steps, prolonged by the 
length of a second block, exactly reaches the corresponding corner of 
the upper side stones. It is, of course, possible that the missing steps 
may have been of wood, or for some reason may not have been neces- 
sary at all. The steps at the stage end are 0.83 m. long ; at the north 
end 0.87 m.; in both cases 0.12 m. less than the width of the blocks 
in which they are cut. A ledge 0.06 m. wide is thus left on both sides 
of the steps. The steps are 0. 1 7 m. wide and 0.27 m. high. The low- 
est is about 0.50 m. above the original soil which formed the floor of 
the passage. No trace was discovered of paving. At each entrance the 
lower exterior edges of the slanting roof-blocks are splayed to aiford 
easier entrance. The passage is now lighted by a vesica-shaped aper- 
ture in the roof, 1.24 m. long and 0.35 m. wide, distant from the north 
end 3.34 m. I do not feel sure that this is not an accidental breaking 
away ; but the roofing seems too firm at every other point to make 
this probable. No mortar was used in the construction of the passage, 
and the workmanship throughout is excellent. I owe to Dr. Dorpfeld 
the judgment that the whole is Greek and belongs to a good period. 
What, then, was the purpose of this passage? If it had been a 
drain, it would surely have extended further, under and beyond the 
stage-structure ; moreover, it is very much larger than a drain need have 
been. It is thus clear that its object was to make a way by which 
passage could be had unseen from behind the proscenium to the centre 
of the orchestra, or vice versa. It would thus supply the means for 
chorus or actors to appear suddenly in view of the audience in the 
orchestra, or to disappear just as suddenly. The notion that the pass- 
age was ever used by the chorus, may be dismissed. One of the most 
essential purposes of the parodoi was to furnish for the chorus an 
entrance to the orchestra. The effect produced by their appearance 
one by one from below would have been ridiculous. Extant plays 
and scholia afford abundant evidence to prove the impossibility of such 
a conception. The purpose of the passage, then, was to allow the actors 
to pass between the orchestra and their dressing-rooms in the rear of the 
proscenium. After his appearance, the actor may have kept his place 
in the orchestra or ascended a raised stage such as Vitruvius describes. 



them varying in length so much as 0.05 m. from 1 m. The stones 
of the lower course are set vertically and are 1.10 m. high (a-6, e d). 
With the second course (6-c, d-c), the two side walls come together, 
making an angle at the top of 60. There is no cap-stone, and nothing 
of the arch-construction ; the stones rest against each other merely by 
the contact of their inner uppermost edges, and the outer edges, which 
might otherwise project above the level of the orchestra, are cut away 
so as to lie just beneath the old surface. The passage is covered in 
this way along 11.03 m. of its entire length. At both ends the last 
stone of the upper course on each side rises vertically, instead of slop- 
ing to meet its fellow. These stones vary slightly in dimensions. All 
are 0.85 m. in height; but, at the north end of the passage, the block 
on the east side is 1.07 long, its opposite 0.99 m., and at the stage end, 
the one to the east is 1.03 m., that to the west 
1.08 m. long. These differences are scarcely 
noticeable except on actual measurement. At 
the north end every stone is 0.15 m. wide at the 
top ; at the stage end the total width is 0.33 m., 
but on the inside there is a sunken ledge 0.05 m. 
deep and 0.15 in. wide. This disposition was 
evidently planned to receive a trap-door which 
should cover the opening. At the north end there 
is a suggestion of an intended covering in two 
small cavities corresponding to each other in the 
last two stones that are joined to roof the passage ; 
but it is difficult to see just how these cavities could 
have contributed to the purpose in question. 
Thus was 'afforded entrance to the passage at the centre of the or- 
chestra and just behind the proscenium. It was facilitated by steps 
constructed in a noteworthy and unusual manner. At either end a 
huge block of poros was set in, resting on the same level as the side 
stones of the lower course, and corresponding to them in height. It 
was so wide that its middle portion could be cut into steps equal in 
breadth to the passage, while the side portions thus left standing free 
bounded the continuation of the passage in the line of the regular 
blocks of the lower course. This block furnished three steps. Upon 
it and between the vertical side stones of the upper course, which 
form the opening, was placed another huge block, which was cut out 
in three more steps in the same way. Thus a stairway was formed 

Section of Subterranean 


extending from the upper outer corner of the vertical side stones to 
the bottom of the passage. At the stage end all these six steps are 
perfectly preserved ; at the north end only the lower block, with its 
three steps, remains. The missing portion, however, may easily be 
restored. The line of inclination of the lower steps, prolonged by the 
length of a second block, exactly reaches the corresponding corner of 
the upper side stones. It is, of course, possible that the missing steps 
may have been of wood, or for some reason may not have been neces- 
sary at all. The steps at the stage end are 0.83 m. long ; at the north 
end 0.87 m.; in both cases 0.12 m. less than the width of the blocks 
in which they are cut. A ledge 0.06 m. wide is thus left on both sides 
of the steps. The steps are 0. 1 7 m. wide and 0.27 m. high. The low- 
est is about 0.50 m. above the original soil which formed the floor of 
the passage. No trace was discovered of paving. At each entrance the 
lower exterior edges of the slanting roof-blocks are splayed to afford 
easier entrance. The passage is now lighted by a vesica-shaped aper- 
ture in the roof, 1.24 m. long and 0.35 m. wide, distant from the north 
end 3.34 m. I do not feel sure that this is not an accidental breaking 
away ; but the roofing seems too firm at every other point to make 
this probable. No mortar was used in the construction of the passage, 
and the workmanship throughout is excellent. I owe to Dr. Dorpfeld 
the judgment that the whole is Greek and belongs to a good period. 
What, then, was the purpose of this passage? If it had been a 
drain, it would surely have extended further, under and beyond the 
stage-structure ; moreover, it is very much larger than a drain need have 
been. It is thus clear that its object was to make a way by which 
passage could be had unseen from behind the proscenium to the centre 
of the orchestra, or vice versa. It would thus supply the means for 
chorus or actors to appear suddenly in view of the audience in the 
orchestra, or to disappear just as suddenly. The notion that the pass- 
age was ever used by the chorus, may be dismissed. One of the most 
essential purposes of the parodoi was to furnish for the chorus an 
entrance to the orchestra. The effect produced by their appearance 
one by one from below would have been ridiculous. Extant plays 
and scholia afford abundant evidence to prove the impossibility of such 
a conception. The purpose of the passage, then, was to allow the actors 
to pass between the orchestra and their dressing-rooms in the rear of the 
proscenium. After his appearance, the actor may have kept his place 
in the orchestra or ascended a raised stage such as Vitruvius describes. 


An important fact to be noted is that such a passage could have been 
employed only in particular cases. An actor who is represented as 
coming from palace or city or some foreign land could not possibly 
appear before the audience as if rising suddenly from the depths of the 
earth. Such an apparition must actually be a being from the lower 
world, imagined as returning to the light of day. The manner of 
entrance would be so clearly seen by the audience and would be so 
notable that it must at once suggest such an apparition. The device 
can have had no cause for existence, if it was not to contribute to what 
we call stage-effect, to heighten illusion ; but illusion would have been 
utterly lost if an actor who came to herald the return of a king from 
Troy had been seen emerging from the earth. 

Extant tragedy furnishes examples of such appearances. In the 
Persians of Aischylos, the chorus is urged by Atossa (v. 619, seq.) to 
call up the spirit of Darius. The chorus then accompany her libations 
with a long hymn of supplication to Darius and to the powers of the 
lower world (vv. 621-671). In v. 656, the King is implored : l/cov 
TOV& eV atcpov Kopv/jb^ov o^Oov. Darius appears. He first addresses 
the chorus, telling them how he has seen Atossa rd<f)ov Tre'Xa? (v. 675), 
and has received her libations, and he further bids the chorus : uyu-et? 
Be Oprjvelr eyyvs eo-rwre? rdfov (v. 677). They have just called on 
him to rise above the mound that covers his tomb ; now he finds them 
standing close by the tomb. He must appear therefore in the midst 
of them, and surely from below. The difficulty of placing the tomb 
upon the stage and grouping the chorus there instead of in the orchestra 
has always been evident. Such a passageway as that at Eretria would 
enable the actor who personated Darius to make his appearance much 
more naturally, from beneath the actual surface of the earth and in 
the midst of the chorus. 

If we are to believe that actors as well as chorus had their places in 
the orchestra, the final catastrophe of the Prometheus Sound may have 
represented the disappearance of Prometheus and the Oceanides be- 
neath its surface. They must, from the play, have shared the same 
fate, and together, whether in orchestra or on a stage. At Eretria the 
entrance to the passage is so small that its use by so large a group 
would certainly present great difficulties. It is possible also that in 
Sophokles' Philoktetes, and Euripides' Kyklops, the passageway may 
have served as the cave which made part of the scene. This, however, 
may well be deemed doubtful, and the best evidence is furnished by 


the first two plays cited. The steps of Charon mentioned by Pollux 
(iv. 132) have appeared to us clearly for the first time at Eretria. 
Pollux's description of this part of the scenic adjuncts runs as fol- 
lows : at Be ^apcoveioi K\i[ji,aice<$, Kara TO.? e/e TWV eScDXicov KaQoSov? 
Ki/jLvai, TO, i8co\a air avrwv dvcnrefjLTrova-iv. This gives but a con- 
fused notion of the position of the steps, and various opinions have 
been held on this point. But if we are to accept Pollux at all, and his 
is our only authority on the matter, these steps could surely have had 
no connection with a stage. The meaning of Kara ra? /c TWV e&coXtW 
/caOoSovs is obscure, but seems as well suited to the situation of the 
steps in the Eretrian orchestra as to any other point in the orchestra. 
It is interesting to find Miiller 22 supporting his view, that the steps 
in question led up to the stage through some sort of trapdoor, with the 
words : Man beachte auch, doss die Orchestra im griechischen Theater 
kerne unterirdischen Gewolbe hatte wie sie sieh im romischen Amphitheater 
finden. Wilamowitz 23 seems almost to anticipate the discovery made 
at Eretria. Discussing the Persians, he writes : Es ist mitten auf dem 
Tanzplatz eine Buhne, Estrade ist dem Deutschen wohl deutlicher, deren 
Stufen zu anfang die 8itze des Raihhauses, weiterhin die Stufen des 
Grabmonumentes vorstetten : aus ihr Jcommt Dareios hervor; der Schaus- 
pieler der als Bote bis 514 sprach, hat also Zeit und Gelegenheit gehabt, 
sich bis 687 umzukleiden und unter die Estrade zu gelangen : wie das 
geschicht ist nicht uberliefert, und der Philologe kann sich das nicht 

A further question involves the relation between these steps and the 
avaTriea-fjLara. Pollux says of the latter (iv. 132): TO /j,ev ea-riv ev 
rfi aKrivfi co? Trora/jibv ave\6elv rj TOIOVTOV n irpoawTrov, TO Be Trepl 
TOU? dvaftaO/Liovs afi &v dveftatvov epivves. Perhaps the dv a (S 0,6^01 
are identical with the steps of Charon, and with the steps found at 
Eretria ; the Erinyes, as beings of the lower world, would naturally 
ascend in such a way. The dvaTTLecr^ara proper may then have in- 
volved only some additional machinery to be used in connection with 
the steps and passage. 

If the underground passage at Eretria did serve the purpose described, 
it would be most natural to expect something similar in other theatres. 
Mr. Penrose 24 has suggested that the drain-canal in the theatre in 

82 Bilhnenalterthumef, 150, n. 4. 

23 Die Biihne des Aischylos, Hermes, xxi, 608. 

24 Journal of Hellenic Studies, viu, 272. 


Athens may have been used also as a concealed way from one side of 
the stage to the other ; but, even if this were possible, the case would 
hardly be a parallel one. Clearer evidence however has recently come 
to light. Shortly after our work at Eretria was finished, news came 
that the Germans had made a similar discovery at Magnesia. The 
passage there, Dr. Dorpfeld informs me, has about the same extent 
and direction as ours, except that at the orchestra end it branches at 
right angles in both directions, thus taking the form of the letter T. 
At Magnesia, however, no steps have been discovered, and the opening 
into the orchestra is barely large enough for a man to pass. At Tralleis, 
also, there is a less perfect example. But both these passages, Dr. 
Dorpfeld thinks, are of Roman construction. He tells me, too, that 
the excavations at present in progress at the theatre of Argos have 
disclosed what seems to be something of like nature. More important 
than all these, however, is the evidence afforded by the theatre at Sikyon, 
where some supplemental excavations have been made during the 
past summer by Dr. M. L. Earle, a former member of the American 
School, who superintended the investigations at Sikyon in 1887. 25 Dr. 
Earle's preliminary report will be found below ; but I may touch 
briefly on the point most interesting in this relation. This is the stair- 
way, in the theatre at Sikyon, which leads down into the subterranean 
passage just behind the late proscenium. The stairway seems to belong 
to the same period as the passage, which appears to be of Hellenic work. 
At the orchestra end there are no steps ; but here the passage widens 
out so as to make a much more spacious entrance than at Eretria. These 
two facts taken together with the great height of the passage, which 
would be unnecessary for a mere drain, go to prove that the purpose 
of the passage was the same as at Eretria. In all probability it served 
also as a drain ; but the two uses are not incompatible. It is certainly 
noteworthy that such closely similar discoveries have been made in 
theatres so far apart as t'he sites in Peloponnesos and in Euboia. With 
the progress of excavation in all parts of Greece and in Greek lands, 
further light may be expected with confidence. 


American School of Classical Studies, 
Athens, October, 1891. 

25 Papers of American School, v, p. 20 (JOURNAL, v, p. 267 seq.}. 



OF SIKYON, IN 1891. 1 

The results of the supplementary excavation of the subterranean 
structure in the theatre of Sikyon, conducted from July 27 to August 
14, 1891, may be summarized as follows : 2 

The underground passage, which has been called L/TTOI/OJUO?, at present 
in the form of a trench with vertical sides, begins in the orchestra near 
the middle of the semicircular conduit below the seats of the cavea, and 
runs to a point about midway between the walls D and E of the stage- 
structure (JOURNAL, vol. v, pi. ix). Through most of the orchestra 
it cuts the native white clay; but from the space marked on the 
plan as " excavated below the level of orchestra" to the point between 
D and E, it is cut through a crust of rock to the clay soil beneath. 
From just in front of the wall B (toward the orchestra), the sides ol 
the viTovofjio^ are sheathed with slabs of stone ; this construction is 
continued through the orchestra to where the VTTOVO^O^ is met by a 
gutter cut in a single block of stone, which projects about half a metre 
into the orchestra from under the lower of the two courses of stone 
that form the outer boundary of the semicircular conduit. In the 
stone facing between A and -B is set a flight of five steps of soft native 
stone, constructed, in part at least, of architrave-blocks. This stair- 
way, which occupies the entire width of the VTTOVO/AOS and descends in 
the direction of the orchestra, terminates abruptly about half a metre 
above the bottom of the VTTOVO/JLOS, thus leaving a free space, evidently 
intended for the passage of water. Under the stairway the VTTQVO^O^ 
is floored with stone slabs. How far forward into the orchestra these 
run it is impossible to say, owing to incomplete excavation. They 
certainly appear in the line of the wall KK, which has no structural 
connection with the VTTQVO^O^. The depth of the VTTOVO/AOS varies 
from about 2.25 m. between D and E to about 1.85 m. between A 

1 Papers of the American School at Athens,*?, p. 20 ( JOUHNAI,, v, pp. 267-292). 
* A detailed report, with plans, will be published later. 

4 281 


and B and at KK. Its width is about 0.56 m. between D and E, 
and 0.69 m. between A and B. At about the centre of the orchestra, 
the vTTovofjios widens to about double its average width, and forms a 
cubical tank, with a clay bottom, 1.30 m. square and deep. Beyond 
this its breadth decreases gradually from about 0.60 m. to 0.30 m., 
where it meets the gutter mentioned above. The VTTQVO^O^ was origin- 
ally covered, except over the stairway, with slabs of native conglom- 
erate. It is continued beyond the theatre by a tunnel in the rock, 
about 1 m. high, which apparently meets one of the numerous sub- 
terranean waterways of the plateau. 

Barnard College, 

Nov. 27, 1891. 



il ii 





The filiation of the monastery Castagnola is Citeaux La Ferte", 
1113 Locedio, 1124 Castagnola, 1147. It was taken possession of 
by the Cistercian monks on January 14, 1 147. Locedio, its foundress, 
was situated in Piedmont, not far from Vercelli, in a region that was 
under direct French influence. Castagnola itself was at a great dis- 
tance, in the Marches of Ancona, not far from the Adriatic coast, in 
the diocese of Sinigaglia, five miles from Jesi. A number of authorities 
place an earlier monastery on this site, but do not agree as to dates. 
The various opinions are given in Janauschek, Orig. Cist. p. 9 1. 1 

The monastic buildings have been entirely destroyed or remodeled ; 
only the church remains, and it also has suffered in its apsidal 
chapels. It is at present called Santa Maria di Castagneto with the 
variant Castagnola : the ancient name was Castaneola. 

The church appears not to have been commenced at the time of the 
advent of the Cistercian monks. Two inscriptions remain to give its 

1 Caslaneola, injucunda et ferlili planitie ad Aesium fluvium in marchia Anconitana el 
dioecesi Senogalliensi sita et quinque milliaria ab Aesio, duo a mari distans, ex inscriptione 
columnae in loco quodam erecta est, in quo jam a. 1125 ecdesia exstitit; quo autemfundatore 
ilia et posterior e aevo monasterium condita sint, tenebris obvolutum jacet. Aliis .ad Theodo- 
lindam reginam originem coenobii, quod a Benedictinis monachis ante habitatvm esse con- 
tendunt, referenlibus Leonus (ex Tarquinio Pinaoro) earn Mathildi comitissae et saeculo 
xi h-ibuit, Horatius Avicenna (apud Lubinium) S. Bernardo; Augustinus ab Ecdesia 
coenobium mox post a. 11 23 ortum esse statuit, Jongelinus (JC. JO. Bo. St. ) a. 1 1 26 (fortasse 
errore typi pro 1146), Vischius 1127; ceterae vero chronologiae et plures et praeslantiores 
monachos Cistercienses xix Cal. Febr. 1146 i. e. my Jan. 1147 (Ha) introductos esse con- 
stanter tradunt (P. B. Bi. Du. Pa. M. W. He. Vi [ix Cal. Feb.], V [iterum, prid. Cal. 
Aug.]. Si. N. Bl. Ve. F. 1145: A. R. E. EM., L. La.}. Mater Castaneolae nulli 
episcopo subjectae Locedium (de Linea Firmitatis) erat, primus abbas Oddo,filia S. Severus. 

(Manr. 1146. XII. 1. 6. Jong. II. 77. N. 45; ej. Origg.Douschon.Mart. Thes. IV. at. 8. a. 1230 ; 33. a. 
1281. Moroni xi. 169. Aug. ab Ecdesia 313.Lubin 90. 115.Amalori, Pic. 3Rampoldi I. 658. 
Leoni n. 150. Lucentius I. 2Si.Adrianius p. xxxvil. N. 3. Annott. Cl. Dom. Leonis Nardoni common, 
cum auct.). 



date, one in the porch and the other in the apse. The first is on the 
wall of the main fa9ade to the left of the central doorway, and gives the 
date 1172: A nno Domini aedificala MCLXXII. The second is inscribed 
on the capital of the engaged pier in the transept to the right of the 
apse. Its great height and a hanging drapery prevented a perfect read- 
ing : Anno milleno centeno nonogeno deno mixti dmionstrant. 

The period 1 1 72-1192 may be safely taken as that of the construc- 
tion of the church, which is the earliest in date of the Gothic Cistercian 
constructions in Italy, so far as I am acquainted with them. It is not 
entirely unknown, but has been mentioned and partially illustrated by 
Agincourt, 2 Schnaase, 3 Mothes, 4 Dehio and Bezold. 5 

2 Histoire de V Art, pis. xxxvi, figs. 23-25 ; XLII, 5 ; LXIV, 13 ; LXVIII, 33 ; LXX, 
10-11 ; LXXIII, 17, 31, 41, 43; these illustrations are so small as to be useless. Text 
quite useless. 

3 Geschichte der bildenden Kilnste, vii, 87. SCHNAASE says: In vielen fallen wares 
auch hier der Orden der Cister denser, der seit der mitte des XII. Jahrhunderts das Bei- 
spiel franzosischer Formen gab. So in der Kirche zu Chiaravalle zwischen Ancona und 
Sinigaglia, welche vielleicht wenige Decennien nach der Griindung (1173) mit gegliederten 
Pfeilern, spitzbogigen Arcaden, durchgefilhrten Kreuzgewblben und gleichen rundbogigen 
Fenstern emporstieg, und auch in der Schmucklosigkeit der Kapitdle vollkommen den fran- 
zosischen und deutschen Kirchen des Ordens aus dieser Zeit entspricht. Die Facade, die 
dcht italienisch nur mit dem Portale, der Fensterrose und einem zweitheiligen oberen Fenster 
ausgestattet ist, beweist auch hier, me diese Briider trotz der Anhdnglichkeit an die Gebrduche 
ihres Ordens im Inter esse anstdndigtr Einfachheit sich iiberaU die Landesformen anzueignen 

* Die Baukunst des Mittelalters in Italien, p. 440: 1172 wurde in dem damals kasta- 
nienreichen Thai ron Jesi in der Mark Ancona, von Mailand aus, ein zweites Kloster Chia- 
rc.valle (di Castagneto) gegrundet. Der Grundriss zeigt im LangschiffQ Joche, die nach 
dem Quadrat der Seiienschiffe bemessen sind, eine Vierung mit Kreuzarmen, welche um ein 
Joch iiber die Seitenschi/e vorspringen und ein quadratisches Chor. Die Pfeiler sind quad- 
ralisch mit angesetzten Halbsdulen, welche zum Theil Wurfelcapitale, zum Theil aber abge- 
kantete Trapezcapitdle haben, die fast zu schlichten Kelchcapitalen werden und an Pal. 
Dandolo-Farsetti in Venedig erinnern. Die Querbogen der Seitenschiffe sind rund und 
tragen Biforien. Die Arkaden sind nur sehr stumpfe Spitzbogen, die Querbogen in Mitlel- 
schiff ebenfalls, ivahrend die Sohildbb'gen auf der Arkadenmauer ziemlich spitz sind. Alle 
Fenster sind rund, sdmmtliche Details noch romanisch, das Constructionsprincip schon beinah 
vollig golhisch. Der Westgiebel aber erstreckt sich noch in alter Weise iiber alle drei Schiffe 
und hat sogar ein Fussgesims, welches von einem Kreuzungsbogenfries geslillzt und von einem 
gekuppelten Rundbogenfenster unter rundem Oberbogen durchschnitten ivird. Da nach dem 
technischen Befund hochstens die Mittelschiffgewolbe spater sind, so haben wir hier ein sehr 
friihes Beispiel von vorwiegender Anwendung des Spitzbogens durch lombardische Meister, etc. 

5 Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Abenlandes, pi. cxcvi, 5, 6. There is as yet no mention 
of our building in the text of this work, which has not yet been issued so far as the 
early Gothic period. The two illustrations are sections of the interior. 


EXTERIOR (PLATE xn, 1). The church is entirely built, not of the 
brown stone or travertine generally used by the Cistercians, but of brick, 
without any of the polychromy so generally seen in the churches of 
Lombardy. The general effect is plain but symmetrical, especially in 
the broad lines of the front. The porch and bits of the walls of the 
aisles and transept are disfigured by stucco : the same may be said of 
the tower, over the intersection, which also seems to have suffered from 
restoration. The wheel-window is covered with glass on the outside. 
The use of brick instead of stone makes Castagnola an exception, almost 
an anomaly, in the Cistercian architecture of Italy. 6 It is a sign of Ital- 
ian influence from the North of Italy : probably Locedio furnished its 
prototype both in material and in form. 

The fa9ade is simple. Its rather low gable embraces in one unin- 
terrupted line the aisles as well as the nave, and rises to a considerable 
height above the roof, forming a screen. A similar device to give the 
effect of height is used at the ends of the transept and apse. The 
cornice of the gable is moderately heavy and rich and is capped by a 
small turret on the summit and at each end. A similar cornice forms 
the base of the gable and is interrupted in the centre by a two-light 
round-headed window, recessed, with a diamond-shaped oculus between 
the lights which are separated by a slender octagonal pillar. Under 
the cornice and window runs a decoration of interlaced round false 
arches a feature common to many Lombard churches of the xui and 
xiv centuries in a richer form. The middle story of the fa9ade, whose 
edges are framed by a projecting strip, is broken only by the central 
wheel-window. This window is constructed of a fine-grained stone : 
its outer mouldings are heavy and effective. In the centre is a quatre- 
foil in a circle on which rest twelve radiating colonnettes with bases 
and capitals on which rest as many moulded round arches : the arches 
do not intersect as in later examples. For a discussion of the wheel- 
window I refer the reader to vol. vi, pp. 23-26 of the JOURNAL in 
the article on Fossanova. 

The lower story is occupied entirely by an open porch whose roof 
touches the wheel-window. This porch has five round arches on the 
front and one on each end. The original intention was to have the 
central and the two outer arcades of equal span while the two others 

6 The Italian Cistercian churches are usually built of the stone of the region and, 
wherever possible, of travertine. Brick is used in a few instances faced with stone : 
e.g., at San Galgano near Siena, 1208-1248. 


should be narrower and lower, but the left-hand outer arch, which has 
suffered injury, has a wider span than the others. These arches are 
entirely without mouldings, and are separated from their piers merely 
by a string-course. The interior of the porch is covered by unribbed 
cross-vaults separated by thin round arches. On the side of the fa9ade 
the engaged piers are heavily recessed though not moulded. The doors 
leading into the church are round-headed. 

Over the intersection rises a simple square tower, of one story and 
with a large round-headed single window in each side, crowned by a 
low pyramidal spire. The windows in nave and aisles are simple 
round-headed openings. The most important feature of the exterior 
is its system of buttresses. They are more prominent than in any of the 
other Italian Cistercian structures, in which the Romanesque buttress- 
strips continue to be used. They project vertically about two feet, and 
rise about three feet above the roof of the aisles. An examination of 
the buttress on the left side near the front appeared to show that these 
were originally flying buttresses, the space between them and the roof 
being afterward filled in for greater strength. The buttress nearest 
the transept is much higher than the rest, and abuts against the upper 
part of the vault of the central nave. The reason for this appears to 
have been the weight of the central tower. This buttress is now solid, 
but it is easy to see, even in the plate, the outline by which the later 
filling-in is separated from the original flying buttress. The existence 
of the flying buttress in this Italian structure of 1172 is all the more 
important to note because there are not more than three or four ex- 
amples known in the entire country, 7 and none so early. But, further- 
more, in France itself this peculiarly Gothic feature began to be used 
only a decade or two previously, at the very close of the transitional 

INTERIOR (PLATE xn, 2). Although the effect of the interior is 
sadly marred by a coat of stucco, the structure has remained practically 
untouched. The exception is the destruction of the two oblong chapels 
on the right of the apse, and the remodelling of one of those on its 
left. The plan (PLATE xm, 3) is the same simple Cistercian formula 
carried out in most Italian examples : a Latin cross with a square apse 

7 In my review of Mr. Moore's book on Gothic architecture (vol. vi, p. 150), I men- 
tioned flying buttresses at S. Francesco, Bologna (1236-45) ; Sta. Chiara (1258) and 
S. Francesco, Assisi (1232-53) ; and probably Sta. Corona, Vicenza. 


flanked by two square chapels on either side. 8 None of the vaults are 
on a square plan except that covering the intersection. The dimensions 
are only slightly smaller than at Fossanova and Casamari, and slightly 
larger than at S. Martino near Viterbo. The total length is under 60 
met. ; the width under 20 met. The side-aisles measure, between the 
centres of the piers, 6.50 met. E. to w. along the axis of the church, 
and 4.15 met. N. to s. : the nave is a little wider than at Fossanova, 
measuring c. 10.50 met. between the axes. 

In the construction of the ribbed cross-vaults which cover the entire 
church the principles of primitive French Gothic are carried out as 
strictly and purely as in the buildings of the Ile-de-France erected 
between 1130 and 1160. The pointed cross-vault, the pointed wall- 
ribs, the pointed spanning arches, are such as we find in Northern 
France, but have not expected to find anywhere in Italy. The diagonal 
ribs consist of a simple torus-moulding supported on an engaged column 
with plain cubiform capitals. Between them is a large engaged column 
to support the spanning arch. The proportions of the pointed arches 
of the nave and of the spanning arches are low but remarkably sym- 
metrical ; the wall-ribs are more sharply pointed. None of the capitals, 
are foliated, probably on account of the exclusion of sculpture owing 
to the general use of brick. They are usually concavely cubic, almost 
bell-shaped, sometimes trapezoidal in shape. The section of the piers 
engaged in the walls of the aisles is that of half the main piers of the 
nave, as in PLATE xm, 2. 

The architecture of this building seems to be not purely French. 
The exterior is decidedly Italian in its feeling, proportions, and deco- 
ration ; the interior even more characteristically French. I would 
suggest that it having been decided to try the experiment of the 
ribbed and pointed cross-vaults, perhaps never seen in Italy before, at 
least not so far south the interior was placed under the supervision 
either of a French Cistercian architect or of an Italian thoroughly 
trained in the new principles of the Ile-de-France. 

In a previous paper, I hazarded the remark that the French Cis- 
tercian buildings in Italy were sometimes as far advanced as contem- 
porary work in France. Since then, I have had occasion to modify 

8 It is curious that Dehio and Bezold in their ground-plan give three chapels on 
each side in place of two. I knew of no Cistercian church in Italy with six chapels : 
they appear never to have been introduced from France, though they appear in 


that opinion by examining the evidence concerning the rise of the 
Gothic in Gonse's monumental work, L'Art Gothique, which gives, 
without any comparison, 'the best and even the only complete account 
of the various phases of the development of early Gothic vaulting 
beginning in about 1090. While Mr. Moore in his Gothic Architecture 
mentions no monuments between Morienval in 1090 and St. Denis 
in 1140, M. Gonse describes over thirty, scientifically grouped in 
series and affording material for one of the most perfect demonstra- 
tions I have ever read. The Cistercians took part in the movement 
at least as early as 1140 (S. Martin, Laon), and probably soon after 
the middle of the century began to spread beyond the limits of the 
Ile-de-France the use of the pointed ribbed cross-vault which was 
revolutionizing architecture. The question that concerns us is : When 
did they bring it to Italy? Is Chiaravalle di Castagnola, in 1172, 
the first building to embody the new principle? Of the two writers 
who have mentioned the church Schnaase and Mothes the former 
has understood its French origin, though he dates it too late, the lat- 
ter makes the absurd claim of Gwman influence acting upon a Lom- 
bard architect. Mothes, being unacquainted with the history of the 
monastery and apparently misled by the identity of name, asserts that 
Chiaravalle di Castagnola was founded from the Milanese Chiaravalle ; 
and he is thus led to fancy more Lombard influence than exists. It 
is not likely that he could point to a single earlier instance of the use 
of this form of early Gothic cross-vault in Germany, from which these 
at Castagnola could have been derived. 9 


Princeton University. 
October, 1891. 

9 Since writing this paper I see in the Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft (1891, XIV, 
p. 506) that G. BEVILACQUA has contributed to the Nuova Rivista Misena (vol. ni, 
1890) an article on Chiaravalle di Castagneto ; he misreads the second inscription, 
apparently, and dates it 1119. 


OSCAR BIE. Kampfgruppe und Kdmpfertypen in der AntiJce. 8vo, 

pp. 160. Berlin, 1891. 

The writer divides his material into two parts, viz., representations of 
fighters, first, in series or lines, and, second, in groups. The former are 
epic in character, Oriental in origin, and realistic in spirit. The latter, the 
result of an idealistic tendency, were an original product of the artistic 
genius of the Greeks. The combination of the two classes in Hellenistic 
times is viewed as a conflict of fundamentally contradictory principles ; 
in Roman imperial times the Oriental principle gained the upper hand. 
Though the reviewer commends the skill with which the author has traced 
the development of types within the second class of monuments, he can- 
not assent1;o his main propositions. K. WERNICKE, in Deutsche Literatur- 
zeitung, 1891, No. 27. 

M. HELENE. Le Bronze. Ouvrage illustre" de 80 vignettes (Bibli- 
othfcque des merveilles). 16mo, pp. in, 286. Paris, 1890. 
Within six years there has been a great improvement in books, educa- 
tional and popular, relating to archaeology and the history of art. This 
is due to the fact that the authors have had excellent authorities to draw 
from. This work, however, has no merit whatever either of substance or 
of form, and abounds in extraordinary misconceptions and mistatements, 
often highly amusing, and in egregious typographic errors. Mediocre in 
merit as are most of the volumes in the Bibliotheque des merveilles, this is 
distinctly one of the worst. S. REINACH, in Rev. Critique, 1890, No. 20. 


G. MASPERO. Aegyptische Kunstgeschichte. Deutsche Ausgabe von 
GEORG STEINDORFF. Mit 316 Abbild. im Text. 8vo, pp. ix, 
335. Leipzig, 1889 ; Engelmann. 

Until ten years ago, scarcely anything had been done for the archaeology 
of art in Egypt. Within the last decade, however, three independent pre- 
sentations of the subject have appeared, one by Perrot and Chipiez, in the 
first volume of their Hidoire de Vart dans Vantiquite (1882), one by Adolf 
Erman in his Agypten und dgyptisches Leben inn Altertum, and one by Mas- 
pero in his Areheologie egyptienne (Paris, 1887). No one of these can be 
regarded as anything more than a first attempt ; the laborious detailed 



investigations upon which alone a genuine history of art can be built up 
belong almost wholly to the future. Of the three works named, Maspero's 
is especially notable, because the author, in his capacity as director of the 
Egyptian excavations and of the museum at Bulak, was able to accumu- 
late a store of first-hand observations such as no other worker in the same 
field has had at his command. Moreover, the book is written in that 
brilliant style of which Maspero is an eminent master. It is much to be 
hoped that, at no distant day, Maspero may publish the detailed observa- 
tions on which many of the novel views advanced in this book are based ; 
especially in the department of industrial art is such publication needed. 
A. ERMAN, in Berlphilol Wochenschrift, 1890, No. 6. 

The translator, who has done his work well, has enriched the original 
work at many points, and has appended two helpful indexes. His edition 
has independent value in that it contains cuts and descriptions of many 
important but hitherto unpublished monuments of Egyptian art in the 
Berlin Museum. R. PIETSCHMANN, in D. Literaturzeitung, 1890, No. 11. 

W. M. FLINDERS-PETRIE. Hawara, Biahmi and Arsinoe. 30 plates. 

Folio, pp. 36. London, 1889. 

Mr. Petrie has continued his excavations in Egypt with great success. 
The present volume records the results of excavations carried on in 
the winter of 1887-8 in that part of the Fayurn, near the pyramid of 
Hawara, where Lipsius had fancied he recognized the actual ruins of the 
Labyrinth. Mr. Petrie has demonstrated the incorrectness of Lipsius' 
view, and has pointed out that these ruins belong to a late epoch and are 
of the houses and burial places of the inhabitants of Arsinoe (Strabo's 
"little village") which was founded upon the site of the Labyrinth. At 
present, nothing exists of this famous structure except a few fragments, 
some of which bear the names of Amenemhait III and Sovkunofriu. The 
Labyrinth was originally a temple attached to the pyramid of Amenem- 
hait III, and perhaps subsequently enlarged. Mr. Petrie's suggested res- 
toration, based in part on the remains and in part on the descriptions of 
ancient writers, gives a building of irregular shape resembling in some 
particulars the temple of Seti I at Abydos. 

The cemetery of Hawara, at least the portion excavated by Mr. Petrie, 
is of Grseco-Roman times, though in the masonry of the Ptolemaic tombs 
here found sarcophagi of an early date were immured (of the xx and xn 
dynasties). The coffins were often of great beauty and elegance ; the 
Greek ones furnished the rich collection of encaustic portraits which is 
now divided between the British Museum and the museum of Bulak. 
Mr. Petrie's publication removes all doubts that have hitherto been asso- 
ciated with the portraits from Fayum. Mr. Petrie believes that these por- 


traits were originally taken from life and were subsequently used, when 
the coffin was made. It seems likely that the coffins were for a time kept 
in a place accessible to the relatives of the dead, before being heaped to- 
gether where they are now found. Next in importance to the portraits 
are the 492 papyri discovered, upon which Mr. Sayce has written a chap- 
ter. The greater part of the papyri are official and private documents, 
accounts, lists, etc., and the oldest are not earlier than the Ptolemies, while 
the later reach to the age of the Antonines. The volume contains a trans- 
lation of the hieroglyphic inscriptions (by Mr. Griffith), a study of the tech- 
nique of the portraits (by Mr. Cecil Smith), and a catalogue of flowers and 
plants found in the graves (by Mr. Newberry). At Biahmi fewer mon- 
uments were discovered. The debris at this point, hitherto supposed to be 
the remains of the bases of two pyramids, is shown by Mr. Petrie to mark 
courts in which stood the two colossal seated statues mentioned by Hero- 
dotos in his description of the Labyrinth ; a fragment of an inscription 
points to Amenemhait III as the author of one of these monuments. Fin- 
ally, Mr. Petrie carried on excavations on the site of ancient Crocodilo- 
polis, which, lies to the north of Arsinoe. This temple was found to have 
been erected before the xu dynasty, but the hand of Amenemhait III 
had been busy also here, and the later Pharaohs had taken pains to keep 
the temple in repair down to the close of the Roman era. G. MASPEKO, 
in Rev. Critique, 1890, No. 1. 

K. PIETSCHMANN. GescMchte der Phonicien. 8vo, pp. 313. Illus- 
trations and Maps. Berlin, 1889-90; Grote. 

Inasmuch as a continuous series of monuments of Phosnician civilization 
are lacking, the materials for the history of this people must be gathered 
mainly from foreign sources Egyptian, Assyrian, Hebrew, and Greek. 
The author of this work might greatly have improved his introductory 
chapters by the use of Egyptian and Assyrian authorities, with which it 
appears he grew more and more familiar as he proceeded, and might thereby 
have saved himself from not a few erroneous statements. Egypt and Syria 
at the time of the Ancient and Middle Empire had by no means the inti- 
mate intercourse with each other that has hitherto been taken for granted. 
Between 4000 and 3000 B. c., the paths of commerce were different from 
what they were later ; e. g., in these times, incense was imported into Egypt 
from Ethopia; subsequently, from southern Syria. Syria and Egypt came 
into closer relations as time went on. It is, on the other hand, clear that 
the civilization of Babylon had penetrated into Assyria as early as about 
2000 B. c.,and into northern Syria not later than 1500 B. c. ; here, in the 
land of the Hittites, it suffered characteristic modifications, under which 
form it was in turn borrowed from by Assyrians in the eighth century B. c. 


In his attitude toward several questions the author exhibits needless 
skepticism ; for example, in the matter of the Egyptian origin of the 
Phoenician alphabet, and in that of the dating of the founding of Carthage 
and the Tyrian colonies. J. KRALL, in D. Literaturzeitung, 1891, No. 1. 


Aus DER ANOMIA. Archdologische Beitrdge, Carl Robert zur Erin- 
nermig an Berlin dargebracht. 8vo, pp. 280, 3 plates and cuts in 
text. Berlin, 1890. 

This is a collection of short essays on various subjects connected with 
classics and archaeology, written by sixteen pupils of Professor Robert 
(Anomia is the title of a club), and dedicated to him on his leaving Berlin 
for Halle. Of special interest to archseologists are the following : (1) 
GRAEF publishes a head of Athena in Naples (Mus. Naz., No. 6303) which 
he assigns to the middle of the fifth century B. c., and to Attic origin. 
From comparison with other types (Ant. Denkm., i, 3) he thinks this a 
copy of the Parthenos, and deduces a formula for such copies. (2) KERN 
examines the Orphic cult of the dead, traces of which he finds in that of 
Attika. On vase-paintings, two classes of diminutive winged forms are 
represented : (i) the Eidolon of a particular individual always in the usual 
human form, nude, clothed, or in armor ; (ii) those on Attic grave lekythoi; 
here, there is no-attempt at individual ization ; the figures are always winged 
and beside a tomb or death-bed or the entrance to Hades, and several 
of them are often gathered around one person ; they are not erotes funebres 
(Pottier), nor are they souls of the dead which come forth at the Anthe- 
steria (Hirsch), but are rather the souls of the bad vainly seeking rest and 
peace : this idea, which is expressed in Plato, is probably to be derived 
from Orphic teaching, not from the Pythagoreans. (3) SAUER maintains 
that the two reliefs published by Robert (Ath. Mitih., vn, Taf. 1-2) do not 
represent the contest between Athene and Poseidon ; they are excerpts from 
a greater scene represented on the east frieze of the Nike-temple, viz., 
the suit between Asia and Hellas (cf. Mon. Ined., ix, pis. 50, 51). (4) 
NOACK studies the earlier representations of the Iliupersis on vases. He 
concludes that the Brygos and Euphronios cups are independent of each 
other, but are referable to a common origin, the work of some great un- 
known painter of the sixth century B. c. These two artists he dates before 
Polygnotos. (5) ROSSBACH contributes notes on the painter Pauson, the 
Gryphon, etc. Other noteworthy articles are contributed by H. VON 
GAERTRINGEN (on Thessaly in B. c. 700-400) ; KRETSCHMER, who derives 
Semele (" earth ") and Dionysos (=AtoVK:ov/>os> from Thracian-Phrygian 
words ; TOEPFFER (Theseus and Peirithoos) ; and WERNICKE (certain 
Oriental elements in the Herakles legend). C. SMITH, in Glass. Rev., 1891, 
pp. 79, 80. 


IMHOOF-BLUMER. Griechische Munzen. Neue Beitrage u. Unter- 
suchungen (Abhandlungen d. konigl. baierischen Akad. d. Wis- 
sensch. I. Kl., xvm Bd., in Abt.). 378 illustrations on 14 pho- 
tographic plates. Folio, pp. m, 273. Munich, 1890. 
The work before us is a supplement to the author's Monnaies grecques, 
which appeared in 1883, and was the completest collection of its kind since 
Mionnet's day. It comprises over 900 coins hitherto either unpublished 
or unsatisfactorily published of about 250 cities, in the main from Asia 
Minor. Among the author's discoveries we cite that of a remarkable 
alliance, in Greece proper, early in the fourth century B. c., comprising 
Corinth, Dyrrhachion, Ambrakia, Korkyra, Leukas and Anaktorion, the 
coins of which bore the device of Pegasos and a ^ [v/i^ui^ta]. In Keos it 
now appears that coins were struck only at Karthaia, lulis, and Koressos 
(not at Poieessa). Archaic coins of Tenos, the type of which is the grape 
vine, and of Melos with an oinochoe, also come to light. Of the cities in 
Asia Minor, the following now appear for the first time in Greek numis- 
matics: Himilion, in Paphlagonia; Termessos near Oinoanda, either in 
Lykia or Phrygia; Kerai, in Peisidia; Kibyra 17 /xi/c/aa, in Pamphylia, and 
Holmoi in Kilikia. Of archseological interest are the representations of the 
infant Dionysos and Korybautes in Ionic Magnesia (hitherto explained 
as Zeus) : of the \LKvo<f>6po<s in the Dionysos cult at Kyzikos and Teos ; 
of Bakchos in the form of a bull in Skepsis; etc. An excellent feature of 
the work is the heed paid to the weight of coins, a highly important con- 
sideration, especially in ascertaining the extremely fluctuating values, in 
particular of copper coins (do-o-apta, etc.}. R. WEIL, in D. Literaturzeitung, 
1891, No. 6. 

RICHARD BOHN. Alterthumer von Aegae, unter Mitwirkung von 
Carl Schuchhardt herausgegeben. Folio, pp. 68 ; 75 illustrations. 
Berlin, 1889 ; G. Reimer. 

With a view to the better understanding of the Pergamene finds, the 
regions about Pergamon were explored during the progress of the exca- 
vations. Aegae (Nemrud-kalassi), which lies a day's journey south of 
Pergamon, was, in July, 1886, visited by Bohn, Senz, and Schuchhardt, 
and the results of their observations are published in the work named 
above. The most important discovery was the striking resemblance of 
Aegae to Pergamon, architecturally ; it appears that the buildings of 
Eumenes and Attalos at the capital served as models for the whole region 
about. Of an earlier date was, probably, the temple of Demeter and 
Kora, while the theatre belongs to Roman times. Aegae was one of the 
twelve cities of Asia Minor which were destroyed by an earthquake in the 


year 17 A. D., and was rebuilt by Tiberius ; traces of the structures erected 
at this time have been found in abundance. It furnishes the first clear 
example of a city regularly built upon terrace-like platforms. P. H. . . L, 
in Literarisches Centralblatt, 1890, No. 29. 

A. CARTAULT. Vases Grecs en forme de personnages groupes. 4to, 

pp. 16, 2 plates. Paris, 1889. 

This pamphlet is a study of two vases now in the possession of MM. E. 
de Rothschild and van Branteghem. The author calls attention to their 
striking resemblances to the so-called " Asia Minor " terracottas, and infers 
therefrom not only that they are genuine but that they are Attic in origin. 
The fact, however, is that these vases are no less forgeries, of modern fabri- 
cation, than are the figurines in question. S. REINACH, in Rev. Critique, 
1890, No. 3. 

F. v. DUHN und L. JACOBI. Der griechische Tempel in Pompeji. 
Nebst einem Anhang : Ueber Schornsteinanlagen und eine Badeein- 
richtung im Frauenbad der Stabianer Thermen in Pompeji. . . . 
Fol., pp. 36 ; 9 lithographic and 3 photographic plates. Heidel- 
berg, 1890; Winter. 

In the spring of 1889, a -company of university professors and gymnasial 
teachers from Baden visited Pompeii, and excavations under the direction 
of the authors of this book were carried on in their presence at the Greek 
temple. The attempt to ascertain the main features and to fix the date of 
the temple was only partially successful. The ground-plan indicates an 
ancient cella, with very deep pronaos, 6.40 m. by 14.70 m. (14.95 ?) ; the 
roof of the colonnade was probably made of wood, and the ceiling faced 
with coffers of terracotta, which was also the material of which the cornice 
was constructed. The date of the origin of the temple could not be deter- 
mined ; perhaps the temple is as old as the fifth century B. c. Many inter- 
esting details, however, relating to repairs and rebuilding at subsequent 
times were ascertained. The Appendix, in which Jacobi describes the 
heating arrangements in the smaller calidarium of the Stabian baths, is full 
of interesting information. R. BOHN, in D. Literaturzeitung, 1891, No. 4. 

PAUL GIRARD. L' Education ath6nienne au V e et au IV e siecle avant 

J. C. Ouvrage couronne" par PAcade"mie des Inscriptions et Belles- 

Lettres. 8vo, pp. iv, 338; 30 cuts. Paris, 1889. 

A charming book wherein the author, without furnishing much that is 

essentially new, but with a complete mastery of his subject, draws a vivid 

picture of education in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B. c., 

tracing the life of a young Athenian from the cradle to the Epheby. 


Difficult problems are discussed only in the introductory chapters. Al- 
though the author has gone wrong in many details [thirteen of which are 
specified with interesting corrections] especially in the dating and ex- 
planation of vase-pictures, and in the inferences drawn from these con- 
siderations the general impression produced by his book is a correct 
one. C. EGBERT, in D. Liter aturzeitung, 1890, No. 52. 

A. BOUTKOWSKI-GLINKA. Petit Mionnet de poche ou repertoire pra- 
tique d Pusage des numismatist es et colledionneurs des monnaies 
greeques, etc. l er partie. 12mo, pp. 192. Berlin, 1889. 
The author gives us a list, arranged in geographical order, of the more 
important Greek coins of antiquity, with exact information as to their 
weight, devices, and ancient values, and their modern equivalents. There 
are no illustrations. The recent numismatic and historical literature re- 
lating to the subject has been utilized ; and, although the author has con- 
stantly had the aid of Imhoof-Blumer, he has made an independent 
investigation of several points. Not a distinct contribution to science, 
the little work will be found useful as a convenient book of reference for 
travellers in Southern Europe and the Orient. S., in Lit. Centralblatt, 
1890, No. 18. 

WILHELM GUKLITT. Ueber Pausanias. 8vo, pp. xn, 494. Graz, 

1890; Leuschner und Lubensky. 10 marks. 

For several years there has been a lively discussion as to the value of 
the only detailed description of ancient Greece which is preserved to us, 
the work of Pausanias the periegete. Conservatives have lauded his merits 
and sought to cover up or palliate his shortcomings ; radicals have treated 
him with acrimonious and almost personal contempt. Between these two 
extreme parties Gurlitt offers himself as arbiter. He undertakes to sift the 
evidence afforded by Pausanias himself, as well as all relevant external 
evidence, with the object of determining the writer's degree of independence 
and credibility. This undertaking is carried out with great thoroughness, 
and the results are presented in an attractive form. 

It is in his descriptions of the Peiraieus, of Athens, Olympia and Delphi 
that Pausanias's statements can be best tested, because in these places, 
thanks especially to recent excavations, our other sources of information 
are most ample and accurate. Now it is becoming constantly clearer that 
his topographical matter we are not at present concerned with his histori- 
cal and other digressions is of very unequal value. Side by side with 
statements so accurate as to lead to the discovery of places or objects pre- 
viously unknown stand others which can be proved, on the testimony of 
various witnesses or by observation on the spot, to be highly inexact or 


downright false. These two classes of statements are distinguished by no 
internal mark, and it is only now and then that we are enabled, by external 
evidence, to recognize their respective values. Thus we are led to the convic- 
tion that Pausanias's work is not based chiefly upon first-hand observation, 
but rather upon literary sources. The only possible points of controversy 
are, what these sources were and how he used them, whether he gathered 
much supplementary material by his own travels, and, if so, how he turned 
this to account. 

To enter fully into these controversies would lead beyond the limits of 
a brief notice, and we must therefore confine ourselves to two or three 
general points of view. Gurlitt regards the work of Pausanias as essen- 
tially a guide-book, intended to emancipate the traveller from troublesome 
ciceroni. This is claiming for the book qualities which it does not possess, 
and, at the same time, is unj ust to the author's praiseworthy effort to present, 
for each locality, a picture constructed on one uniform scheme. Pausanias 
is no substitute for a well-informed guide ; what he offers us is a quantity of 
more or less valuable learning, distributed on a framework of topographical 
notes. His book has about as much practical usableness as an ordinary 
hand-book of geography. Again, Gurlitt goes too far in the effort to 
excuse or explain away the historical and geographical errors which have 
been pointed out in Pausauias. In short, he is too much of an apologist. 
Nevertheless, we cordially recognize that he has made by all odds the most 
valuable contribution to his subject which has yet appeared. LOLLING, in 
Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 1890, No. 15, pp. 627-31. 

WOLFGANG HELBIG. Fuhrer durch die djfentliehen Sammlunyen 
klassischer Alterthumer in Rom. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. xu, 548 ; 
433. Leipzig, 1891; Karl 'Baedeker. 

The remains of classical sculpture in Italy are being exhaustively cata- 
logued and described by German scholars. What Diitschke's Antike Bild- 
werke in Oberilalien has done for Northern Italy and Matz and von Duhn's 
Antike Bildwerke in Rom for the private collections of Rome, Helbig's 
Fuhrer has accomplished for the public galleries of Rome. It covers a 
more important field than either of the others, and is at once more prac- 
tical and more thorough. We are led through the various museums of 
the Vatican, the Capitol, the Laterau, the Conservatori Palace, the Villas 
Albani and Borghese, the Palazzo Spada, the Boncompagni and delle Terme 
and the Collegio Romano. The Etruscan museum of the Vatican and the 
two museums in the Collegio Romano are described by Emil Reisch. 
What the student wishes to find in a catalogue of these monuments is (1) 
their provenience and state of preservation, (2) their probable date and 
significance, and (3) references to the best illustrations and special treatises. 


This information Helbig has furnished us in very convenient form, by the 
use of different types. The references to figured illustrations dispense with 
the necessity of minute description, and permit the text to deal chiefly 
with interpretation. Helbig's interpretations are formed with independ- 
ence and excellent judgment. Thus the Centocelle statue, which usually 
passes for an Eros of the type established by Praxiteles, is determined, by 
comparison with replicas, to be a Thanatos. The terracotta plaque which 
Waldstein considered an original sketch by Pheidias is here catalogued 
as modern. The Laokoon is freed from the supposed dependence on the 
Pergamon frieze, but the relation which the Torso and the Apollo of the 
Belvidere may have borne to the Pergamene sculptures is left unnoticed. 
It is probably an oversight which permitted the restorations of the Laokoon 
to be noticed in the large type, elsewhere expressly reserved for interpre- 
tation. As this monument is catalogued as the original work of the three 
Rhodian artists, it is important that the kind of marble used should not 
have been left unnoticed. In describing the silver paterae from the Regu- 
lini-Galassi tomb and the celebrated patera from Praeneste, Reisch follows 
the view advanced in the American Journal of Archaeology, in, p. 322 ff., 
that they are probably of Cypriote origin, and that the Praeneste patera 
presents some Assyrian or Phoenico-Cypriote myth, though he will not 
go so far as to connect them with any definite Cypriote legend. The bib- 
liographic references appended to the interpretation of each monument, 
though few in number, are selected from the best authorities. In order that 
such a work as this should prove even more useful to scholars, and especi- 
ally to those who are unable to visit Rome to examine the originals, it is 
most desirable that, along with verbal description and bibliographic refer- 
ences, the contents of museums should be fully exhibited by some photo- 
graphic process. Where is the museum that will begin such a systematic 
exhibition of its treasures ? A. MARQUAND. 

R. KEKUL^. Ueber die Bronzestatue des sogenannten Idolino. 49. 

Programm zum Winckelmannsfeste der Archaologischen Gesell- 

schaft zur Berlin. Mit 4 Tafeln. Folio, pp. 21. Berlin, 1889. 

The first three plates of this pamphlet in which is published, by a 

competent hand, " the most beautiful of ancient bronze statues " supply 

a lack long felt, viz., a satisfactory representation of the Idolino. After a 

sketch of the history of the statue since its discovery in 1530, and of the 

bibliography, the author gives a delicate and appreciative analysis of the 

stilistic characteristics of the statue. He appears to be wrong, however, in 

describing the situation as one suggesting " the moments of movement 

and activity : " the position of the right hand shows that the boy still 

holds the oil in it, and the body would have been differently balanced 



had that been the intention. The author dates the statue before the 
Parthenon sculptures, making it the oldest of the series (1) Idolino, (2) 
youth pouring the oil (Munich), (3) the standing Diskobolos and actu- 
ally sees it in an original work of Myron. The Massimi Diskobolos, how- 
ever, exhibits the characteristic Myronian " action," which we miss in the 
Idolino, and besides shows an earlier treatment of the hair, though there 
is a striking resemblance in the two heads. The contrast drawn between 
the heads of Polykleitos and that of the Idolino is suggestive, but this 
does not necessarily prove that the Idolino and its congeners do not be- 
long to a late Peloponnesian school that carried on Polykleitean tradi- 
tions. Kekule" has however demonstrated the Myronian connections of 
the statue, and the reviewer [Michaelis] admits that the work must be 
placed in the fifth century B. c. ; he would ascribe it not to Myron but 
perhaps to his son Lykios. The reviewer fails to see (with Brunn and 
Kekule) the Myronian character of the standing Diskobolos, the Farnese 
Diadumenos and the Amazon (by Kliigmann ascribed to.Pheidias): the 
motive, the forms and proportion of the bodies, and above all the heads, tell 
against this view. AD. M., in Lit. Centralblatt, 1890, No. 48. 

V. LALOUX et P. MONCEAUX. Restauration d' Olympic. L'histoire, 
les monuments, le culte et les fdtes. Folio, pp. 224, 10 plates and 
many cuts. Paris, 1889. 

In spite of the excellences of the three early publications relating to 
Olympia the Ausgrabungen zu Olympia of the German Institute, with its 
inadequate text, Botticher's handy compilation, and Flasch's noteworthy 
article in Baumeister's Denkmaler it has been reserved for Frenchmen 
to furnish the first satisfactory monograph upon the subject, intended for 
artists and the general public. The text is from the hand of M. Monceaux, 
and it explains the beautiful plates, which are made in part from photo- 
graphs and in part from the restorations of M. Laloux. The latter scholar, 
formerly pensionnaire of the French Academy at Rome, and author of a 
brief history of Greek architecture [see JOURNAL, vi, 1890, p. 133], has 
furnished drawings and designs that merit the highest praise; among 
these we select for special mention the magnificent photograveure of the 
temenos as restored. There are, however, two points in which M. Laloux's 
work calls for severe criticism. In his use of decorative motives suggested 
by Greek ceramic art, he has been guilty of grave anachronisms and im- 
proprieties: thus the outer wall of the cella of the temple of Zeus he has decor- 
ated with archaic designs, failing also to observe the law which prohibited 
the use, upon walls, of the ornament developed on and peculiar to vases. 
The second point for criticism is the restoration proposed for the statue of 
Olympian Zeus ; it is vastly inferior to the other drawings ; it fails to sug- 


gest the technique of chryselephantine work ; the statue lacks the stamp 
of severity, is vague and ill-defined. The ornamental figures represented 
as painted or carved on the throne of the god combine motives taken from 
vases of 600 B. c. with those suggested by the art of Hellenistic Greece. 
As compared with the restoration of Quatremere (1813), that of Laloux 
marks a retrogression. The text of M. Monceaux is attractive and spirited 
and not surcharged with erudition. It is, however, to be regretted that he 
has not yet made up his mind on many questions still agitated among ar- 
chaeologists, and that he affects an indifference to important problems the 
solution of which is within reach. In the arrangement of his material he 
has been more satisfactory : first we have a history of Olympia to the close 
of German excavations ; then a sketch of the topography of the region 
with especial reference to the works of art ; and finally an excellent study 
of the cults of Olympia and of the Olympian festival. Since not a line of 
Phoenician has been .found at Olympia, the author's statements as to the 
important part taken by this people in the early history of the region are 
hazardous, to say the least. There are not a few other assertions equally 
open to criticism. In spite, however, of these defects, this work will take 
an honorable place in the library of the artist. S. REINACH, in Rev. 
Critique, 1890, No. 6. 

A. LEBEGUE. Une ecole inedite de sculpture gallo-romaine. 8vo, pp. 

28. Toulouse, 1889. 

In this memoir the author discusses the discoveries at Martres-Tolo- 
sanes which have so enriched the museum at Toulouse. In particular he 
examines the sculptures ; among these a basrelief representing Tetricus is 
said by him to be the most interesting monument of the Gallo-Roman empire. 
These works of art are original works of a local school of sculpture hitherto 
wholly ignored by archaeologists, which, active about the third century A. D., 
deserves a place in the annals of ancient art. T. DE L., in Rev. Critique, 
1890, No. 2. 

PAUL LEJAY. Inscriptions antiques de la C6te-d'0r. 8vo, pp. 281. 

Paris, 1889. 

Here are published 306 ancient inscriptions (including 11 of doubtful 
genuineness) gathered from various places in the Cote-d'Or in France : 
they are arranged in alphabetical order according to their provenience, 
and, with the exception of two, probably spurious, in Greek, and three, 
genuine, in Celtic, are wholly in Latin. They belong to the Celtic tribes 
of the Lingones, Aedui, and Sequani, and, for the most part, are sepul- 
chral and dedicatory : from the latter class we learn the names of several 
local Gallic divinities, the leaders of which are Mars Sicolvis and either 


the Gallic Litavis, or the Roman Bellona. The editor's notes are full and 
exhaustive, though not without occasional blunders, and there are good 
indexes. At least until the appearance of the volume of Gallic inscriptions 
in the GIL, this book will be indispensable to the student of the subject. 
A. H., in Lit. Centralblatt, 1890, No. 27. 

MONUMENTI ANTICHI. Pubblicati per cura della Reale Accademia 
dei Lincei. Vol. I. Puntata I. Con 10 tav. e 83 incisioni nel 
testo. Folio, coll. 166. Milano, 1890; Hoepli. 
This new publication edited by a committee of the Accademia dei Lincei 

is designed to serve as a supplement to the Notizie degliScavi published 
monthly by the same Academy. Like the latter, it treats of all important 
discoveries in the field of classical archaeology, epigraphy, and numismatics. 
Whereas the Notizie aims to give timely intelligence, in brief reports, of 
new discoveries as they are made, the Monumenti proposes to present to 
specialists, in carefully prepared essays, the results of investigations that 
may have extended over a long period of time, as well as to publish newly 
discovered monuments and to republish others hitherto inadequately pub- 
lished. This first puntata contains (1) a report upon the excavations of 
the temple of Pythian Apollon at Gortyn in Krete, by HALBHERR ; (2) 
fragments of archaic inscriptions from the same place by COMPARETTI 

which appear to fix the date of the introduction of coinage into Krete ; 
(3) a report, by L. PIGORINI, upon excavations conducted by the writer 
at Fontanellato (Castellazzo) in Parma; (4) on the weight of the Etrus- 
can pound, by G. F. GAMURRINI, based on a find of ancient weights at 
Chiusi (Clusium). The inscriptions discussed by Halbherr throw light on 
the Doric of Gortyii at about 300 B. c. : e. g., F ; ace. plu. in oi/s, avs, evs and 
s; Kop/xo5 = Kocr/>ios ; Tropri - TT/DOS. A. H., in Lit. Centralblatt, 1890, No. 23. 

S. REINACH. Chroniques d' Orient. Documents sur les fouilles et 
decouvertes dans Porient hellenique de 1883 a 1890. Pp. xv, 787, 
one plate and several cuts. Paris, 1891. 

This bulky volume consists mainly of reprints of reports, which ap- 
peared from the author's hand in the Revue Archeologique, upon excava- 
tions and discoveries in Greek lands between 1883 and 1890, together 
with several articles upon like topics written by him for various other 
periodicals. The value of the original reports is greatly enhanced, not 
only by the index of fifty pages with hardly less than ten thousand 
references but also by the addition of many foot-notes, in which the in- 
formation given in the text is brought to date, and attention is called to 
recent literature. These Chroniques, at first little more than meagre re- 
ports of recent finds, gradually became a complete repertory of informa- 


tion not alone upon these matters, but also upon the substance of the more 
important current articles and minor publications upon Greek archaeolog- 
ical discoveries, upon bibliography in general, and upon the acquisitions of 
museums. The articles on the so-called "Asiatic Terracottas" as a rule, 
forgeries made in Athens, probably by Italian artists are interesting 
reading. M. Keinach's warnings are needed. For, although archaeolo- 
gists are in the main of one mind in the matter, they are not outspoken, 
and, as a result of this apathy, the forgers and the dealers in these figur- 
ines continue their corrupt practices upon a public still reluctant to be 
undeceived. This handsome volume, with its convenient index to an im- 
portant part of the unindexed Revue Archeologique, will be a boon to 
many a library. The Nation, Sept. 24, 1891, p. 239. 

THEODOR SCHREIBER. Die hellenistischen Relief bilder. Erste Liefe- 

rung. Leipzig, 1889 ; Engelmann. 20 marks. 

This is the first instalment of one of those great serial publications, un- 
dertaken by the German Archaeological Institute and other kindred bodies, 
and intended to present in systematic form the entire existing stock of 
ancient sculptures. In this instance it is to the Saxon Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschafien, assisted by the ministry of worship and education, that 
our thanks are due. There are few archaeological publications which have 
so high a claim as this to be widely known. Not only for the philologian 
is it important to become acquainted with these idyllic and heroic scenes 
of the Hellenistic period, and thus with one important source of inspira- 
tion to the Augustan poets ; but all who possess any appreciation of classic 
art must needs be charmed by the affluence in invention, the elegance of 
form, and the refinement of feeling which characterize these products of a 
luxurious civilization. The helio-engravings, executed by Dujardin in 
Paris, are of the highest merit. A. BRUCKNER, in Berl. philol. Woch., 
1890, No. 13. 

HEINRICH STRACK. Baudenkmdler des alien Rom. Nach photo- 
graphiscben Originalatifnahmen. Folio, pp. 20, with 20 plates. 
Berlin, 1890 ; Ernst Wasmuth. 20 marks. 

Of the twenty plates contained in this work, Nos. 1 and 2 show the 
Forum from the east and the west, 3-6 the Pantheon, 7 the Forum of 
Augustus, 8 the temple of Castor, 9-11 the Colosseum, 12-13 the arch of 
Titus, 14 the Forum Boarium with its temples, 15 the Forum of Trajan, 
16 the temple of Faustina, 17 the Poseidonium of Agrippa, 18 the column 
of Marcus Aurelius, 19 the arch of Gallienus, 20 the arch of Constantine. 
The photographs were admirably taken and have been admirably repro- 
duced. The selection of monuments to be represented was made with skill 


and doubtless after mature consideration. Nevertheless, two monuments 
of the highest importance have been omitted, the theatre of Marcellus and 
the Porta Maggiore ; both of these, but especially the unfinished columns 
of the latter, have exercised an immense influence over modern architecture. 
Could the work be somewhat enlarged, these two buildings should be the 
first to be included. Less important, but still deserving a place, are 
the Basilica of Constantine and a section of the Neronian aqueduct (if 
possible, with the Arch of Dolabella). The twenty pages of text accom- 
panying the illustrations are excellent in form and substance. 0. RICH- 
TER, in Berl philol Woch., 1890, No. 50. 

F. STUDNICZKA. Kyrene, eine altgriechische Gottin. Archaologische 
u. mythologische Untersuchungen. 8vo, pp. XI, 224 ; 38 cuts. 
Leipzig, 1890; Brockhaus. 

This admirable study contains much more than its title suggests, viz., 
a discussion of the "Kyrenaic" vases, of a relief from Olympia represent- 
ing Kyrene in conflict with a lion (from the treasury of the Kyreneans), 
of the legends of the founding of Thera, of Kyrene, etc. Kyrene, the 
goddess, is proved to be the counterpart of Artemis. In one of the ap- 
pendices, F. Diimmler endeavors to prove that Hektor was originally a 
Theban hero, hardly with success. By the skilful use of archaeological 
materials, the author has produced a book which will be of great service 
to all workers in the field of Greek religion and culture. It is to be hoped 
that similar books may soon be written for Naukratis, Rhodes, Kypros, 
and Krete. OR., in Lit. Centralblatt, 1890, No. 33. 

K. WERNICKE. Die griechische Vasen mit Lieblingsnamen. Eine 
archaologische Studie. 8vo, pp. 143. Berlin, 1890; G. Reimer. 
This book is a timely and welcome supplement to W. Klein's Griech- 
ische Vasen mit Meistersignaturen, especially since the chronology of Greek 
vases has received greater definiteness from the discoveries upon the Athe- 
nian acropolis within the last half dozen years. The author groups his 
material under six heads : i, where /caXos refers to the picture ; n, names 
of women ; in, names of males, only on b. f. vases ; iv, of males, on both 
b. f. and r. f. vases ; v, of males, only on r. f. vases ; vi, names on other 
vases. In the seventh chapter the historical significance of these inscribed 
vases is discussed : they are shown to be Attic in origin, and to belong 
between B. c. 540 and 440. Several indications make it elear that the in- 
scriptions do not necessarily imply personal intimacy between the vase- 
painter and the persons mentioned with /coAos ; for among these names 
occur not only those of many eminent vase-painters but also those of highly 
aristocratic personages. Some of the latter the author seeks to identify 


with well-known historical characters (cf. Jahrb., n, p. 159 seq.'). It is to 
be regretted that the important question of the chronology of the inscribed 
vases, as determined by their technique and decoration, is inadequately con- 
sidered, that the treatment in general is sketchy, and that the bibliographic 
notes are meagre and unsatisfactory. F. STUDNICZKA, in D. Liter atur- 
zeitung, 1890, No. 35. 

J. v. ANTONIEWICZ. Ikonographisches zu Chrestien de Troyes. 8vo, 

pp. 28. Erlangen and Leipzig, 1890. 

This essay is valuable in containing not only an admirable discussion 
of a French ivory-casket of the fourteenth century rediscovered at Cracow 
in 1881, but also some excellent remarks on the importance of the com- 
parative study of the monuments of art and of literature, especially poetry, 
of the Middle Ages, a subject that has been sadly neglected. This casket 
furnishes a charming example of the union of the poetical legends with 
the illustrator's art of the fourteenth century ; here are represented the 
storming of the Minne castle, the story of Alexander, Aristotle and Phyllis, 
of Pyramus and Thisbe, of Tristan and Isold, together with suggestions of 
mediaeval animal fables, tales of giants, gnomes, etc. Certain peculiar 
features in the romance of Chrestien de Troyes (Launcelot and Gawain) 
are figured in this work of art, which leads to the suggestion that the poet's 
conceptions were to a certain extent moulded by the pictorial or carved 
representations. FR. SCHNEIDER, in D. Literaturzeitung , 1891, No. 1. 

F. GEEGOEOVIUS. Gesehichte der Stadt Athen im Mittelalter. 2 

Bande. Stuttgart, 1889 ; Gotta. 20 marks. 

Alike for form and substance, this history deserves to take rank, as a 
classic, beside the works of Gibbon and Finlay. During the period from the 
sixth to the twelfth century A. D., Athens, according to the ordinary view, 
had no history, while for the period from the twelfth to the fifteenth cen- 
tury the dynastic and political facts are highly complicated and the ma- 
terials extraordinarily scattered. Nevertheless, by virtue of a wonderful 
constructive power, Gregorovius has succeeded in making a work at once 
instructive and fascinating. The reader is enchained by the vigorous style, 
the ingenuity in hypothesis, the masterly arrangement, above all by the 
ample background of political and social history, a background on which, 
to be sure, the picture of the city of Athens sometimes appears like a 
microscopic figure on a gigantic canvas. Gregorovius has given us more 
than a history of Athens ; it is a history of the Greek provinces of the 
Byzantine Empire. K. KRUMBACHER, in Berl. philol. Woch., 1890, No. 2. 


JULIUS SCHLOSSER. Die abendldndliche Klosteranlage desfruhen Mit- 
telalters. 8vo, pp. n, 83 and in. Vienna, 1889 ; Gerolds Sohn. 
This, the first work of its author, is marked by industry, accuracy and 
method, and is a valuable contribution to knowledge in a field in which, 
as yet, little has been done. Schlosser's researches, which give evidence 
of a thorough mastery of all the materials, terminate with the beginning 
of the eleventh century. He rightly recognizes the claustral as the fun- 
demental principle in the scheme of monastic structures in western Europe. 
The origin of this principle is obscure, as is that of the basilica-tower. Ac- 
cording to the author's hypothesis, suggestions of it are apparent in the 
monasteries proved by Wickhoff to be as old as the age of Augustine. 
By the eighth century, this scheme is well established in the Benedictine 
monasteries. Especially suggestive are the remarks upon the important 
document relating to the buildings of Farfa. DEHIO, in D. Literatur- 
zeitung, 1890, No. 17. 


GEORG GALL AND. Geschichte der holldndischen Baukunst und Bild- 
nerei im ZeitaHer der Renaissance, der nationalen Blute und des 
Klassicismus. Mit 181 Textabbild. 8vo, pp. xn, 635. Frank- 
furt a. M., 1890; Keller. 

The art of Holland possesses a strong attraction for those interested in 
Germanic civilization, and for more than a century the Dutch painters 
have been the object of diligent study in Germany. Dutch architecture 
and sculpture have, however, been almost wholly neglected. The work 
of Galland, which discusses both these subjects, deserves recognition as an 
attempt to supply a deficiency. The author's enthusiasm, and the fact that 
he gives signs of a personal familiarity with the monuments described, will 
offset defects of plan and of form, and lend the book permanent value. 
BODE, in D. Literaturzeitung , 1890, No. 28. 


Page. | Page. 

ALGERIA, ...... 308 j GREAT BRITAIN, . . . 333 

AMERICA, ...... 341 GREECE ....... 316 

ASIA MINOR ..... 309 j ITALY ........ 318 

DENMARK, ..... 330 
GERMANY ...... 326 

JAVA 308 

KRETE 317 

KYPROS, 313 




SWITZERLAND, , . . 326 




LIMITS OF ROMAN OCCUPATION. M. Blanc, who was charged by the Soc. 
des Antiquaires with a mission in Tunisia, occupied himself mainly in deter- 
mining the southern boundaries of the Roman occupation in Tunisia, Tripoli 
and Southern Algeria. He presented a report on the subject to the Society 
on Jan. 29, 1890. 

EXCAVATIONS MADE DURING 1890. On p. 520 of vol. vi, it was stated that 
the archaeological campaign of 1890 was the most fruitful ever undertaken 
in Africa. While awaiting the full report which will be presented by M. 
de la Blanchere to the Academie des Inscriptions, the following is taken 
from the summary already communicated by him to the Academy and 
published in the Ami des Monuments. 

BULLA REGIA. The excavations were, as before, under the direction 
of Dr. Carton and were the continuation of those of the previous year. 
Still, they were not confined to the Roman necropolis which continued to 
furnish its supply of lamps, pottery, and funereal objects. The Punic 
necropolis was attempted, but the greater part of its tombs had been pil- 
laged, and the block of rock above it, on which the head of a divinity is 
rudely carved, was sent to the Bardo. The Berber necropolis, in dolmens, 
was also excavated and furnished a number of singular rude pieces of 
pottery. Several soundings were made in the ruins of the city itself, and 
its level was found at the great depth of some ten metres, under debris and 
earth. The contents of the Roman necropolis are of all ages and extremely 
interesting : all modes of burial, from cremation to inhumation in leaden 
coffins, have been met with. 



GAFSA. The beautiful mosaic found here representing the circus at the 
moment of a race, with rows of seats filled with spectators, has been removed 
from its site and transported to the Bardo museum. 

MAGHRANE. BIRCHANA. In this property, at Maghrane, near Zag- 
houan, the discovery of a mosaic had been made, some time ago ; but it 
was only partially uncovered. It has now been given to the museum of 
the Bardo by M. Humbert. It is composed of a hexagon geometrically 
divided into a number of compartments which form zones around a head 
of Saturn. The first zone contains the divinities of the other six planets, 
forming, with the centre, a representation of the week ; around, in a second 
zone, run six animals ; a last zone contains the signs of the zodiac. Such 
paintings are not rare, but this one is remarkable for the perfect execution 
of the mosaic-work, which is superior to most of the African work. Out- 
side of the zodiac are two semicircular medallions, finer both in drawing 
and workmanship, which represent, one, the head of Oceanus, the other, 
a peacock. 

M AH EDI A. M. Hannezo renewed the exploration of the Neo-Punic 
necropolis near this city. He examined over a thousand tombs, of which 
not one in a hundred were intact. However, a considerable number of 
objects were found, of which a large portion were given by him to the 
museum. His most interesting discovery is probably an inscription in 
very early Cufic characters cut on the wall of the well that leads to one of 
these sepulchral vaults, above its entrance. It not only shows that these 
tombs were made use of again at the time of the Mussulman invasion, 
but it appears to be the earliest example of Arabic epigraphy existing in 

SOUSSA=HADRUMETUM M. Doublet, a former member of the School 
at Athens, was charged with continuing the exploration of the Roman 
necropolis of Hadrumetum. He unearthed a considerable number of 
hypogea, each usually containing several tombs, and enclosed in nine sep- 
arate walls. The whole appears to belong to the second and especially to 
the third century of our era. The most important of the objects found is 
a series of terracotta statuettes representing single figures and groups, 
Venus, Bes, busts, bigas and quadrigas, horsemen, a love-scene, a camel. 
There are between 60 and 65 of these statuettes, 40 of which are quite intact. 
Some bear vivid traces of the colors with which they were painted, some 
are charming, all are interesting. Beside these, there are lamps ; pottery ; 
stamped bricks ; a tabella devotionis in Greek, the largest known (47 lines, 
255 by 245 mill.) ; a small lead triptych with Venus and Cupid, to be 
hung around the neck ; and a very delicate mosaic representing a vessel 
arriving at port and unloading genii. In the course of removing this 
mosaic, MM. Doublet and Pradere discovered another which is a piece 


of capital importance. It represents Oceanus lying on a banqueting couch 
in the midst of his kingdom. His head is covered with lobster-feet, and 
his beard is of green seaweed. He is drunk and is snapping his fingers ; 
around him is the sea full of finely drawn fish. This work is being removed. 

TAB ARK A. Excavations are still in full activity on this site, the work 
being concentrated on the Christian cemetery or rather cemeteries of the 
ancient Thabraca. Besides a number of objects and human remains, there 
have been unearthed some hundred Christian and pagan inscriptions, and 
more than sixty mosaic sepulchral slabs. These slabs, always interesting 
and often of great beauty, now form a unique series, as curious from the 
point of view of mosaic-art as precious for the study of the fifth and sixth 
centuries. For these sepulchral slabs not only include epitaphs but are 
decorated with male and female figures, some of which appear to belong 
to dignitaries of the community, with male and female oranti, with varied 
decoration and attributes, and also animals. Before this, there had been 
found at Tabarka seven mosaics, which though in great part destroyed had 
given an idea of this series. Near Tabarka, at the Clouet-Godmet farm, 
was excavated a construction with three apses from which was taken a 
mosaic not less than fifteen metres square. Unfortunately, the central 
composition was almost completely ruined, and of it only some fine frag- 
ments of animals were left. The mosaic pavement of the three apses rep- 
resents the various buildings of a large rural establishment, each with its 
characteristic form, its occupants, animals, pet birds or barnyard fowl, with 
its surroundings, vineyards, orchards, groves, olive plantations, rocks, ponds. 
In one of the pictures is a seated spinner of most remarkable workmanship. 

TUNIS. THE MUSEUM. M. de la Blanchere adds that the Museum at 
Tunis received further additions from the investigations at the Belvedere, 
at Maktar, at Souk-el-Arba, etc. He calls attention to the riches that are 
accumulating, and forming here a collection of first-rate importance, espe- 
cially in its unrivalled series of Roman mosaics. But all the funds are 
expended in digging and transportation ; nothing is left for the expenses of 
mounting and exhibiting, and the arrangement of the collections will be de- 
layed until financial assistance is obtained. Ami des Mon., 1891, pp. 3438. 

CASTELLUM MUTECI. Father Delattre has established the site of 
Castellum Muteci, in Mauretania Caesarensis, at a place called Am Aneb 
seven kilom. from Tessemsil in the region of Teniet-el-Had. It was a 
bishopric in 482. At that time Quintasius was bishop, and he was exiled 
by Huneric, king of the Vandals in 484. It was also the seat ofapraepositus 
limitis, who was under the orders of the dux et praeses prov. Mauritaniae 
Caesariensis. An inscription over the very door of the Castellum in two 
lines gives its name .... CASTELLVM | MVTECI POSITVM | EST ANP | ccccxxx 
ET GUI. Hence the Castellum was founded or rebuilt in 479 or 480. 
Bull Soc. Antiquaires, 1890, p. 64. 



ORLEANSVILLE. A ROMAN MOSAIC. The Bulletin of the Soc. des An- 
tiquaires (1890, p. 61-2) publishes a mosaic which was found in June, 1883, 
in the court in front of the main entrance of the military hospital at Orleans- 
ville, among remains of ancient constructions similar to those of the Roman 
baths at Gafsa in Tunisia. Orleansville probably occupies the site of the 
Roman Castellum Tingitanum. The mosaic measures 1.67 by 1 .83 met. Its 
coloring is extremely bright and it is perfect except where part of the chest 
of two of the figures has fallen away. Its style dates from the first half of 
the third century. There are two scenes represented together, both hunt- 
ing scenes. Below, a panther leap* out of a wood at a horseman : above, 
two men on foot accompanied by a dog are withstanding a wild boar at 
whom one of the men is aiming a boar-spear. Above, are two lines of 



SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS. Last year, Dr. Hamy called attention to the 
excavations which were being carried on in the interior of Java by several 
Dutch archaeologists ; and connected mainly with Buddhistic monuments 
of the Plambanan plain. Thanks to a communication of M. Ysermann, 
Dr. Hamy was able to inform the Academie des Inscriptions, on March 25, 
of some more recent discoveries made in the Civaitic ruins of this plain 
under the direction of Dr. Groenemann. These excavations included the 
clearing of a number of inner chambers whose sepulchral character M. 
Ysermann ascertained by finding under the base of the statues of the gods 
several cinerary pits. The outer galleries and the base of the monuments 
were disengaged from debris engaged in a thick alluvial deposit. Four 
rows of magnificent basreliefs were uncovered, photographs of which were 
exhibited to the Academy. One of these rows of reliefs forms a kind of 
illustration to a part of the famous Indian poem, the Ramayana. Ami des 
Mon. 1891, p. 110. 


SIDON. CHRONOLOGY OF ITS KINGS. M. Ernest Babelon has communi- 
cated to the Acad. des Inscr. (Dec. 5, 12, 1890) some discoveries which he 
has made on the coins of the kings of Sidon struck in the fourth century 
B. c. under the dominion of the Persian Achsemenidse. These coins have 
on one side the Sidonian galley, on the other the head of the king of kings 
in a three-horse chariot followed by a tributary king on foot. The legend 


is composed usually of two Phoenician letters and a cypher. M. Babelon 
divides these coins into groups each belonging to a different person, either 
a king of Sidon or a Persian Satrap of Egypt, or the satrap of Kilikia, 
Mazaios. The Phoenician letters are the initials of their names and the 
cyphers are the dates expressed in the years of their reigns. M. Babelon 
proposes this chronology. 

1. An anonymous king, died in 374; 

2. Strato I, 374-362 ; 

3. Tennes, 362-350 ; 

4. Interregnum, 350-349; 

5. Evagoras II (dispossessed king of Salamis), 349-346 ; 

6. Strato II, 346-332. 

Sidon was captured by Alexander in 332. 


lishes in the Berl. phil. Woch., 1891, Nos. 26, 29-30, an account of the 
results of the German expedition to Sindjirli undertaken in 1889, of which 
a summary is here given. Further references may be found in the JOURNAL, 
vol. in, p. 62 (Ward's and Frothingham's article on the sculptures) and 
vol. iv, pp. 4835. Sindjirli lies near the boundary between Asia Minor 
and Syria. What race inhabited it is still doubtful, the veil that obscures 
the " Hittites " not being yet lifted. An important indication is the finding 
of Aramaic inscriptions. A fortified city existed here in about 900 B. c. 
surrounded by a double wall and crowned by a strong acropolis within 
which the greater part of the sculptures were found. The history of the 
investigation of its ruins is as follows. In 1883, under Hamdy Bey's direc- 
tions, some of the sculptures were uncovered in the rains of a palace. These 
were seen and photographed by Mr. J. S. Sterrett and Mr. Haynes and 
published in the Journal of Archaeology by Dr. Ward. They were also 
visited by Dr. Puchstein, who published them again in his Reisen in 
Kleinasien und Nordsyrien (Berlin, 1890), without acknowledging our 
previous publication. When the Oriental Committee was organized in 
Berlin for the purpose of excavating in the East, it was decided to make 
attempts both in Mesopotamia and Syria. Mess. Humann, von Luschan, 
Winter, and Koldewey conducted the excavations at Sindjirli, which was 
the first site selected. The work lasted during three campaigns and was 
reported (June 10, 1891), in the Museum fur Volkerkunde in Berlin. 

City. The centre of the city is formed by a hill running sw and NE. 
Upon it the various kings built their palaces, each adding to his prede- 
cessor's work. The gates of the walls that enclose this hill are on the 
exposed south side where it slopes toward the plain. The road winds 


up through the larger gateway. Inside, facing the entrance is a wall 
strengthened by towers, stretching across the hill in which a second gate- 
way is cut. Both gateways were decorated in their lower part with sculp- 
tures carved on upright blocks of stone about six feet high. One half of 
these were sent to Constantinople, the other half to Berlin. From the 
interior of the second gateway came two lions. It is probable that a second 
wall with its gateway extended across the top of the hill, but this section 
has not yet been fully excavated. On this strongly protected plateau of the 
acropolis stood the palaces : the oldest stands on the highest point, to the 
NW. ; the latest belongs to about the year 730 B. c. 

Taking the hill as a centre, the inner city-walls are built at a distance 
from it of between 200 and 250 metres. There are two walls within a 
small distance of each other, the diameter of the outer circuit being 700 
metres. Both walls are strengthened by about one hundred pier-like pro- 
jections, which are identified as being towers, by a comparison with the 
plans and siege scenes, in Layard's Nineveh. In his Monuments of Nineveh, 
1st series, pi. 30, the view of a similar circular city is given ; to which also 
pi. 77 may be added. In his second series are views of numerous cities, 
built on an oval plan or as paralellograms with rounded corners. Here, 
also, a double wall is almost always seen, strengthened by towers and 
crowned by battlements, the outer being only about half as high as the 
inner wall ; while toward the centre rise loftier towers which may belong 
to an acropolis like that at Sindjirli. The upper part of the walls, with 
their tooth-like battlements, appear to have been of wood : their lightness 
of construction and foundation limited the number of their defenders, 
usually archers. By these Assyrian reliefs the plan and arrangement of 
Sindjirli are fully explained. We even find grounds here for agreeing 
with Dorpfeld in believing the pier-like projections at Hissarlik to' be also 
towers instead of mere buttresses. 

The lower city, enclosed between the walls, is entered by three gates, 
each flanked by two strong projecting towers, so that six towers guard the 
gates and 94 the walls. The main gate is directly south of the acropolis, 
the others at about equal distance on either side. Between the s. and the 
w. gate are 25 towers ; between the s. and the N. gate, 32 ; between the 
w, and the N. gate, 37. Each tower is, of course, double, on account of 
the double wall. At the gates a small court is formed between the walls, 
to facilitate defense in case the outer gate be forced. The origin of a city- 
plan like the present should be sought not in a mountainous country like 
Greece but in a flat land like the valley of the Euphrates. 

Construction. The walls are all built of unburnt bricks on a founda- 
tion of chirite. They are strengthened internally against cracking by a 
diagonal network of wooden beams. In the construction of the foundations, 


the larger stones are used on the outside, the interior being filled with variety 
of material. The facing, however, can hardly be called polygonal but an 
irregular form of squared blocks. The foundation rises to the ground-level ; 
above it begins the diagonal direction following the wooden network. In 
the walls, from 3 to 6 met. thick, beams a foot thick are placed one foot 
apart ; in walls of lesser thickness slenderer round wooden ties are placed 
at distances from one another equal to their diameter, even in walls only 
one metre in thickness. The spaces between the beams are filled in with 
small stones and earth, so that, in digging through the walls, are found 
diagonal canals in which are now and then carbonized remains of this 
framework. The unburnt bricks are usually 30 to 40 cent, square and 10 
to 15 cent, thick, laid irregularly in about a finger of mortar. The walls 
are faced everywhere with clay or lime or gypsum. To guard against the 
destructive action of the weather on the lower part of the walls, the lower 
courses are, in important structures, faced or rather trimmed with upright 
slabs of stone which rest upon a course of flat stones : they soon became deco- 
rated with series of basreliefs a custom that spread over the entire East. 

Of decorative stonework the other most important instance is in the 
columns, two bases of which were found in situ in the upper (NW.) palace, 
marking the side of the porch preceding a series of halls. The method of 
arranging these two parallel halls is a special characteristic of Sindjirli, 
and is best studied in the upper palace, the latest of the four main struc- 
tures. Here is a square court on two of whose sides is a small subordinate 
structure; on a third side an open one-columned porch and parallel with 
it the closed main hall and adjoining it several minor rooms. This system 
of an open portico on the court is still in use throughout the East, even in 
Syria, and is called the Liwan. To the NW. of the upper palace lies a 
smaller structure, which has likewise a portico behind the court and back 
of it a main hall and on either side minor rooms. The same arrangement 
is found in the western palace, where, however, only a part of the court and 
the building west of it and the portico-entrance to the northern structure 
have as yet been excavated. The period of this structure is the time of 
Tiglath-Pileser III. The same ground-plan is visible in an older structure 
which was destroyed and replaced by the " upper palace." Its walls were 
colossal in size. The front hall was enclosed by two towers measuring some 
seventeen metres in plan. This structure must have been for religious 

History and Discoveries. Dr. von Luschan judged that the city and 
acropolis were destroyed in about 550 B. c., perhaps by people of a different 
race that lived, at a few hours distance from Sindjirli, in a citadel built 
of Cyclopean walls. Since then, the ruins have been almost continually 
inhabited. Small objects to the number of three thousand were found, 


some of which show analogies to Trojan and others to prehistoric antiqui- 
ties : of a non-metal age there was no trace. A large series of weights 
was found, some of which would indicate a decimal system. There are seals, 
ornaments, arms, lamps, stamps, cylindrical stones, pearls, fibulas, needles, 
vases of home and foreign (perhaps even Cypriote) manufacture. The 
necropolis lay without the walls ; only five tombs were discovered. The 
bodies were placed, in a crouching attitude, in earthern jars. One sepul- 
chral chamber built of heavy dolorite blocks, and otherwise entirely empty, 
yielded a very important relief. The early Shemitic inscriptions found 
would seem to indicate that the Hittites were Shemites, but Dr. von Luschan 
is of the opinion that the excavations show that the Hittites are of pre- 
Shemitic origin, like the Sumero-Akkadians in Babylonia. 

Professor Schrader dates the raising of the stele of Essarhaddon in Sindjirli 
between the years 670 and 668. The connection with Assyria, shown by 
the Assyrian inscriptions and seals found, ends with the fall of Nineveh in 
607 , and the monuments that can be dated belong to the flourishing Assyrian 
period between the seventh and the ninth century. What is earlier can- 
not yet be surely estimated. The inscription on the monument of King 
Panammu is shown, from Assyrian documents, to belong to the reign of 
Tiglath Pileser III (745-727). The old-Shemitic letters read merely P- 
n-m-u, the spelling being completed as to the vowels by the cuneiform 
inscriptions. The name of Tiglath Pileser occurs also in Panamrnu's 
inscription. Both kings came at a critical period. Tiglath Pileser saw 
the fall of the many small kingdoms in Asia and the foundation of a single 
empire. Panammu came at the close of a period of independence : his king- 
dom was annexed by Assyria in 723. His inscription, the second in date of 
old-Shemitic inscriptions, must date from 730, and is thus about 120 years 
later than that of Mesa. The early Shemitic inscriptions of Sindjirli will 
give most important material for a reconstruction of the ancient Aramaic. 

The excavations are not finished as yet, and a campaign of seven or eight 
months is judged necessary to complete them. 

Sculptures. Among the sculptures two classes should be radically dis- 
tinguished, those of native art, and the direct Assyrian importations. 
Essarhaddon (681-68), who conquered the whole of Syria, erected a large, 
well-preserved stele of victory, in shape like a short obelisk with rounded 
top, whose flat face is covered with a relief and cuneiform characters. The 
king is in profile to the right, holding in his left hand a rope by which are 
bound two small dwarf-like figures, reaching about to his knee, of the 
conquered king of Egypt, and (in even smaller dimensions) the Syrian 
prince. They are gazing prayerfully up at the conqueror. The Egyptian 
has manacles on his feet, the Syrian on his hands, and the rope by which 
they are held goes through their lips. The inscription speaks of the con- 
quest of Egypt. 


In contrast to this Assyrian work are the native sculptures ; still they 
are under Assyrian influence in their general treatment. This is especially 
the case with two pairs of colossal lions carved in stone, which flanked the 
gateways at Sindjirli one rude, the other of better art. They are im- 
pressive, with a peculiar combination of stiff archaicism and powerful 
naturalism. The rigid attitude shows them to be not independent but 
parts of a monumental structure, the naturalistic treatment of the head, 
shows the hand of the mountaineers. The head is not at rest but has just 
given forth a powerful roar, as if it had caught sight of an enemy ; nose 
and upper lip are wrinkled, the eyes half closed, the ears drawn back, the 
jaws so wide open as to show all the teeth, each one characteristically repro- 
duced. One gets the complete impression of an angry animal about to 
spring upon the foe. As at Kuyundjik the lions show themselves in relief 
as one passes through the portals. One pair of lions is of this fine art, at 
once impressive in its general features and careful in its details. The other 
pair is of ruder workmanship. That the rude style is the earlier would 
appear from the discovery, on one of the finer lions, that the right hind 
foot is left in this rude style in such a way as to show that these lions also 
were originally as rude as the others and that the stone was re-carved with 
more advanced art, reducing the lions somewhat in size. These lions are 
examples of the highest perfection of the art of Sindjirli. 

Next to them in interest are two votive statues. As works of art they 
are very poor ; historically their importance is unique. Each statue is 
accompanied by an early Aramaic inscription, already alluded to. The 
first campaign had yielded one statue of Panammu, king of Sam'al, as this 
kingdom was styled, which was set up by his son. A second one has been 
since discovered, remarkable for the perfect preservation of its head. The 
beard is in rows of curls after the Assyrian fashion, the whiskers being 
shaved. On the head is a round cap decorated on each side with two horns, 
as in Assyria. CHR. BELGER, in Berl. pliil. Woch. 


May meeting of the Archaeological Society of Berlin, Dr. Ohnefalsch-Richter 
reported on the results of his excavations in Kypros for over ten years, espe- 
cially those of Tamassos, where he made in 1889 important discoveries for 
the Berlin museums. The main subject of his study was to give a picture 
of the history of Cypriote culture and art. He first distinguishes two main 
periods. There being no iron in the tombs of the earliest period, he terms 
it the copper-bronze age. Outside of the few objects of precious metals, all 
objects in metal are of pure copper or of bronze containing but little tin. 
In the second period, iron is introduced beside bronze. As no Oriento- 


Phoenician or Grseco-Phcenician influence are to be detected in the earlier 
period, it may further be termed the pre- Greece- Phoenician age of copper- 
bronze, in contrast to the second, which is the Grceco-Phcenician iron age. 
In both ages there are many groups and sub-groups, and transitions from 
one to the other. The period of the transition from the bronze to the iron 
age is fully illustrated, and partly so by objects in the Berlin Antiquarium. 

The copper-bronze age falls into two main divisions. In the earliest, the 
potter uses no ornamentation whatever, and there is no Shemitic influence. 
There are close analogies to the finds of Troy=Hissarlik, to the copper age 
of Hungary, and to an early culture at the close of the neolithic period, 
during the copper age and at the beginning of the earliest bronze age, which 
extended across Europe, through Austria and Germany. In the second 
division, a direct Shemitic influence appears in the introduction of painted 
decoration in the vases, an influence that comes from Mesopotamia and is 
marked by the appearance of Babylonio-Assyrian inscribed cylinders, which 
reach back to Naram-Sin and his father Sargon I of Akkad (c. 3800 B/C.), 
thus giving valuable material for dating the period. In another group of 
this second division, two other and contemporary influences appear, one 
from Mykenai and Greece, the other from Egypt, about in the time between 
Thothmes III and Rhamses III. At its close, Hittite influence appears to 
begin, extending, however, far into the Grseco-Phcenician iron age. The 
main objects of the early copper-bronze age are idols always draped and 
flat. The earliest, entirely or partly nude round idol in the second half 
and close of the bronze age has also nothing to do with the Phoenicians : it 
is the same as the figure of Nana= Ishtar on the cylinders from Mesopotamia. 
By the side of the similarities, there are still too great differences between 
the Cypriote and Schliemann's Trojan antiquities to allow of Diimmler's 
proposed identification of the population of the two places. Neither can 
there be any belief in an inland Shemitic aboriginal population. All the 
discoveries point to an original non-Shemitic people. 

The Grseco-Phcenician iron-culture, which begins perhaps in about 1200 
and must have superseded the culture of the bronze age in about 1000, 
falls into three divisions. The earliest is characterized by the bronze fibula, 
which is not found before or after. For Tamassos, the most flourishing 
period of Cypriote Grseco-Phcenician pottery is, at this time, water-birds 
and even primitive human figures, used together with the geometric patterns. 

The second division shows a standstill in the keramics of Tamassos, in 
contrast to that of Marion=Arsinoe (Polis-tis-Chrysoku). On the other 
hand, Tamassos reaches in the sixth century a period of perfection in arch- 
itecture, metal work, stone sculpture, and terracotta figures such as is 
hardly ever reached in later times. To this period belong the important 
royal tombs of stone, which in many details show an imitation of wooden 


architecture \_N. JB. A short account of the excavations of Tamassos is 
given on pp. 196-7 of vol. vi of the JOURNAL]. In or around these stone 
tombs were found a quantity of arms iron swords of the Mycenaean and 
Dipylon types, bronze coats of mail with engraved representations, a helmet 
with complicated visor, a silver vase with a horse in relief, large bronze 
kettles, candelabra, engraved gems, silver and gold earrings. To the same 
series belong an archaic bronze figure found in 1889 in the river Pidias 
near Tamassos (now in the Antiquarium), some colossal statues of terra- 
cotta and large stone statues from the temple of Apollon-Rassaf at Fran- 
gissa near Tamassos, found in 1885. 

The third division corresponds, in the necropolis of Tamassos, to the decay 
of Grseco-Phoenician art. Statues were found only in the sanctuaries them- 
selves, and they belong to a Grseco-Cypriote art of the fourth century. A 
votive inscription to the prJTrjp #ea>v, by the form of the letters and the style 
of the statue, is proved to belong to the Hellenistic period. Important 
bilingual Phoenician-Cypriote-Greek inscriptions found by Richter com- 
plete historically what is proved by the discoveries in the tombs. As 
early as the beginning of the fourth century, and perhaps earlier, Taraassos 
was the capital of an independent kingdom. Some Hellenistic discoveries 
in the immediate neighborhood of Tamassos have confirmed this political 
situation. As early as 1889, some very beautiful late-Hellenic gold dec- 
orations were found which now belong to the museum of Nicosia. Roman 
and Byzantine remains bring the history of Tamassos down to the Christian 
period. Nowhere in Kypros are all periods so successively and fully rep- 
resented as at Tamassos. Berl phil. Woch., 1891, No. 24. 

A SACRED HILL OF APHRODITE. M. Olmefalsch-Richter writes to the Berl. 
phil. Woch. (1891, No. 31-2): " I am able to give an interesting proof of 
the existence in Kypros during antiquity of an extensive hill-worship 
which was introduced into the island by the Canaanites and Hebrews 
of Syria together with the other jarimitive stone, altar, tree and grove 
worships. It illustrates a passage in Strabo iv, 682 : a/cpa Eb/SaAioi', ^s 
vKepKcrai A.o<os rpa^v<s v<J3f]\o<s TpaTre^oiS^s, tcpos 'A<po8m7s. The site of the 
peak Pedalion is .known : it lies south of Salamis and Famagusta and west 
of Kition=Larnaka. Dr. W. Dorpfeld and I discovered there in 1890, 
under the lee of the furthest peak, the remains of an ancient hill-cult. 
From the sloping plateau there rises, near the cape called To Kao or Cap 
Grceco there rises a pointed mass of coralline limestone. From that point 
the rock shelves rapidly seaward, but toward the land, where the ground 
takes the shape of a saddle, there is set against it a life-size stone statue, 
and over it is a decorative temenos. We found a quantity of fragments 
of statues and remains of primitive walls. From my long experience, I 
know these to have belonged to the T walls of the peribolos, which we know 


to have surrounded the sacred mountain-groves and precincts, the 
aXo-rj, /?<u/j,ot, Te//,e'v7, as Jehovah commanded Moses on Mount Sinai (Ex- 
odus, xx, 12). 

Engel (Kypros, I, 98) thinks it probable that the Idalian mountain-grove 
extended as far as the peak of Pedalion, but the distance makes this im- 
possible, and between them are many fields, streams, and hills. It is not, 
however, impossible that the Idalian Aphrodite, which became famous like 
the Paphian, was worshipped on this sacred mount. Cypriote inscriptions 
have proved, for example, the worship of the Paphian in Chytroi, that of 
Apollon Hylates near Kourion and in the neighborhood of Arsinoe=Marion 
and Neapaphos, that of Apollon Amyklaios=Rassaf=Mikal in Idalion, that 
of Baal Lebanon in. the Cypriote mountains. If it were so, it would ex- 
plain a passage in Lucian (Phars,, vm, 716), ab Idalio Cingraeae littore. 
Berlphil. Woch., 1891, No. 31-2. 


A MEDIXEVAL GREEK WILL. M. Omont communicated to the Soc. des 
Antiquaires (Bulletin, 1890, p. 100) a note on a mediaeval Greek will re- 
markable not only on account of the extreme rarity of such documents and 
the age and high dignity of the testator but on account of the interest of 
its contents. It is the will of a dignitary at the court of Constantinople, 
the protospathary Eustathios, who lived in the middle of the xi century. 
After a long theological and legal preamble, he enumerates all his real 
estate, and divides it between his wife Anna, his elder daughter Irene, his 
younger daughter Maria, and his son Romanes. These legacies are accom- 
panied by gifts of various sums of money and special recommendations. 

Then comes the detailed enumeration of all the precious objects about 
one hundred and fifty gold and silver crosses, holy images decorated with 
precious stones, relics and reliquaries, vases and other objects, which he had 
long since resolved to will to the church of the Theotokos founded by him 
in Kappadokia. This list of precious objects is followed by that of the 
books, of which there are about eighty, gospels full of illuminations and 
with rich covers decorated with gold and silver and enamels, manuscripts 
of the Old and New Testaments, service-books, collections of works of the 
Fathers, collections of Councils and texts of canon law, and finally some 
profane manuscripts, a history of Alexander, an Interpretation of dreams, 
Aesop's fables, two Chronographies, and a treatise on grammar. The will 
closes with the mention of funeral services for the testator, and with various 
legacies of real estate and money, and some pious foundations. The date 


is 1059 A. D. The will is contained in the Coislin MS. No. 265 of the 
Bibliotheque Nationale. 

lishes in the Ami des Monuments (1891 , p. 57) drawings and a note on the 
altar uncovered in June, 1890, below the marble steps of the Propylaia on 
the north side, to the left. It is of tufa and rests directly on the solid rock, 
and is a valuable indication of the use of this region, which is somewhat 
obscure. It appears to be connected with the old Parthenon, burned by 
the Persians. The red marks upon it either of paint or from fire recall 
those on the columns and fragments of the old Parthenon. 


DR. HALBHERR-S CONCLUSIONS. Dr. Halbherr has found in the island 
many evidences of the reflex wave of Asian culture which, travelling from 
the eastern mainland, affected first the islands of the Mediterranean, and 
then, as his discoveries in the cave of Zeus on Mt. Ida tend to prove, spread 
to Greece. The most important of these results are numerous vases of the 
Mycensean style, which have been illustrated by Professor Orsi. They 
are of great size, and sepulchral, and by the novelty of their position and 
structure furnish us with new ideas on the sepulchral rites practised at so 
early a date. So far, the peculiar tombs in which these colossal urns have 
been found in Krete belong to an ordinary rank of life ; but others will, 
in all probability, be found, belonging to chiefs or princes. The existence 
of such tombs and urns in Krete was hitherto unknown, and will bear out 
Adler's surmise, that on this island, midway between Egypt, Asia Minor, 
and Greece, will be found the key that unlocks the mystery at present 
attending the first intermingling or conjunction of Oriental and Hellenic 
ideas of art. 

These vases were found in Kuppelgrdber (floXomn ra<oi) at Milatos and 
elsewhere, and show that Krete had at that date a population practising 
the same sepulchral rites and using the same decorative motives as their 
fellows on the Hellenic continent. Dr. Orsi attributes them to some Asian 
race, Phrygians or Carians, who can be shown to have influenced Greece 
in two separate streams: (1) through the islands of the Aegaean ; (2) 
through settlements in Krete. The urns are so large as to resemble modern 
bath-tubs and are decorated with palmettes and fishes and ducks, all of 
primitive design, the colors emploved being dark-red and chestnut on a 
buff or cream-colored ground. Though of sarcophagus-shape, they are not 
large enough to contain the whole body of a man, and it is surmised that at 
the Mycensean epoch such urns were made to receive either the bones alone, 
or the half-burnt body. Hence, partial combustion must have been prac- 
tised, and this will be the most ancient known instance of an ossilegium,\)ut 


an ossilegiwn without cremation. As for the style of the decoration, Dr. 
Orsi attributes it to the later stage of Mycenaean ornament, the third rather 
than the fourth period, when the artist, without knowledge of perspective 
or background, was endeavoring to represent a lake-scene in which plants 
and fishes and ducks appeared together. Antiquary, March, 1891. 


VON DUHN ON THE ETRUSCAN QUESTION. On account of the interest of 
Frederic von Duhn's remarks on the Etruscan question in the Bull, di 
Palet. Ital (1890, pp. 108-132) they are here abridged for the benefit of 
our readers, the writer speaking in the first person. 

I. It has been my opinion, for fifteen years, that the creation of a science 
of the tombs would solve many questions regarding the civilization of 
ancient Italy. The basis for such a science I believe to be the fact, that 
in the earliest times the location and temporary alternation of burial by 
cremation and by inhumation, with their accompanying rites, were nowhere 
produced by chance, either in the Oriental or Hellenic East or in the Celtic 
or Germanic North. In Italy, the principal races, with their various 
groups, held firm to their customs based on religious convictions, until they 
were separated, and that, when an amalgamation took place, the funerary 
observances at first clearly expressed the degree of this amalgamation, and, 
later, it being impossible that different races in the same place should re- 
main distinct, these observances conformed to the race which had the intel- 
lectual supremacy. Although there may be exceptions, this I believe to 
be the general rule. I take for granted an acquaintance with recent works 
on the subject, especially those by GHIRARDLNI (Not. d. Scavi, 1881, p. 342 ; 
1882, p. 136), HELBIG (Annali, 1884, pp. 108-88), BRIZIO (Atti K. Deput. 
di Stor. pair. Romagne, 1885, pp. 119-234), and UNDSET (Annali, 1885, 
pp. 5-104). 

II. Primitively inhumation was everywhere used. Cremation was intro- 
duced, with the bronze age, into Northern Europe, among the people of 
India, and the Northern and Eastern Shemites. Among many peoples 
inhumation remained unaltered; with some cremation held a brief sway, 
then disappeared. Elsewhere one branch of the race adopted cremation 
while another retained inhumation. This was done by the Shemites of 
Mesopotamia as opposed to the inhabitants of Syria, Kypros, and Carthage; 
thus often the non-Dorians in contrast to the Dorians, the Italics north 
and northeast of the Apennines, and west of the Tiber and Latin hills as 
far as the Volsci, in contrast to those dwelling in Umbria and west of the 
Tiber and the Latin hills, Picenum, and in fact all middle and lower Oscan 
Italy, who did not adopt cremation except in a very few isolated spots and 
even there only for a time. Among the predecessors of the Italics, inhu- 


mation was practised by the aborigines, and among the Liguri only a few 
adopted cremation later. The inhabitants of Italy who used cremation 
were the following. The dwellers in the palafitte of the north ; the pre- 
Euganean inhabitants of the country of the Veneti, who succeeded the 
aborigines ; the pre-Etruscan families east of the Panaro. All these burned 
the dead and preserved their ashes in urns like those of the Villanova type. 
In the most ancient sepulchral strata the funerary apparatus, which was 
avoided for ritual reasons in the tombs of the terramare, belongs still to 
the pure bronze-age, for only south of the Apennines did the Italics learn 
the use of iron and bronze-plate, a use which they later transmitted north- 
ward. The pre-Etruscan inhabitants also of Etruria and Latium, preserv- 
ing a like kind of tomb, cremate their dead, and maintain that custom 
even after the invasion of the Etruscans ; and, besides, they sometimes, by 
superior numbers or culture, forced the invaders to accept this rite. 

Eemarkable discoveries of such tombs according to the crematory rite 
have been made during the last decade, as at Livorno, Volterra, Vetulonia, 
Vulci, Corneto, Allumiere, Caere, Cortona, Chiusi, Orvieto, Visentium, etc. 
Excluded from this, still remains the mountainous Etruscan interior, whose 
centre is the Monte Amiata. In Latium, a number of such tombs for cre- 
mation have been found, notably in the Alban hills and in Rome itself. 
South of the Apennines, the cinerary urn of terracotta or metal was some- 
times replaced by a hut-urn (urna a capanna). Such hut-urns have been 
found at Vetulonia, Corneto, Visentium, Allumiere, Rome, and the Alban 
hills. All these tombs for cremation both north and south of the Apen- 
nines have so much in common that no one can deny either the community 
of rite, or the historico-artistic and ethnologic unity. Furthermore, the 
earliest are evidently in the north ; and thence came what appears to have 
been a slowly progressive immigration. 

III. In BOLOGNA inhumation and cremation stand notoriously in the 
following relation. The pre-Italic tombs for inhumation are followed by 
those for cremation of the Villanova culture, which prevail for several 
centuries until, in about the middle of the sixth century, inhumation re- 
appears, with the adoption, however, of funeral rites different from those 
of the earlier pre-Italic inhumation ; and, finally, in the fifth century in- 
humation preponderates, as is shown by the Certosa group (cremation 
130; inhumation 287), the DeLucca group (cremation 32; inhumation 
79), and the rest. A similar relationship is maintained during the Gallic 
period, beginning in the fourth century. It results that the sudden ap- 
pearance, at the close of the Villanova period, of the rite of inhumation 
and the gradual disappearance of inhumation coincides with the entrance 
of the Etruscans, who certainly buried their dead. We may conclude: 
(1) the Etruscans used inhumation, at least those north of the Apennines: 


(2) wherever we find, in Etruria proper, first cremation and then inhuma- 
tion, we may well inquire whether the diversity should not be explained 
ethnologically : (3) it being admitted that the difference in rite is owing 
to difference of race, then the inhabitants of the Valley of the Po, the pre- 
decessors of the Etruscans in Etruria proper, and the inhabitants of Latium, 
especially the Alban hills, all belong to the same race. 

IV. CORNETO. The surest proof of the alternation of the Italic crema- 
tory tombs or tombe a pozzo with the Etruscan tombs for inhumation is 
found in the necropolis of Corneto. By the side of the tombs for crema- 
tion, which predominate exclusively up to about the middle of the eighth 
century, appear the first tombs for inhumation or tombe a fossa, with which 
are soon associated the tombe a cassa and a corridoio ; while the hall-tombs 
(tombe a camera), of which these three types are the precursors, are hardly 
met with before the sixth century. But the tombs for inhumation do not 
at once and everywhere take the place of those for cremation, as was long 
supposed. Inhumation continues, but in a decreasing ratio, first in the 
old fashion in tombe a pozzo, then more simply in tombe a buca, as can be 
seen during several centuries at Visentium, Veii, etc. At times, crematory 
tombs are found within tombs for inhumation, as if there were a split in 
the family, or rather as if the dependents, of foreign race, were cremated. 
The well-tombs (tombe a pozzo) represent an advanced Villanova culture, 
enriched with iron and with objects in bronze plate, probably brought 
from the East by Phoenicians, as well as with the fibula, and with other 
objects of undoubted Phoenician character of precious metals, glass, en- 
amels, etc. 

The families to whom belonged the earliest tombs for inhumation (a fossa 
and a cassa), being along the coast, were first acquainted with many of the 
above objects, and their tombs therefore contain a class of objects sub- 
stantially the same as that of the well-tombs but with a character at once 
richer and more warlike, as is shown by the Tomb of the Warrior. These 
trench-tombs (a fossa) appear to be less ancient in comparison with the 
greater number of the well-tombs, because in them, except in the very 
earliest, there begin to appear Greek imported objects, among them especi- 
ally the proto-Corinthian vases and their relatives of the geometric style. 
The period of their appearance is determined by the beginning of Greek 
colonization on the eastern coast of Sicily and Campania, because this style 
of vase is the earliest that is found there, and retains the mastery for a 
long time in the Fusco necropolis of Syracuse, at Megara in Sicily, and in 
the earliest tombs of Kyme. In the necropolis of Selinous, founded at 
latest in the second half of the seventh century, these proto-Corinthian 
vases are no longer found, but only those of Corinthian style. 


These conclusions drawn from Corneto are confirmed by the Alban 
necropolis, for its earliest or northern group, which is closest to the well- 
tombs of Corneto, is entirely without Greek imported objects, and therefore 
may be considered anterior to the foundation of the Greek colonies. In the 
southern group, on the other hand, proto-Corinthian and related vases begin 
to show themselves. The following deduction should therefore be added 
to those previously drawn ; namely, that the population with the rite of 
inhumation, that is the Etruscan, established itself at Corneto in about the 
middle of the eighth century, and that it not only did not expel or exter- 
minate the Italic inhabitants but tolerated them and even respected their 
tombs in constructing their own. The invaders were even influenced by 
the customs and worship of the conquered, and adopted, with Italic names, 
the cult of certain Italic divinities, such as Neptune and Minerva. Their 
tombs soon were distinguished from the Italic by a greater richness of con- 
tents, which, a century and a half later, displays itself most brilliantly in 
the tombs of Caere, Vulci, Veii, Vetulonia, etc., in objects of luxury most 
of which were purchased or imitated from the Phoenicians. 

V. Turning southward, we find that, in the Alban necropoli, cremation 
continued to be the rule, showing that here the Italic population remained 
pure. This was not the case in the northern plain. In 1889, an oak trunk 
was found at Gabii, hollowed out to receive a body with its decoration and 
funerary vases of the beginning of the seventh century. Similar use of in- 
humation is found in tombs of this century at Falerii and Rome, where in- 
humation came to preponderate during the course of the sixth century. At 
its close, it suddenly and completely ceased, being replaced by the tombs 
for cremation which Lanciani terms sistema delle arche, and which remains 
the rule up to the second century. This sudden change from inhumation 
coincides with the fall of the Etruscan dynasty in Rome and the subsequent 
struggle for liberty in which the Etruscans were banded against the Italics 
and the Greeks. Thus Rome, from being an Etruscan city with an Italic 
substratum, returned to being a city politically even Italic, threw off Etrus- 
can yoke, customs, religion, and returned to cremation after having used 
inhumation for two hundred years (700-500 B. c.). 

VI. Turning northward from Corneto, we find a difference in the rela- 
tion of the two kinds of tombs. At the neighboring Vulci the two rites 
were practised simultaneously for some time, showing that its Italic popu- 
lation resisted the foreign invasion for a longer period than Corneto, which 
was their earlier conquest. Later, inhumation became the rule there. In 
the upper part of the valleys of the Fiora and Albegna, nearer the Monte 
Amiata, no ancient cinerary tombs have been found. As one ascends along 
the coast, the relation between the two rites shows in increasing ratio a long 
and effective resistance of the Italics against the Etruscan invaders. At 


Vetulonia all the most archaic tombs are for cremation. It would not be 
correct, however, to think that Vetulonia remained Italic down to 400, 
for part of the contents of the famous Tomba del Duce of the close of the 
sixth century are certainly Etruscan. The habit of surrounding tombs 
with circles of stones is also one current in Etruscan districts, and is not 
used by the group of Italics who used cremation. But it is true that the 
urne a capanna and the well-tombs of the Villanova type, both purely 
Italic, lasted here longer than at Vulci. The Etruscans, who in this region 
extended their power later and more slowly, met with an Italic popula- 
tion of high intellectual culture, and were obliged to accommodate them- 
selves to circumstances and to burn their dead. This adoption of foreign 
customs by the Etruscans of Vetulonia is especially shown by the rectangu- 
lar form of the funerary box for the ashes decorated with silver, a reduc- 
tion of the large wooden boxes in earlier Etruscan use. Vetulonia explains 
what had been observed also at Volterra, where inhumation in Etruscan 
hypogea succeeded Italic cinerary tombs without displacing them. The 
important fact is, that here also as in Rome there was a return to crema- 
tion : many tombs constructed on the plan of the rite of inhumation have 
received urns for cremation. This general fact and the uninterrupted 
course of cremation at Vetulonia can be explained only by admitting that 
there was in these localities a current from the Italic substratum powerful 
enough to obliterate gradually the imported Etruscan customs. 

VII. The eastern section of the country gives some interesting points 
of comparison. The earliest tomb for inhumation (Sergardi) at Cortona is 
not earlier than the middle of the sixth century Only a little before this 
time must it have been occupied by the Etruscans in their march north- 
ward over the Apennines. More to the SE. is a country that remained 
essentially Italic, that part of Umbria, including Perugia, that lies west of 
the Tiber. Here inhumation never took root. Chiusi, the Italic Clusium, 
with its populous neighborhood is extremely instructive. Undset remarks : 
" Here in the interior of Etruria the development is entirely different from 
that at Corneto. At Chiusi there are no tombs a fossa or a cassa', in the 
tombe a ziro we here find the objects that characterized that class of Etrus- 
can tombs. At Chiusi the earliest funerary rite, that of cremation, lasts 
longer than at Corneto ; the lekythoi with brown lines are here often found 
in tombs for cremation, while in Corneto they begin to appear only in tombs 
for inhumation." It therefore appears that the earliest tombs for inhuma- 
tion at Chiusi, those of the Pania and Fonterotella properties, need not be 
dated before the middle of the sixth century, and that they precede only 
by a little the first painted chamber-tombs. Here also we conclude that 
the Etruscan occupation of these regions did not happen before the middle 
of the sixth century. 


The canopuSy considered by many to be characteristically Etruscan, is 
however a cross of Italic and Etruscan influences : it is derived from the 
Villanova ossuary, from its bronze substitute, from the hut-urn (urna a 
capanna), and continued to be a cinerary vase during the Etruscan inva- 
sion, developing even into the shape of complete human figures. Among 
them, the urns are earlier, the sarcophagi later. With them are to be as- 
sociated the many cinerary cases which we should regard as concessions 
made by the Etruscans to popular customs of the native population. 

VIII. If these facts have any value, it must be admitted : I. that in 
Etruria the great longitudinal valleys, as well as the coast-line, were origin- 
ally occupied by the same Italic races that dwelt in the country north of 
the Apennines and in Latium : n. that about the middle of the eighth 
century, perhaps a little before, the Etruscans appear, first at Corneto and 
in its neighborhood to the south, east, and northeast ; that in about 700 
they invade Latium and hold Rome until about 500, and perhaps for the 
same period the entire region up to the Alban hills, but with an insecure 
hand : in. that at the same time, perhaps about 700, they extend north- 
ward toward Vulci, and in the first half of the century push beyond Vulci 
northward up to Vetuloriia and Volterra. Only in the following century do 
they extend themselves eastward, first from Volsinii (Orvieto), which they 
had previously occupied, northward in the Valdichiana to lake Trasimeno 
(occupying Perugia still later), in the upper valley of the Arno, and thence 
by the Futa pass to Bologna, etc. The nucleus of the national Etruscan power 
and genius was in the south, in the country extending from Monte Amiata 
southward to the Tiber. The land south of the river was only occupied 
temporarily by them, and that to the NW., N. and E., occupied at a later 
date, though politically subject to the Etruscans, never completely became 
an Etruscan possession. 

Reference may here be made to a passage of Dionysios in the history of 
Tarquinius Priscus. The Latins, when menaced by the Tarquins, sought 
aid, against these Etruscans, from the Sabines, their Italic relatives, and 
from the Tirreni, five of whose cities came to their aid : Clusium, Arre- 
tium, Volaterrse, Ruscellse and Vetulonia. This seems natural, now that 
we know that toward 600 these cities were just those that still remained 
Italic. After the Etruscans had gained possession of these cities, Porsenna 
made his attempt to reestablish the Etruscan power in Rome, and its fail- 
ure made of the Tiber the regular boundary between free and Etruscan Italy. 

IX. It is not my purpose to speak of the origin of the Etruscans, nor 
do I believe in the simple hypothesis of the emigration of an entire nation 
by sea. The chronologic computation of the Etruscans embraces a plan 
that could be used only when the nation was concentrated, when each 
member was known to the other and to the priests. Its calculations would 


lead us to fix on the middle of the eleventh century as the period in which 
the invading Etruscans established themselves in the heart of the region 
afterwards called Etruria. It is not surprising that nearly three centuries 
of pacific development passed before the Etruscans felt the need of exten- 
sion, and did so, as was natural, by following the valleys that led to the 
sea in order to gain the coast. It is possible that they originally came 
from the east ; but it is impossible to decide whether they entered Italy 
before the Italics and were thrust southward by them into the hilly Etrus- 
can interior, or whether, arriving after the Italic tribes, they opened a 
way through them. 

AREZZO=ARRETIUM. AN ANCIENT WELL. Outside the walls of Arezzo, 
to the NE., about ten metres within the old Etruscan walls, Sig. Occhini 
has discovered and explored an ancient well. It was covered by a large 
slab, 1.30 met. wide. It grew wider as one descended, taking the form of 
a long wine amphora. Below the depth of fourteen metres, many vases 
were found. The upper ones were of ordinary style belonging to the late 
Roman Empire, usually urns with one handle and projecting lip, of which 
more than fifty were found. With them were four copper pails with high 
iron handles badly oxydized, varying in shape and in size from 19 to 24 
cent. At a depth of between 17 and 18 metres was found a beautiful 
bronze pitcher which was originally gilt. Its height is 21 cent., width at 
mouth 9 cent., with an elegant handle ending in the middle of the vase in 
a head and bust in relief of a female divinity identified with Diana by the 
quiver over the right shoulder. Its artistic style refers it to the first century 
of the Empire. At the bottom of the well lay a brilliant copper pail with 
a bronze handle ending in a goose-head, turning over the edge between two 
projections and decorated where they join the vase with a vine leaf in re- 
lief. This is Etruscan work of the second or third century B. c. The pail 
rested on three small bronze bases soldered to it, and is of large size, 25 
cent, high, 19 cent, diameter. Also in the bottom was found a large iron 
key, 30 cent, long, similar to another found in an Etruscan fountain near 
Arezzo. A third key of bronze was found in an Etruscan well near Chiusi. 
A fourth of silver and of great beauty was found at Brolio (Valdichiana) 
among Etruscan objects. Comm. Gamurrini suspects that on the destruc- 
tion or de-consecration of a temple, the key was cast into a neighboring 
well or fountain as something sacred that should not be used. This con- 
jecture is favored by their great size and elaborate form. Also in the 
bottom were two lamps, one of earth, the other, very elegant, of thin cop- 
per ; two leaden shells, probably for coins ; a votive bronze tablet with a 
figure scratched. Only a few coins were preserved, such as one of Ha- 
drian and one of Maximianus. Further proof of the existence, in this 
neighborhood, of a small temple was given by a chanelled colonnette of 


travertine that may have belonged to its pronaos, and some fragments of 
terracotta acroteria ending in palmettes and of antefixes with heads ; also 
remains of white tessellated mosaic, and many pieces of aes rude. Proba- 
bly the temple was dedicated to Diana, as was indicated by her effigy on 
the bronze pitcher. Not. d. Scavi, 1891, pp. 159-60. 

ODERZO (VENETIA). MOSAIC PAVEMENT. In February, a polychro- 
matic Roman mosaic-pavement was found in a field near Oderzo. It is 
6.70 met. long, 4.06 met. wide at one end and 2 met. at the other. Its 
border consists of four successive zones of Greek pattern of varied design. 
It is divided lengthwise into three zones, each of which has three sub- 
divisions across the width. In the upper zone on the left (2.70 wide, 1.30 
high) is a hare followed by a hound while the fore-part of another hare 
emerges from a bush, and there appear the head of one horse and the hind- 
quarters of another. The composition in the middle of the upper zone 
(1.95 long, 1.30 wide) represents an enclosure surrounded by walls with a 
portico at the end and an open door in the centre, within which is a woman 
feeding two geese and two hens. The composition on the right (1.30 wide, 
1.60 long) represents that kind of bird-snaring which is called a civetta 
con panione. The owl is half hidden in a bush, and above it are six 
birds, three of which are caught in the snare. Owl and birds are admir- 
able in coloring and design. The lower zone is almost entirely destroyed. 
There remains only a man armed with a lance, facing a boar, then an arm 
and the legs of two figures. The technique of the work is delicate, and the 
colors fresh and bright. Not. d. Scavi, 1891, p. 143. 

ROMA. SARCOPHAGUS. In digging for a drain on the Via Salaria near 
the gate, was found a marble sarcophagus. Its front is striated : in the 
central shields are two busts, the heads being only roughly sketched, repre- 
senting a senator (with toga decorated with trabea] and his wife. Below 
them are two shepherds ; one seated, milking two goats, the other stand- 
ing, leaning on his crook and playing on the pipe. At each corner is a 
fine single figure in high relief on the right, a bearded man in pallium ; 
on the left, a woman in tunic and pallium. On the sides are the usual 
guardians of the tomb, the griffins. Not. d. Scavi, 1891, p. 166. 

SAN MARZANOTTO. A ROMAN NECROPOLIS. Traces have been found, 
in the territory of San Marzanotto in Liguria, of a necropolis of the Roman 
period in which the rites of both cremation and inhumation were used, and 
which was in use for several centuries, as is shown by coins ranging from 
Augustus to Constantine II. Not. d. Scavi, 1891, pp. 144-5. 

TONTOLA (near Forli). A pre-Roman tomb found in Tontola, 22 kil. 
from Forli, yielded a number of vases, some of which are similar to those 
found in Gallic tombs ; nearly all were of black varnish, a few with light- 
green. They were arranged about a skeleton. Not. d. Scavi, 1891, pp. 145-7. 



BASLE. DR. BURCKHARDT, of the Basle Museum, has lately redis- 
covered a collection of over a hundred wood-blocks by Albrecht Diirer that 
have been lost sight of for some years. Three of the blocks have been cut ; 
the rest, which were evidently intended for a book which was never pub- 
lished, are uncut, and are each about fifteen centimetres by nine. One 
larger block is signed at the back by Albrecht Diirer, with his name in full; 
the rest are without signature or monogram. Athenceum, Oct. 11. 

has left, by his will, to the city of Geneva a museum which he built and filled 
with works of art at the expense of four millions of francs. It is at the 
city-gate and is called Musee de I'Ariana. It contains works of painting 
and sculpture, ceramics, metal, ancient furniture and rare books. The 
city also receives a gallery of paintings, valued at several millions, left to 
M. Revilliod, a few hours before his death, by Mme. Fleuriot. Chron. 
des Arts, 1891, No. 1. 

VEVEY. The workmen engaged upon the sewerage at Vevey have un- 
earthed, near the church of St. Clara, a bronze statue of Neptune in excel- 
lent preservation. The Feuille d'Avis de Vevey observes that this spot was 
the centre of the ancient Vibiscum. In 1777, when the church of St. Clara 
was being " restored," the workmen excavated a Roman altar of white 
marble with the inscription DEO SILVANO. Athenceum, Oct. 18. 


ROMAN WALL. A complete excavation of the Limes Romanus. At Heidel- 
berg, a meeting took place on the 28th ult. in the University Library be- 
tween the representatives of Prussia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Baden, and 
Hesse, as also of the Academies of Berlin and Munich, in consequence of 
the commission received from the five German governments for united ex- 
cavation of the Roman boundary- wall, which bears so close a resemblance 
to our own Northumbrian vallum. Amongst those present was Professor 
Mommsen ; and two directors (one military and the other an archaeologist) 
were determined on, and a period of five years was fixed for the termina- 
tion of the work. Athenceum, Jan. 10. 

The projected excavation of the Limes Romanus will .be carried out by 
the combined efforts and subsidies of the five German governments through 
whose territories it passes, in as thorough and comprehensive a manner as 
possible. During the five or six years required for the work the course 
and direction of the earthen wall will be accurately determined, and its 
construction, design and front view will be studied, when possible, along 
its entire length ; as also, by means of excavation, the castella, towers, gates, 


and bridges where the barrier went across the river. Research will also 
be directed to any Roman buildings or their remains contiguous to the 
wall or forts (castella), as the scholce, baths, the springs utilized, wells, etc.; 
and then to the Roman stations near the vallum, the ancient roads running 
alongside or in connection with the Limes. All antiquities found in the 
excavations will belong to the several states in which they are respectively 
found ; but plaster facsimiles will be made of the principal objects and 
placed in the museum at Mainz. The results of the undertaking will be 
published yearly. Athenaeum, Feb. 14. 

ing. The papers read were as follows : KEKULE, The form and decoration 
of the earliest Greek and the pre-Greek vases. TREU, Male torso found at 
Olympia in 1878 (Ausgrab., in, pi. 17 b , 2). By means of a better-pre- 
served replica in the Dresden collection (Clarac, 549, 1156), this torso is 
shown to be an Asklepios, and an Attic work of the close of the fifth cen- 
tury and of the school of Pheidias. It may be a replica of the Asklepios 
of Alkamenes ; but at all events it confirms Overbeck's idea that the 
classic type of Asklepios originated in the school of Pheidias. POMTOW, 
A three-sided base at Delphoi. Of this base and its inscription five blocks 
and eleven small fragments have been found. The inscription, in Ionic 
dialect, indicates that the monument to which this base belonged was a 
replica of that dedicated by the Messenians with the Nike* of Paionios : 
this would illustrate the close relation between the two religious centres of 
Greece, Olympia and Delphoi. WINTER, The relation of the Mycenaean 
monuments to Egyptian and Hittite art. He believes the Mycenaean civ- 
ilization to have originated in Syria and to have flourished between 1600 
and 1200 B. c. As an illustration of Egyptian influence, a Cypriote bowl 
is mentioned wrongly described as Phoenician : its fantastic figures, as well 
as those on some Island-stones and a Tiryns painting, are adaptations of the 
Egyptian sacred hippopotamus Thueris. Hittite influence is asserted not 
only in details of arms, hair, etc., but also in composition. TRENDELENBURG 
called attention to the description of the Mausoleum of Ifalikarnassos in 
Pliny, xxxvi. 30 sqq. He seeks to accord Pliny's measurements with the 
reconstruction of the remains of the monument, and to make further sug- 
gestions from the text. He is opposed to a heavy, high basement, and thinks 
that the singularity of the monument arose in its pyramid being supported 
on a peripteral chamber. Berl. phil. Woch., 1890, Nos. 35, 37. 

DRESDEN. THE MUSEUM OF ANTIQUES. A number of additions to the 
museum may be chronicled. A mummy-portrait from the Fayum, from 
the Graff collection, interesting as showing a rough tempera portrait of a 
man painted over a beautiful encaustic portrait of an old woman. Prince 
Fred. Augustus has donated two Palmy renian tombstones with late Roman 


portraits and inscriptions. A large number of terracottas from Myrina and 
Tanagra have been purchased, also some gold decoration from the Fayum. 
The collection of casts will soon be reopened in its new quarters, the Alber- 
tinum, with many notable additions. Berl. pliil. Woch., 1890, No. 35. 

KREIMBACH. THE HEIDENBURG. The excavations carried on by C. 
Mehlis in the "Heidenburg" near Kreimbach are described by him in 
detail in the Berl.phil. Woch, 1890, No. 45. It is undoubtedly a late Roman 
fortress. Parts of its western, southern, and northern walls were uncovered. 
Among piles of refuse and small objects found by them were about sixty 
bronze coins, especially of Constantine, while some were of Magnentius and 
Constans as well as of Postumus (259-68). Of the bronze ornaments found 
many were quite well executed. The vases all belong to the period between 
the close of the third and that of the fourth century A. D. ; some of them 
show decorative motives which were afterwards characteristic of the Mer- 
ovingian period. These discoveries, together with those of Heidelsburg, 
Obrigheim, Eisenberg, Ungstein have brought to light a series of objects 
such as must have been the means of connecting directly the ornamentation 
of late Roman pottery with that of the Merovingian period. An account 
is given of various remains of architecture and sculpture, graves, coins, etc. 

An account of the results of further excavations begun on Sept. 17. Their 
object was the systematic clearing of the west side where nothing had been 
done except to search for graves. The wall was found to be continuous, 
and in connection with it was found a votive inscription of the second cen- 
tury A. D. At the sw. corner was a square tower. The usual number of 
potsherds and coins came to light. Berl. phil. Woch., 1890, No. 47. 

STRAUBING. At Straubing, in Bavaria, some Celtic tombs have been 
opened, and found to contain most interesting bronze ornaments and iron 
weapons belonging to the people of Rhsetia before the Roman conquest. 
The long-sought-for Roman cemetery has also been discovered through 
the unearthing of a Roman tomb containing cinerary urns flanking the 
old military road from Serviodurum (Straubing) to Abusina, both situ- 
ated on the Danube. Athenc&um, Nov. 22. 

TRIER. An interesting series of objects found in excavations at Ehrang, 
near Trier, have been added to the museum of that city. They include a 
statue of Wotan ; a sword and an urn ; an equestrian statue that proba- 
bly formed part of a votive column consecrated to the contest of Wotan 
and Jupiter. The socle of the statue and a capital have been found, the 
former being decorated with figures of gods. Cour. de I' Art., 1890, No. 35. 


fessor Hauser, under whose direction the Carnuntum excavations are car- 
ried on, had for a month past observed the color of an extensive cornfield, 


which varied in every part. He found an elevated post of observation, 
and, after a week's close attention, declared it to be his opinion that the 
cornfield was growing over the site of an ancient amphitheatre. His 
drawings showed that the oblong centre piece was somewhat concave, and 
the corn was quite ripe in that part, because there was much soil between 
the surface and the bottom of the theatre. Elliptical lines of green, grow- 
ing paler the higher they rose, showed the seats, and lines forming a radius 
from the centre showed the walls supporting the elliptical rows of seats. 
The professor waited impatiently for the corn to ripen, and the moment 
it was cut the excavations began. They have shown that the almost in- 
credible suggestion was perfectly correct. Six inches below the soil the 
top of the outer wall was found, and from there the soil gradually grew 
thicker until the bottom of the arena was reached, the pavement of which 
is in perfect condition. From the theatre a paved road leads to the Camp 
of Carnuntum. As soon as the theatre has been entirely freed of the soil 
covering it, all the measurements will be taken, and it will be ascertained 
what arena it is. London Times, Oct. 4, 1890. 

ber of the Cracow Bulletin reports on G. Ossowski's review of palseo-ethno- 
graphy in Gallicia. He distinguishes three archaeological zones, one western, 
that of Cracow, and two eastern, those of Leopol and Podolia. His investi- 
gations were directed to: (1) CAVERNS; at Stradecz (dist. of Grudek), 
Rosolin (dist. of Lisko), Urycz (Stryj), Kozary and Sarnki (Rohatyn) ; 
all except the last two being of especial interest. (2) PREHISTORIC STA- 
TIONS ; at Zabince (Husiatyn), Zablotce, Hucisk and Wysock (Brody) ; all 
of which were recognizable from their fragments of hand-made vases, and 
objects in bone, silex, glass or bronze. (3) TUMULI, which are a peculi- 
arity of the zone of Leopol. Several of these he has excavated (a) at 
Tenetiki (Rohatyn) four tumuli for cremation, in which he found several 
undecorated funerary earthen vases containing bones: (6) near Uivisla 
(Husiatyn) where out of three tumuli he tried only two, and only in one 
was a skeleton found ; also a vase with a handle and some decoration and 
a discoidal pearl of yellow amber : (c) at Zablotce, a tumulus with three 
unburnt skeletons laid on stone slabs. (4) TOMBS FOR INTERMENT, two 
of which were in the village of Uwisla : one contained, under an immense 
stone slab, a male skeleton of dolichocephalic race. (5) TUMULI FOR 
CREMATION : of this variety is a peculiar prehistoric cemetery opened in 
the village of Wasilkowce (Husiatyn), which covers several hundred square 
metres, The tombs are all placed under a continuous layer, 40 cent, in 
thickness, of formless earthen bricks. The vases found are in their decora- 
tion like the painted vases of Horodnica described by Kopernicki. 



COPENHAGEN. NEW MUSEUMS. There are at present being erected 
in Copenhagen a new Meteorological Museum, a Polytechnic Institute, and 
the great Museum of Arts, in which the valuable collections from the late 
Christiansborg Palace are to be placed. Also arrangements are being 
made for the erection of a new museum of arts and industries. Builder, 
Aug. 30. 


DOBRUTSCHA. TRIUMPHAL MONUMENT. M. Geffroy announced, to the 
meeting of the Acad. des Inscriptions of Jan. 23, that M. Tocilesco, former 
member of the EC. prat, des hautes etudes, had discovered at Dobrutscha 
a triumphal monument erected by Trajan in 108 or 109 A. D. Some of 
the sculptured trophies represent barbarian prisoners in chains. Ami des 
Mon., 1891, p. 105. 

Times the following report, received from the architectural students of the 
British School at Athens : 

"Salonika, October 28, 1890. 

Church of St. Sophia. " Of the many churches of Byzantine times still 
remaining in Salonika, that of Saint Sophia is the only one that has been 
at all affected by the recent fire. The report that it had been destroyed 
is entirely unfounded ; and, although a good deal of irreparable damage 
has been done, the building is still structurally sound and capable of be- 
ing repaired. None of the original work of the church has been injured, 
except the marble pillars and the fine carved capitals of the arcades divid- 
ing the central area from the aisles and galleries ; of these only three of 
the lower arcade on the north side have escaped injury, the others are more 
or less irretrievably damaged. And this is partly due to the large accumu- 
lation of public records, which had been stored in the southeast corner of 
the building, having been all consumed in the fire. The lead covering of 
the main dome has been somewhat injured, and all the roofing, which was 
of wood covered with lead, has been destroyed. This, however, was not 
of Byzantine times, the external appearance of the church having been 
much altered by the Turks, who raised the aisle walls to a uniform level 
all around, and covered in the whole building with a new roof, sloping up 
to the sides of the central dome and entirely hiding many of the main 
structural lines. The open colonnade along the west front, which was also 
added by the Turks, has been in part destroyed, and the conical roof of 
the minaret has been burnt off and some damage done to the staircase in 
its interior. The northwest turret, usually assumed to be of Frankish times, 


is practically intact, only a few tiles having fallen from its roof; but the 
wooden porch and staircase built by the Turks against the south door of 
the narthex have been entirely destroyed. 

" The heat of the fire has loosened the plaster from the walls in many 
places, exposing interesting points of detail which were before invisible. 
In particular, one important point which we now see clearly is the evi- 
dence of the existence of at least five large openings in the west wall, and 
in two of these openings remains of frescoes covering the soffits of the arches 
through the whole thickness of the wall, thus showing that the openings 
had not been filled in with doorways, and that an exonarthex must have 
existed, which may have been removed by the Turks when they built the 
present colonnade. It is now possible also to identify most of the original 
Byzantine round-arched windows which the Turks had built up or filled 
in with square stone frames. 

"The mosaics seem practically uninjured. They are at present very 
indistinctly seen through a thick coating with which the smoke of the fire 
has covered them. In the mosaics of the dome, the subject of which is the 
Ascension of Christ, we can now see that the faces have all been picked out 
by the Turks ; but otherwise they are in their original condition, although 
there are some traces of later restoration on the band of flowers and fruit 
which runs round the lower part of the subject. 

"We found the drawings of this church, which were published by Texier 
and Pullan in their Byzantine Architecture, to be very inaccurate and mis- 
leading ; and we therefore considered it desirable to take advantage of the 
present circumstances to make a new and complete survey of the whole 
structure and carefully record all the new evidences which the effects of 
the fire have revealed. 

Church of St. George. "The round church of St. George, now known 
as the Orta Sultan Osman Mosque, has lately undergone a complete res- 
toration and renovation. The fine mosaics of its cupola, which were in a 
very dilapidated condition, have been repaired and completed in paint by 
an Italian, who has supplied the parts which were wanting, largely from 
his own imagination, and consequently their historical and artistic value 
has greatly suffered. Many structural details formerly visible have also 
been filled up or covered with whitewash. 

" Of the other Byzantine churches in Salonika, it is only necessary here 
to say a few words. They remain at present undisturbed, and, unless they 
too come under the destructive influence of a great fire, are likely to last 
through many future generations. Here, again, the Texier and Pullan 
drawings are very incomplete ; and it would be a matter for extreme re- 
gret, in the event of anything happening to these churches, that full and 


complete records had not been made. ROBT. WEIR SCHULTZ, SIDNEY 
H. BARNSLEY, Academy, Nov. 22. 


THE ORIGIN OF ENAMELS IN EUROPE. M. le baron de Baye called the at- 
tention of the Academic des Inscriptions (April 25) to decorations of enam- 
elled bronze that were recently found in the government of Kalouga and 
which were exhibited at the recent archaeological congress at Moskow. 
This discovery is said to throw a new light on the origin of enamelling in 
European art [It is not said whether these are Champleve encrusted enamels, 
as is probable]. Revue Grit., 1890, i, p. 359. 

KERTSCH (CRIMEA). GREEK PAINTINGS. In the neighborhood of 
Kertsch, famous for the discovery of magnificent and numerous pieces of 
ancient jewelry some thirty years ago, a further discovery of interest is 
reported. It is a tomb consisting of three compartments, discovered 14 ft. 
under the surface. The walls are covered with frescoes representing divin- 
ities and scenes of ancient Greek life. They are accompanied by an in- 
scription in archaic Greek letters. Cour. de I' Art, 1890, No. 40. 

DISCOVERY OF A CATACOMB. Laborers in a quarry near Kertsch have 
discovered a catacomb with a number of inscriptions, emblems, and fres- 
coes. It is in the form of a great hall cut in the rock, supported by thir- 
teen pillars artistically ornamented. One of these pillars bears the following 
inscription : " The Judge Sorak built this sanctum without removing the 
human bones found on the spot. May no one touch or desecrate my body, as 
he who does so shall not enter the realm of the spirits." Builder, Aug. 30. 

PODOLIA. PREHISTORIC RESEARCHES. The Bulletin (Oct. 1890) of the 
Academy of Sciences of Cracow reports on Casimir Pulawski's archaeolog- 
ical researches in Russian Podolia, which describe in detail two prehistoric , 
tombs discovered not far from Kamieniec in the village of Zawadynce, 25 
kilom. from Husiatyn. One was a tomb for interment, without covering- 
slab, containing a clearly dolichocephalic skeleton unaccompanied by any 
object. The second was a tumulus, found in another part of the same vil- 
lage, containing two skeletons: by the side of one of these was a small 
plain earthen hand-made vase, a bone awl, a small hatchet, a knife, two 
arrowheads, and fragments of silex instruments, which indicate the neo- 
lithic period. 

Cz. Neyman describes a cemetery near the village of Bolhane (dist. of 
Olhopol). It contains 31 tombs in two groups: the four that were opened 
were each surrounded by a stone belt composed of a double row of large 
slabs. A peculiarity was the protecting of some of the bodies by placing 
over them hollowed-out oak trunks. Objects in bronze and iron were found. 



Birmingham has given to the Art Gallery of that place a collection of 
illuminated manuscripts, printed books, and carved ivories, which fill two 
large cases in the Italian Gallery and Industrial Hall of the museum. The 
books range from the xiv to the xvin century, and illustrate the devel- 
opment of the typographic craft from that of calligraphy. The ivories in- 
clude Japanese examples, Christian diptychs and triptychs, and French, 
Kussian, German, and English instances of various kinds. Athen., Dec. 27. 

CASTLE GARY. EXCAVATIONS. The Western Chronicle says that the 
excavations at Castle Gary have been steadily pursued, and now the founda- 
tions of the keep of Gary Castle are sufficiently exposed to enable an ac- 
curate ground-plan to be made. This plan shows, beyond doubt, that the 
Castle was about 200 yards to the southwest of the position where it has 
been generally supposed to have stood, and where its site is marked on the 
latest ordnance map. The Castle is seen to be, not an ordinary " shell 
keep," but a strongly-built fortress of unusually large dimensions and 
thickness of walls, the outer wall being 15 ft. thick. The keep is nearly 
complete, but the walls of the inner and outer baileys are yet to be dis- 
covered. Builder, Sept. 20, 1890. 

During some repairs, made in Dec. 1890, to the north wall, to the west 
of Northgate, excavation was continued. It was soon apparent that, as 
was the case on the other side of Northgate, the wall was full of Roman 
remains, consisting of inscribed and sculptured monuments, portions of 
Roman buildings, etc. Seven inscribed stones (either whole or fragmentary) 
were at once unearthed, together with four pieces of sculpture. Two of 
these are particularly noteworthy. Hitherto, only one sepulchral monu- 
ment of any equites, or Roman horse-soldiers, belonging to the twentieth 
legion, stationed at Deva (Chester), have been found; but here were two 
monuments to soldiers of this class, in one of which the soldier is shown on 
horseback : one of these has the inscription still perfect, whilst in the other 
it is at present missing. 

ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FOUND IN ISQO. 1. Tombstone with inscription sur- 
mounted by fragment of a relief representing a horseman. D(W) M(anibus) \ 
c . iVL(ms) SEVERVS | EQ(ites) LEG(toms) xx v(aleriae~) \ v(ictricis) VIXIT 
AN(^OS) | xxxx. 2. Relief of a horseman riding over a fallen enemy, well 
preserved ; underneath an inscription, of which only the first line D . M . 
is left. 3. Tombstone with inscription surmounted by fragments of two 
figures, one certainly, the other probably, female. The whole is much 
broken. VOCONIAE c . vA[/(enws /)] VICTOR I NIGRINA. Possibly C. Va[l]. 


Victor was husband of Voconia, but the inscription appears never to have 
been completed : certainly no more is visible. 4. Tombstone with in- 
scription surmounted by the lower part of a " Funeral Banquet " relief. 
v(is) w(anibus) I RESTITAE v(ixit) | AN(WOS) vu ET M|AR. . .(?) v(ixi) AN- 
(nos)ui. . . 5. Fragment of tombstone, with few fine letters. 6,7. Fragments. 

Besides these inscribed relics, some pieces of sculpture (all seemingly 
sepulchral) have been found, and some coping stones and other hewn 
work. All but two or three pieces are of red sandstone ; the exceptions 
are of a whiter stone, resembling that used for the moument of M. Aurelius 
Nepos and his wife, now in the Grosvenor Museum. It appears, therefore, 
that the part of the north wall from which these stones come has contents 
very similar to the part examined some three years ago. The lettering of 
Nos. 1 and 4 seems to be later than that of the majority of the previous 
finds, but arguments based on lettering are at all times to be used with 
caution. Athenceum, Dec. 13, 1890. 

EXCAVATIONS IN ISQI. Since February, the work has gone on uninter- 
ruptedly. About 100ft. of the wall to the west of the northgate have been 
opened and thoroughly explored, without much disturbance of the face of 
the wall. Altogether some twenty-five inscriptions and funeral sculptures 
have been taken out, together with a number of other carved and worked 
stones. One centurial stone has been found, and this probably came from 
the first Roman wall of Chester, which would be pulled down when the 
area of the town was enlarged. One of the inscriptions commemorates an 
optio, or sub-centurion, who perished by shipwreck ; another refers to the 
honorable discharge, honesta missio, of a soldier who was released from ser- 
vice ; whilst a third was erected to a freedman by his former master. 

ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS FOUND IN ISQI. Of the inscriptions found all but 
one are tombstones. 1. [Dis Manibus . . .] OFTpJoNis AD SPEM | ORDINIS 


phrase ad spem ordinis occurs several times in inscriptions, denoting that 
the dead man had been eligible for or expecting his promotion. In this 
case he was cut short by shipwreck, perhaps in the estuary of the Dee. 2. 
Inscription of one G. Valerius, badly mutilated. 4. D(?'S) M(anibus) 
s(acrum) \ GABINIVS FEJLIX MILES LJEG(i0ntf) u AVG(twte) . . . | [? VIXJSIT 
AN(n)is | xxxx | n(eres) p(onendum) c(uravit). 5. Red sandstone figure 
of an optio with staff and " tickets " with the inscription : v(is) M.(anibus) \ 
[? (7(a)e]ciLivs AVITJVS EMER(ito) \VG(usta) | OPTIO LEG. xx | v. v. ST(i)- 
^(endiorum) xv vix(i7) j AN(?IOS) xxxiv | n.(eres) ^(aciendum) c(uravif). 
Emerita is the modern Merida in Spain. 6. v(is) ^(anibus) \ CASSIVS 


xxiv | ANNOR(im) XLIV R(eres) F(aciendwri) c(uravif). 


FORTI(S) PATR|ONVS EIVS POSVIT. 14. ~D(IS) w.(anibus) \ c. IVL(W) MARVL|- 
LINI R(ene)F(iciarii') TRIB|VNI VIXIT | ANNIS xxxxv | n(eres) F(acien- 
dum) c(uravit~). 

Besides these inscriptions, several sculptures have been found, partly 
sepulchral figures, partly, perhaps, from some building. The details of 
these would, however, have little meaning without drawings. F. HAVER- 
FIELD, in Athenceum, April 25, May 16, 1891. 

COLCHESTER. At the Feb.-4 meeting of the Brit. Arch. Assoc.,Mr. 
J. M. Ward exhibited a series of Roman earthenware vessels and fragments 
which have recently been found at Colchester outside the circuit of the 
Roman walls. Among these were some portions of vessels of Samian ware 
having patterns of great beauty, and the handle of an amphora inscribed 
with N and T conjoined and the name c ANTONI. . . Mr. Way pointed out 
that some of the patterns on the Samian ware were identical with several 
found in London. Athenceum, Feb. 14, 1891. 

DORE. REMAINS OF A CISTERCIAN ABBEY. Some curious finds were re- 
cently made when cleaning out two watercourses on the north of Abbey 
Dore in Herefordshire. The dormitories and domestic offices of the Cister- 
cians who built it were on this side of the church, and doubtless many more 
singular relics would be recovered were a thorough investigation made. 
Nine old keys probably of stables, granaries, and the like were picked 
up. A keen-edged pointed dinner knife was also found, and three coins : 
one a silver groafc of Elizabeth ; the second a fine specimen of a copper six- 
pence of James II, dated 1689 ; and the third a copper halfpenny (?) bear- 
ing the legend NVMMORVM FAMVLVS, probably of William and Mary. A 
quantity of hewn stones and fragments, which had formed part of the 
conventual buildings, were also dug out. The keys and coins, together 
with the knife, are carefully preserved by the owner of the land, Capt. T. 
Freke Lewis, of Abbey Dore. The fine Cistercian church here is still used 
as the parish church, being the only Cistercian church so used in England. 
Athenceum, Feb. 14, 1891. 

chaeological collections of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland are being 
removed from the Mound, Edinburgh, to the large premises provided for 
them in the eastern portion of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in 
Queen street. Academy. 

reports that these excavations (see vol. vi, p. 399) are now completed. The 
nave and north transept of the long-buried church have been cleared. Two 
stone figures, found during the excavation, have been built into a retaining 


wall erected to preserve the adjoining cemetery. The south transept, chan- 
cel, and chapter-house are still unexcavated. Builder. 

LINCOLN. ROMAN PORTICO. An important discovery of Roman re- 
mains has been made at Lincoln in April, 1891. It will be remembered 
that in May, 1878, the bases and shattered shafts of three pillars of the 
Doric order^ with a singular twin column of two inosculating shafts at 
the northern angle, were laid bare in digging the foundation of a new 
house in Bailgate, to the north of the central point of the Roman city. 
Nine years later, January, 1887, the pulling down of the houses adjacent 
to the south revealed the bases of three more columns on the same straight 
line. It was concluded that these were all that were to be found, and that 
they were the remains of a hexastyle portico, forming the front towards the 
street of ^ large building, of which the end wall (known by the name of" the 
Mint Wall ") exists at the distance of 270ft. to the west, figured by Stukeley 
in the last century, and supposed by him, without any adequate evidence, 
to have been a Roman granary. In April, 1891, however, a discovery was 
made which alters all preconceived ideas as to the magnitude and charac- 
ter of this' building. In laying down a new water-main in Bailgate, which 
runs on the line of the main street which intersected the Roman city from 
north to south, the workmen came upon the bases of four columns, ranging 
accurately with those already described, and identical with them in mould- 
ings and general character. With the six previously discovered the num- 
ber now amounts to ten, and there is no doubt that two more would be 
discovered in the interval yet unexcavated, between the last of the former 
range and the first of those now brought to light. This would give a colon- 
nade of twelve columns. How many more still remain to be discovered to 
the south is uncertain, but from the configuration of the Roman city it 
would appear that there is room for one or two more before reaching the 
street running westwards from the central point, where the Roman mile- 
stone, now preserved in the Cathedral cloisters, was found some years back. 
This discovery proves that the building occupying the northwest angle of 
the northwest quarter of the city must have been of great size and state- 
liness. The fa9ade must have extended for a length of at least 160 ft. 
Athenaeum, April 18, 1891 ; cf. Academy. 

vations necessitated by the erection of the new Post Office buildings by 
the side of the ancient site of Aldersgate, one section of the ground taken 
close to Aldersgate Street showed in the ditch a raised bank which appeared 
to run under that street, and probably formed the base of a trestle-work 
supporting the timbers of a wooden bridge crossing the ditch at this place 
to the ancient gate. In the portion of the ditch revealed by the excava- 
tions nothing seems to have been found to clear up its date, but former 


excavations near the same spot not only uncovered a portion of the ditch, 
but brought various Roman antiquities to light. It may, therefore, reason- 
ably be presumed that the ditch recently rediscovered is Roman. Its greatest 
width is 74 ft., and a space of flat ground upwards of 10ft. wide intervenes 
between it and the foot of the Roman wall, which wall, 8 ft. thick and built 
of rubble work with bonding courses of tile, has been clearly traced run- 
ning east and west from Aldersgate Street to King Edward Street. The 
ditch was 14 ft. deep, and 35 ft. across its flat bottom ; this, together with 
the sloping sides, was carefully puddled with a coating of clay 6 in. thick. 
The greater part of the length of the wall has been preserved and under- 
pinned, so that it now forms the boundary on the north side of the new 
Post-Office buildings. A thenceum, Feb. 7, 1891. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. Additions to the Classical Antiquities. The Trustees 
have purchased the magnificent silver treasure of Chavurce which was of- 
fered for sale at Paris in June 1888 and is fully described and illustrated 
in the sale-catalogue whose descriptions are 1 partly based on a study by 
The*denat and Heron de Villefosse in the Gazette Archeologique, 1885, pp. 
Ill, 256, 317. The treasure was discovered in 1883 in a field near Mont- 
cornet (Aisne) in ploughing, and from coins found on the spot and internal 
evidence is to be dated from the second century. It consists of thirty pieces 
of silver and six of bronze plated with silver, comprising an almost com- 
plete table service, ministerium : there are also silver statuettes of Fortuna 
and of a squatting Arab slave. Especially remarkable are a silver plate 
with Hermes between a cock and a ram in relief, and a large silver situla 
with floral ornament around the mouth. The workmanship is throughout 
of great beauty. 

Numismatic acquisitions. According to a paper by Mr. W. Wroth in 
the Numismatic Chronicle, the British Museum acquired about 350 Greek 
coins in 1890 12 of them of gold and electrum and 65 of them of silver. 
Notable among them are a distater of Thourion, a tetradrachm of Gela, a 
didrachm of Sybrita (Krete), a stater of Lampsakos, and a unique electrum 
stater of Mytilene. It also obtained 7 archaic coins from Egypt. Athen- 
ceurn, Feb. 14, 1891. 

Greek gem. The British Museum has recently acquired a most interest- 
ing gem, a greyish-blue chalcedony representing Hercules with one foot on 
the Nemean lion, which he has just conquered, and stretching out his hands 
to take a draught from a vase which the nymph Nemea has brought to him, 
and holds in both her hands. Above the group hovers a small Victory. 
The composition is, as Mr. Murray has remarked, that of a metope, and 
thus the gem may be of use in restoring the metope of this gubject which 
came to the Louvre from Olympia, while some fragments since found are 
at Berlin, still, however, leaving the design imperfect. Athenaeum, Dec. 6. 


A LIFE OF MICHELANGELO. J. A. Symonds has undertaken a new literary 
work in the shape of a life of Michael Angelo. The work is to be on a 
considerable scale, both as to size and profusion of illustrations, and will, 
of course, embody the result of the latest researches on the biography and 
artistic labors of the great master. Athenceum, Feb. 14, 1891. 

ago we invited the attention of librarians to a collection of 400 Hebrew 
MSS. which the owner intended to dispose of. We are glad to state now 
that the Trustees of the Montefiore College at Ramsgate have bought the 
collection, which contains many unique things for instance, the annota- 
tions on Abraham-ibn-Ezra's commentary on the Pentateuch by Leon 
Mosconi, a Macedonian. These annotations are important for the history 
of Macedonia in the fourteenth century, and besides Leon quotes a num- 
ber of works that are now lost. Hebrew liturgiology will be enriched by 
some unique rituals which some of these MSS. contain, more especially from 
Provence. Other MSS. are indispensable for the history of the Jews in Italy 
from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth. The library of the Mon- 
tefiore College will possess now adding the purchase of the Zunz Library, 
made by the principal, the Rev. Dr. Gaster, and some MSS. coming from 
Yemen, with other MSS. formerly acquired more than five hundred Hebrew 
MSS., and will thus take an important place amongst the great libraries. 
Athenceum, May 2. 

Archaeologia Aeliana, published by the Society of Antiquaries of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, contains two illustrated papers upon recent excavations 
of prehistoric burial-places on the moors of Northumberland. In both, 
were found urns of the familiar Romano-British type, which are here fig- 
ured in excellent photographic plates. Academy, Oct. 4, 1890. 

ing archaeological discovery is reported from the Vale of Llangollen, where 
the Vicar of Trevor is conducting a series of excavations at Valle Crucis 
Abbey. While excavating along the north of the ruin, was discovered the 
tombstone of a Knight-Templar (bearing a clear impression of the knight's 
sword sculptured at the base) beneath which were a few decayed bones. 
In completing the excavations along the west front of the abbey, the base 
of a spiral staircase was uncovered. The discovery of seven pieces of mol- 
ten lead and iron and charred wood and stone demonstrated that the original 
abbey was destroyed by fire ; and it is now believed that the momastery was 
suppressed by Henry VIII duringits reconstruction. #iu7der,Oct.25,1890. 

PEMBROKESHIRE. VANDALISM. "Last Tuesday I visited the magnifi- 
cent Cromlech of Longhouse in the parish of Llanrian, between St. David's 
and Fishguard, on the western coast of Pembrokeshire. The immense 


capstone still rests on four upright stones, two others stand in situ, and the 
remaining one, which has fallen, lies hard by, partly covered with earth. 
I found a laborer, engaged, by the orders of his master, Mr. Andrew Grif- 
fith of the neighboring farm of Longhouse, in digging up and removing a 
number of large stones, which may have originally formed a part of a wall 
of protection, and which were lying buried beneath the side of the Crom- 
lech next the sea. He informed me that his master was contemplating the 
overthrow of the entire Cromlech, in order to make a bank across the field 
behind. The farm of Longhouse formed part of the ancient endowment 
of the Bishopric of St. David's, and has only recently been sold by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners to Mr. Griffith. So noble a monument of 
antiquity as the Cromlech in question, it may be hoped, may yet be saved 
from destruction by the timely interposition of General Pitt-Rivers." G. 
J. CHESTER, in Academy, Sept. 13, 1890. 

SILCHESTER. EXCAVATIONS IN IBQO. The following is a summary of 
the results obtained during 1890 in the comprehensive excavation of the 
site of Silchester by the Society of Antiquaries. Hitherto, nothing was 
known of the great western gate of the city except its site ; but the present 
excavations have disclosed most interesting remains of this gate, under 
which passed the traffic along the main road through the Roman city. The 
roadway at the west gate was spanned by two arches. Among the massive 
fragments of the masonry uncovered is the impost of the gate, from which 
two arches sprang ; and the mouldings on one side may be noted, cut away 
in order to allow the doors to shut against it. There are found to be two 
guard-rooms on each side of the gate, those on the south being most per- 
fect. The wall here has a thickness of twelve feet, which decreases as it 
rises from the ground level ; and it is backed by a great mound of earth. 
One point for investigation is whether or not this mound is of earlier Celtic 
origin. A paving of flints forms apparently a pathway to the top of the 
mound. At the west gate a fragment of a fine Corinthian capital, has been 
found. As it has no connection with the structure, it was apparently 
brought there for some purpose during the occupation of the city. The 
remains of the west gate are admirable specimens of masonry, large blocks 
of oolite and other stone having been employed. Among the objects found 
on the site is a large strip of iron pierced with nail holes, which evidently 
bound the bottom of a door of the gate and furnishes an idea of its massive 
thickness. A portion of an iron pivot has also been unearthed. The insula 
which is being